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How to use a reference to cite a dissertation in APA 6th Edition

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.

Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .

Guide Overview

Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.

Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.

Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.

In-text citation example:

  • Parenthetical :  (Ames & Doughty, 1911)
  • Narrative :  Ames & Doughty (1911)

If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:

  • The institution is presented in brackets after the title
  • The archive or database name is included

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.

Examples 1:

Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Example dissertation-thesis

Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.

In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.

If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.

In-text citation examples :

  • Parenthetical citation : (Trotman, 2018)
  • Narrative citation : Trotman (2018)

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL

Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf

Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745

It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.

In-text citation examples:

  • Parenthetical citation : (Kim, 2019)
  • Narrative citation : Kim (2019)
  • Parenthetical citation : (Stiles, 2001)
  • Narrative citation : Stiles (2001)

dissertation and thesis Citations for APA 7

We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.

If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.

To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :

  • Undergraduate thesis
  • Master’s thesis
  • Doctoral dissertation

You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .

When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:

  • Author’s last name, and first and middle initials
  • Year published
  • Title of thesis or dissertation
  • If it is unpublished
  • Publication or document number (if applicable; for published work)
  • Degree type (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral)
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Name of institution awarding degree
  • DOI (https://doi.org/xxxxx) or URL (if applicable)

Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.

To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:

  • Unpublished thesis or dissertation
  • Published thesis or dissertation from a database
  • Thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative

Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

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To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Cartmel (2007)

Parenthetical:

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Cartmel, 2007)

Reference list entry template and example:

The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL

Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf

To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:

Author Surname (Year)

Averill (2009)

(Author Surname, Year)

(Averill, 2009)

The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.

Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.

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Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title

See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

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Basic format to reference a thesis or dissertation.

  • Referencing theses: Examples

The basics of a reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation:

  • Author. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title (in italics ).
  • Level of Thesis or Dissertation [in square brackets].
  • University, also in [square brackets] following directly after the Level of Thesis, for e.g. [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]
  • Database or Archive Name
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Mosek, E. (2017). Team flow: The missing piece in performance [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]. Victoria University Research Repository. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/35038/

word reference thesis

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Terminology - Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?

Published theses and dissertations, unpublished theses and dissertations.

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Thesis and dissertation can mean different things depending on where the degree is awarded. Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is and use the information for your reference. ​

Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities)

  • Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree.
  • Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours.
  • Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work;  e.g., a film, artwork, novel.

Other parts of the world

  • In North America and some other countries, dissertation is used for a doctoral degree and thesis for a master's degree.

Theses available in a database, a university archive or from a personal website.

Reference format

Theses published online (e.g. in institutional repositories), theses from proquest dissertations and theses global.

Find how to cite in text on the  In-text citation  page.

 Unpublished thesis or dissertations are usually sourced directly from the university in print form.

 Reference format

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How to cite a PhD thesis in Harvard

Harvard PhD thesis citation

To cite a PhD thesis in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements:

  • Author(s) of the PhD thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'. For four authors or more include the first name followed by et al., unless your institution requires referencing of all named authors.
  • Year of submission: Give the year in round brackets.
  • Title of the PhD thesis: Give the title as presented in the source. Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • Degree description: Type of degree.
  • Degree-awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a PhD thesis in Harvard style:

Author(s) of the PhD thesis . ( Year of submission ) Title of the PhD thesis . Degree description . Degree-awarding institution .

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the Harvard style guidelines in action:

A PhD thesis with one author

Confait, M. F . ( 2018 ) Maximising the contributions of PHD graduates to national development: the case of the Seychelles . PhD thesis . Edith Cowan University .

An unpublished PhD thesis

Bowkett, D . ( 2015 ) Investigating the ligandability of plant homeodomains . Unpublished PhD thesis . University of Oxford .

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This citation style guide is based on the Cite Them Right (10 th edition) Harvard referencing guide.

More useful guides

  • Harvard Referencing: Theses
  • Referencing with Harvard: Thesis or dissertation
  • Citing and referencing: Theses/Dissertations

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How To Use Microsoft Word References Tool For Smarter Academic Writing

Tonya Thompson

Academic writing requires careful planning and preparation on the front end, and the more time you spend on this preparatory work, the easier the actual writing process will be. An important thing to remember is this—whenever you can take shortcuts while writing your academic essay, article, thesis or dissertation, take them. It's the little things here and there that can save you a lot of big headache in the overall process. All that's required is a little foresight and knowledge of which shortcuts to take.

What is a citation generator tool?

A citation generator tool is one such shortcut that comes standard with most word processing programs. For this particular article, we'll look at Microsoft Word and its citation generator, which can be accessed by choosing References in the main menu of your working document. It's especially useful when you're writing about research in a thesis or dissertation in that it helps you keep track of the dozens of sources you will likely use over the course of your research.

How do I use Microsoft Word's citation generator tool?

This guide will walk you through the steps you'll need to take to generate both in-text and bibliography citations in your academic writing while using Microsoft Word to write your document.

As you write, go ahead and input the information related to the article or source you're referring to or quoting. As you can see in the screenshot below, this is done by going to References, then choosing Insert Citation.

As you write, go ahead and input the information related to the article or source you're referring to or quoting..

Notice that once you choose Insert Citation, you can plug in the Style that needs to be used to cite sources. For the purposes of this tutorial, I chose APA style formatting, but the current Microsoft Word program offers several other formatting styles to choose from, including APA, Chicago, Harvard, IEEE, MLA, Turabian, and others. You'll want to make sure you choose the correct formatting style on each citation you generate through the References option, since the styles vary widely in how sources are cited both in the text and in the final bibliography generated.

After choosing Insert Citation, a menu will show beneath allowing you to Add New Source.

After choosing Insert Citation, a menu will show beneath allowing you to Add New Source.

Once you choose Add New Source, a new window will pop up allowing you to create the citation for the source. The first drop-down menu asks for the Type of Source. You can choose between Book, Book Section, Journal Article, Article in a Periodical, Conference Proceedings, or Report.

Once you choose Add New Source, a new window will pop up allowing you to create the citation for the source.

Since the example I'm showing is a journal article, I chose that as the Type of Source. I then entered information related to the source, including the Title, Journal Name, Year (of publication), Month (of publication), Pages (where the article can be found within the journal), and Volume number.

Once you choose Create Source, you can then enter the Title, Journal Name, Year (of publication), Month (of publication), Pages (where the article can be found within the journal), and Volume number.

After inputting the information for your source, click OK and the source will be saved to your project. You'll also see the in-text citation appear in your document at the point where you choose to Insert Citation. Microsoft Word will automatically generate the in-text citation in the correct format based on the citation style you chose when you added the new source.

Microsoft Word will automatically generate the in-text citation in the correct format based on the citation style you choose when you added the new source.

Continue to add each source to your working document as you write. When you have finished adding all of your sources, you will be able to create a Bibliography, References, or Works Cited list that is automatically generated for you in alphabetical order, and in the correctly formatted citation style you've chosen.

To generate a Bibliography, References, or Works Cited page, simply click on the Bibliography button beneath the References main menu and you'll be given a drop-down box showing the different choices that are available.

Click on the Bibliography button beneath the References main menu and you'll be given a drop-down box showing the different choices that are available.

After choosing Bibliography, the following page was automatically generated by Microsoft Word. In a real-world case, I would have put in multiple sources, and each would be listed in alphabetical order once the Bibliography is generated.

After choosing between Bibliography, References, and Works Cited, an alphabetized list of your sources used will be automatically generated by the program.

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  • How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

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Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

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Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, August 15). How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/thesis-statement/

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Put your cursor at the end of the text you want to cite.

Go to References  >   Style , and choose a citation style.

On the References tab choose a citation style from the Style list

Select Insert Citation .

Point to Insert Citation, and choose Add New Source

Choose  Add New Source  and fill out the information about your source.

Once you've added a source to your list, you can cite it again:

Go to References  >  Insert Citation , and choose the source you are citing.

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To add details, like page numbers if you're citing a book, select Citation Options , and then Edit Citation .

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Put your cursor where you want the bibliography.

Go to References > Bibliography , and choose a format.

Tip:  If you cite a new source, add it to the bibliography by clicking anywhere in the bibliography and selecting Update Citations and Bibliography .

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To be made up of:

  • Year of submission (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

In-text citation: 

(Smith, 2019)

Reference List:  

Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D. Thesis. University College London. Available at: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10072700 (Accessed: 20 May 2021).

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  • Writing Tips

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in IEEE Referencing

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in IEEE Referencing

  • 2-minute read
  • 24th March 2021

Did you know you can cite someone else’s thesis or dissertation in your own work? In this post, we’ll explain how this works in IEEE referencing .

Citing a Thesis or Dissertation in IEEE Referencing

In-text citations in IEEE referencing use numbers in square brackets:

Reactive forensics focuses on an incident after it has occurred [1].

These numbers point to sources in the reference list, with sources numbered in the order you cite them (i.e., the first source is always [1], the second is [2], and so on).

For more on citing sources IEEE style, see our blog post on the subject .

Adding a Thesis or Dissertation in an IEEE Reference List

In an IEEE reference list, the basic format for a thesis or dissertation is:

[#] INITIAL (S). Surname, “Title of thesis or dissertation,” Qualification Type, Department Name, University Name, City of University, State/Country, Year.

If possible, you should abbreviate any commonly used terms from this list in the entry (e.g., “University” is usually abbreviated to just “Univ.”).

You can see how this might look in practice below:

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[1] C. P. Clark, “A digital forensic management framework,” MSc Dissertation, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, 2020.

Make sure to include the hanging indent in all references as well.

Theses and Dissertations Accessed Online

If you accessed a thesis or dissertation online, give either a URL or DOI at the end of the reference. The exact format depends on which you give:

  • For a URL (i.e., a regular web address), include “[Online]” and the URL itself with no final punctuation at the end of the reference.
  • For a DOI , add the DOI after a comma and end the reference with a period.

You can see examples of both styles below:

[1] C. P. Clark, “A digital forensic management framework,” MSc Dissertation, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, 2020. [Online]. Available: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/1923/

[2] B. S. Bello, “Reverse engineering the behaviour of Twitter bots,” PhD Thesis, School of Informatics, Univ. of Leicester, Leicester, UK, Year, doi: 10.25392/leicester.data.12662456.v1.

Otherwise, though, the reference format is the same as shown above.

Expert IEEE Proofreading

Hopefully, you now feel confident citing a thesis or a dissertation in IEEE style. If you’d like further help checking your references, why not submit a free sample document and select IEEE referencing on upload to see how our experts work?

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  1. How to use a reference to cite a dissertation in APA 6th Edition

    To get it to look like this ( Purdue's Online Writing Lab example ), do this: Select: Report. Fill in... Title of the dissertation here: A view from the participants' seats: A discussion of executive team coaching. Year: 2014. Report type: (Doctoral dissertation) || Type it just like this <==.

  2. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    What you need References Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes. Structure: Author's last name, F. M. (Year published).

  3. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    The format for citing someone else's dissertation or thesis in APA Style depends on whether the thesis is available from a database, published somewhere else (e.g. on a university archive or personal website), or unpublished (only available in print form directly from the author or university).

  4. Thesis/Dissertation

    Thesis, from a commercial database. Lope, M. D. (2014). Perceptions of global mindedness in the international baccalaureate middle years programme: The relationship to student academic performance and teacher characteristics (Order No. 3682837) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland].ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

  5. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    How to Cite a Published Dissertation or Thesis in APA. To cite a published dissertation in APA 7th edition, you need to include: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication number, if available) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution]. Publisher.

  6. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    This page contains reference examples for published dissertations or theses, which are considered published when they are available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive.

  7. How to cite a master's thesis in APA

    Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a master's thesis in APA style 7th edition: Author (s) of the thesis. ( Year of publication ). Title of the Master's thesis ( Publication number) [Master's thesis, Name of the degree awarding institution ]. Name of Platform. URL APA reference list examples

  8. Theses

    Basic format to reference a thesis or dissertation. The basics of a reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation: Author. The surname is followed by first initials. Year (in round brackets). Title (in italics ). Level of Thesis or Dissertation [in square brackets]. University, also in [square brackets] following directly after the Level of ...

  9. Cite a Thesis / Dissertation

    Cite a thesis or dissertation (unpublished, published online, or accessed through a database). Use other forms to cite books, journal articles, reports, and conference proceedings. Title Required Contributors Recommended Add organization Type of text Recommended Year of submission Recommended University Recommended DOI PDF Add annotation

  10. APA: how to cite a PhD thesis [Update 2023]

    How to cite a PhD thesis in APA. If the thesis is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template: Author (s) of the thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by ...

  11. Library Guides: APA 6th Referencing Style Guide: Theses

    Thesis and dissertation can mean different things, depending on which institution the work is from. For study purposes and for your APA reference you need to know the level of the work. Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is. Use the information there for your APA reference.

  12. Theses and dissertations

    Thesis and dissertation can mean different things depending on where the degree is awarded. Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is and use the information for your reference. Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities) Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree.

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  15. How to cite a PhD thesis in Harvard

    Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a PhD thesis in Harvard style: Author (s) of the PhD thesis. ( Year of submission) Title of the PhD thesis. Degree description. Degree-awarding institution. Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the Harvard style guidelines in action: Examples A PhD thesis with one author

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    Formatting your Thesis or Dissertation in Microsoft Word: A Resource Reference Sheet Many big research projects (such as a dissertation, MA thesis, or undergraduate Honors Thesis) require very specific formatting.

  17. thesis

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    Harvard Thesis or dissertation To be made up of: Author. Year of submission (in round brackets). Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Available at: URL. (Accessed: date). In-text citation: (Smith, 2019) Reference List: Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D.

  23. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in IEEE Referencing

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