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Good Thesis Statement Examples, How to Write, Tips

Good thesis statement examples

Crafting a compelling thesis statement is pivotal in guiding your audience through the heart of your argument. Whether you’re a budding writer or an academic veteran, diving into exemplary thesis statements can refine your understanding and elevate your writing prowess. This guide showcases sterling examples, offers step-by-step writing insights, and provides invaluable tips, ensuring that your thesis statement stands tall with clarity, precision, and confidence.

What is an Example of Good Thesis Statement?

A good thesis statement clearly conveys the main argument or point of a paper and gives direction to the content that follows. Here’s an example of a good thesis statement:

“In William Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’, the ambition of the main character acts as a double-edged sword, driving him to achieve power at any cost, yet simultaneously leading to his tragic downfall.”

This statement provides a clear position on the role of ambition in the play, setting the stage for a detailed analysis of Macbeth’s character and the play’s themes.

100 Good Thesis Statement Examples

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A thesis statement is the cornerstone of academic writing. It encapsulates the main argument or point of a paper in a concise manner. A well-crafted thesis provides direction for the content and signals to the reader what to expect. Here are 100 examples of good thesis statements to inspire your own academic endeavors.

  • “The advancement of internet technology has revolutionized modern communication, leading to numerous societal changes, including a more interconnected world and the rise of telecommuting.”
  • “Climate change poses a severe threat to global ecosystems, necessitating immediate and substantive action to mitigate its destructive impacts.”
  • “The portrayal of women in classic literature often reflects societal norms of their time, offering insights into gender roles and societal expectations.”
  • “While many view animal testing as a necessary evil, alternative methods can and should be developed to reduce the reliance on animal cruelty.”
  • “The impact of the Industrial Revolution extended beyond economics, reshaping societal structures, living conditions, and even art.”
  • “The rise of fast food has played a significant role in the obesity epidemic facing many developed nations.”
  • “The ‘American Dream’ in Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby’ underscores the illusion of prosperity and the decay of moral values in the Roaring Twenties.”
  • “Children exposed to violent video games are more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior, underscoring the need for parental guidance.”
  • “The effects of social media on mental health, particularly among adolescents, is a growing concern that warrants in-depth research and awareness campaigns.”
  • “The colonization of Africa had long-lasting effects, including cultural assimilation, resource exploitation, and the reshaping of geopolitical boundaries.”
  • “Digital currencies, like Bitcoin, present both significant potential for reshaping global finance and inherent risks related to regulation and stability.”
  • “The Renaissance period, while renowned for its artistic achievements, also laid the groundwork for scientific discoveries and the spirit of inquiry.”
  • “Adopting a plant-based diet not only promotes personal health but also significantly reduces one’s carbon footprint.”
  • “In George Orwell’s ‘1984’, the omnipresent surveillance state serves as a chilling commentary on government overreach and the dangers of unchecked power.”
  • “Education reform is essential in addressing systemic inequalities and ensuring every student has access to quality learning.”
  • “The use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, is imperative in combating the detrimental effects of fossil fuels.”
  • “The character of Hamlet explores the complex interplay between madness and sanity, revealing deep insights into human nature.”
  • “Urbanization, while driving economic growth, also presents challenges like increased pollution and strains on public infrastructure.”
  • “Migration patterns in the 21st century are heavily influenced by geopolitical unrest, economic disparities, and climate change.”
  • “Childhood vaccinations are crucial in preventing deadly diseases and ensuring the overall health of a community.
  • “Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is not merely a moral obligation but a strategic move that can provide companies with a competitive edge in the modern business environment.”
  • “Despite the advent of e-books and digital reading platforms, physical books remain significant due to their tangible nature and the immersive reading experience they offer.”
  • “The prohibition era in the U.S. illustrates the unintended consequences of policies that don’t consider societal behaviors and demands.”
  • “Despite its controversial nature, stem cell research holds the key to potential cures for terminal diseases and understanding cellular growth.”
  • “Modern education needs to incorporate more emphasis on critical thinking and problem-solving rather than rote memorization.”
  • “The cultural and societal implications of artificial intelligence will be as impactful, if not more, than its technological advancements.”
  • “Language evolves over time, reflecting societal changes, migrations, and cultural mergers, and it’s essential to study these shifts to understand societies better.”
  • “Marketing in the age of social media requires a shift from traditional strategies to a more interactive and customer-centric approach.”
  • “Elderly populations in developed countries are on the rise, necessitating a comprehensive approach to geriatric care and social support systems.”
  • “While globalization has led to more interconnected economies and cultures, it has also resulted in significant cultural homogenization and loss of local identities.”
  • “Mental health, once a taboo subject, requires increased awareness and resources, given its impact on overall health, productivity, and societal well-being.”
  • “Space exploration, beyond its scientific implications, has profound effects on how humans perceive themselves in the universe.”
  • “The concept of heroism in literature has evolved, reflecting societies’ changing values, moral codes, and perceptions of heroics.”
  • “Dietary habits are deeply interwoven with culture, traditions, and in many cases, religious beliefs, making them more than mere choices of food.”
  • “While urbanization offers numerous opportunities, it also exacerbates challenges like housing shortages, traffic congestion, and environmental pollution.”
  • “The global financial crisis of 2008 underscores the need for transparency, regulation, and ethical considerations in banking and investment sectors.”
  • “Art movements, from Renaissance to Surrealism, reflect more than aesthetic preferences: they mirror political, social, and cultural evolutions of their times.”
  • “The rise of gig economies challenges traditional employment models, necessitating new legal and social frameworks.”
  • “Music’s evolution over the decades is not just a progression of genres but a reflection of societal changes, technological advancements, and cultural shifts.”
  • “The ethics of gene editing, especially CRISPR technology, needs comprehensive debate, considering its profound implications on human evolution and identity.
  • “The emergence of telemedicine, accelerated by the global pandemic, offers a new horizon for healthcare but also prompts significant considerations regarding access, quality, and patient privacy.”
  • “Climate change’s implications stretch beyond environmental degradation, influencing migration patterns, geopolitical tensions, and global economic shifts.”
  • “The Renaissance’s influence isn’t restricted to art and literature but extends to scientific thinking, societal norms, and the evolution of political thought.”
  • “Consumerism’s rise in modern societies doesn’t only influence economies but also molds individual identities, values, and life purposes.”
  • “With rising automation, the definition of work is undergoing a transformation, calling for adaptive educational systems and new social structures.”
  • “Historically, pandemics have reshaped societies, and COVID-19’s impacts will be seen in domains ranging from international relations to local community structures.”
  • “The portrayal of women in media, while slowly changing, has long-term effects on societal gender norms and individual self-perceptions.”
  • “The growing popularity of plant-based diets isn’t merely a health trend but a reflection of increasing environmental awareness and ethical considerations.”
  • “While nuclear energy presents a solution to fossil fuel dependency, it also poses profound ethical, environmental, and geopolitical challenges.”
  • “The transformation of the family unit in contemporary societies reveals broader trends concerning mobility, gender roles, and individualism.”
  • “As cryptocurrencies gain traction, they challenge traditional economic systems, question the role of centralized banks, and redefine value.”
  • “Migration patterns throughout history don’t merely reflect economic pursuits but are intertwined with cultural exchanges, conflict resolutions, and the global shaping of identities.”
  • “The minimalist movement goes beyond aesthetic choices, reflecting a broader societal fatigue with consumerism and a quest for genuine experiences.”
  • “The evolution of fashion isn’t just about changing styles but mirrors societal attitudes, economic conditions, and even political movements.”
  • “Increased screen time among younger generations necessitates a reevaluation of learning models, social interactions, and the definition of community.”
  • “Colonization’s legacies are still evident today, influencing global politics, cultural interactions, and even individual identities.”
  • “The pursuit of happiness in modern societies is increasingly tied to material acquisitions, calling for a reevaluation of values and measures of well-being.”
  • “Water scarcity, an impending global challenge, will dictate geopolitical strategies, economic models, and demand innovative technological solutions.”
  • “Digital privacy concerns in the age of big data don’t just relate to personal safety but challenge fundamental rights and the very nature of democracy.”
  • “Urban green spaces, beyond their environmental benefits, play crucial roles in mental well-being, community building, and fostering biodiversity.
  • “While space exploration heralds new frontiers for humanity, it brings forth ethical, financial, and existential questions that must be addressed.”
  • “The dynamics of global politics are increasingly being shaped by technology, redefining national security, diplomacy, and global citizenry.”
  • “The role of folklore in preserving cultural identities is critical in this era of globalization, aiding in understanding shared human experiences.”
  • “Declining bee populations are not only an environmental concern but an impending economic crisis due to their crucial role in pollination.”
  • “The gig economy, while offering flexibility, poses challenges related to job security, benefits, and the very definition of employment.”
  • “Holistic education goes beyond academics, addressing students’ emotional, social, and physical needs, preparing them for the complexities of modern life.”
  • “Urbanization, while indicative of progress, also brings forth challenges related to sustainability, social disparities, and cultural preservation.”
  • “The resurgence of vinyl in a digital age signifies a longing for tangibility and the intrinsic value of experiences.”
  • “Cultural festivals, beyond their entertainment value, serve as bridges for intercultural understanding, fostering peace and global camaraderie.”
  • “The debate over artificial intelligence surpassing human intelligence delves into philosophy, ethics, and the potential redefinition of life itself.”
  • “Genetic editing, while promising medical breakthroughs, also opens Pandora’s box of ethical considerations related to identity, evolution, and societal norms.”
  • “The blending of traditional and western medicine presents opportunities for holistic health solutions, yet raises concerns about authenticity and misuse.”
  • “Mental health awareness in contemporary societies is not just a health concern but an economic, social, and cultural imperative.”
  • “Craftsmanship in the age of mass production celebrates human ingenuity, authenticity, and a counter-narrative to rampant consumerism.”
  • “Language extinction is not merely a linguistic loss but erodes cultural diversity, shared histories, and human perspectives.”
  • “The rise of e-sports challenges traditional definitions of sports, athleticism, and physicality, reflecting shifts in entertainment and cultural values.”
  • “The ocean’s depths, less explored than outer space, harbor potential solutions to medical, technological, and environmental challenges.”
  • “Plant consciousness, while scientifically controversial, encourages a reevaluation of life, inter-species relationships, and our role in the ecosystem.”
  • “The philosophy of minimalism, in contrast to modern excess, suggests a life of purpose, clarity, and sustainable choices.”
  • “Architectural trends, like the tiny house movement, reflect evolving societal values concerning sustainability, materialism, and the concept of home.
  • “The growing popularity of farm-to-table dining isn’t just a culinary trend, but a statement on sustainability, locality, and the personal connection to food sources.”
  • “The proliferation of digital detox retreats illustrates society’s increasing acknowledgment of technology’s impact on mental well-being and the yearning for authentic human interactions.”
  • “Rise of homeschooling, propelled by customizable learning experiences, showcases an evolution in educational philosophies and parental roles in a child’s academic journey.”
  • “The interest in ancestral DNA testing unveils an intrinsic human desire to understand one’s origins, identity, and the interconnectedness of cultures.”
  • “Virtual reality, while a technological marvel, forces us to confront and redefine our understanding of experiences, relationships, and reality itself.”
  • “Solar energy’s ascension isn’t merely about environmental conservation; it’s a testament to human adaptability and the pivot towards sustainable choices.”
  • “Revival of handwritten letters in the digital age signifies a desire for personal connection, authenticity, and the tangible amidst the ephemeral.”
  • “Shifts in fashion towards gender-neutral clothing reflect broader societal conversations around gender identities, fluidity, and the deconstruction of stereotypes.”
  • “The embrace of urban farming in metropolises worldwide underscores the importance of sustainability, self-sufficiency, and reconnection with nature even within urban landscapes.”
  • “The growing trend of unplugged weddings emphasizes the importance of being present, cherishing moments, and prioritizing personal connections over digital documentation.”
  • “The movement towards ethical consumerism isn’t just a shopping trend; it’s a societal shift towards responsibility, awareness, and the power of collective impact.”
  • “The resurgence of board games in an era dominated by video games underscores the human need for direct interaction, strategy, and tactile experiences.”
  • “Sustainable tourism is not merely an industry response; it’s a commitment to preserving culture, environment, and ensuring mutual respect between travelers and local communities.”
  • “Intergenerational living, or multiple generations under one roof, challenges the conventional Western living standards and underscores the importance of family, shared responsibilities, and cultural preservation.”
  • “The adoption of adult coloring books highlights the universal need for creative outlets, mindfulness, and the therapeutic value of art.”
  • “The zero-waste movement is more than an environmental initiative; it’s a global call to action, emphasizing individual responsibility and systemic change.”
  • “The increasing importance given to soft skills in professional settings speaks to the evolving understanding of holistic employee value, team dynamics, and long-term organizational success.”
  • “The preference for experiences over possessions among younger generations challenges materialistic values and emphasizes the impermanence and value of memories.”
  • “The rise of artisanal and handcrafted goods counters the age of mass production and highlights the appreciation for uniqueness, tradition, and human touch.”
  • “The embrace of slow living in fast-paced societies underscores the yearning for mindfulness, purpose, and the significance of life’s simple pleasures.

Good Thesis Statement Starter Examples

Beginning a thesis statement requires a concise premise that draws the reader’s attention. Here are examples that illustrate how to commence your thesis effectively:

  • “First and foremost, urban development…”
  • “At the core of this argument, environmental conservation…”
  • “Central to this discussion, global economic trends…”
  • “Fundamentally, artistic expression…”
  • “The primary consideration, ethical consumption…”
  • “An essential perspective, child development…”
  • “At the heart of the matter, digital communication…”
  • “Rooted in historical context, the Renaissance era…”
  • “Pivotal to this debate, the role of artificial intelligence…”
  • “Integral to this analysis, cultural integration…”

Good Thesis Statement Examples for Research Paper

A thesis statement for research paper demands a clear, specific, and thought-provoking thesis. Here are suitable examples:

  • “Recent studies on climate change demonstrate the dire need for renewable energy transition.”
  • “Neurological research reveals that bilingualism significantly impacts cognitive ability.”
  • “Archaeological evidence from the Mediterranean supports the existence of matriarchal societies in ancient times.”
  • “Data-driven marketing strategies have revolutionized e-commerce and consumer behavior.”
  • “A review of mental health studies shows a strong correlation between social media usage and anxiety among teenagers.”
  • “Genetic research indicates certain mutations as predictive markers for specific cancers.”
  • “Recent advancements in AI are tracing the line between human intelligence and machine learning.”
  • “Microplastics in marine ecosystems have a detrimental effect, as indicated by recent oceanographic research.”
  • “Quantitative analysis of global trade indicates a shift towards service-oriented economies.”
  • “Cultural anthropology studies reveal the importance of oral narratives in indigenous societies.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples for Essays

Crafting a thesis for essays involves capturing the essence of your narrative or argument. Here are examples:

  • “Modern parenting challenges differ significantly from those of a generation ago, especially with the rise of technology.”
  • “Nostalgia, while a comforting emotion, can sometimes prevent progress and keep us anchored to the past.”
  • “The introduction of digital reading is redefining the experience of literature.”
  • “Despite its challenges, traveling solo can be an enlightening and transformative experience.”
  • “Embracing minimalism can lead to a more fulfilling and less cluttered life.”
  • “The transition from childhood to adulthood is marked by significant emotional, social, and psychological changes.”
  • “A vegan lifestyle, beyond dietary preferences, represents a choice for health and ethical practices.”
  • “Cultural festivals, more than celebrations, are reflections of identity, heritage, and community bonding.”
  • “Design, in its essence, isn’t just about aesthetics, but about function, purpose, and intuition.”
  • “Music transcends languages, bridging gaps, and resonating emotions universally.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples for Argumentative Essay

An argumentative essay’s thesis statement should clearly state your position. Here are solid stances:

  • “Compulsory voting ensures a democratic process that truly reflects a nation’s collective decision.”
  • “While technology has its advantages, it cannot replace the value of traditional classroom learning.”
  • “Animal testing is not only ethically problematic but also scientifically limited and should be replaced with alternative methods.”
  • “Legalizing marijuana can provide significant economic benefits and reduce crime rates.”
  • “Censorship, under the guise of protection, can often stifle creativity and freedom of expression.”
  • “Childhood vaccinations should be mandatory, given their crucial role in preventing outbreaks and ensuring public health.”
  • “Fast fashion is not only environmentally harmful but also promotes unethical labor practices.”
  • “Privacy in the digital age is not a luxury but a fundamental human right that needs stringent protection.”
  • “While sports promote discipline and teamwork, an undue emphasis on winning can deter the essence of play.”
  • “Capital punishment, despite its deterrent effect, raises ethical dilemmas and should be reconsidered.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples for Compare and Contrast Essay

Compare and contrast essays require a clear delineation between two subjects. Here are examples that set the stage:

  • “While both classical and modern music have their merits, they cater to different emotional palettes and generational contexts.”
  • “Ancient Greek and Ancient Egyptian civilizations, though contemporaries, had distinctly different cultural and architectural achievements.”
  • “Freelancing and traditional employment both have their pros and cons concerning flexibility, job security, and career growth.”
  • “While both Apple and Microsoft have impacted computing, their philosophies, aesthetics, and user experiences differ markedly.”
  • “Renting and buying a home, each have their financial implications, but also offer varying degrees of freedom and permanence.”
  • “Both introversion and extraversion have unique strengths and challenges, influencing how individuals navigate social contexts.”
  • “American football and soccer, while both team sports, have different rules, global reach, and cultural significance.”
  • “While cats are known for their independence, dogs are often appreciated for their loyalty and companionship.”
  • “Novels and short stories, though both literary forms, cater to different attention spans and narrative depths.”
  • “Traditional marketing and digital marketing, while aiming for the same goal, employ different mediums and strategies.

Good Thesis Statement Examples About Success

Success is multifaceted and personal. These thesis statements delve into various perceptions and interpretations of success:

  • “Success isn’t merely measured by financial wealth but by personal growth and fulfillment.”
  • “True success lies in one’s ability to maintain balance in personal and professional life.”
  • “For many, success is the realization of personal freedom and the ability to dictate one’s own pace of life.”
  • “Modern society often equates success with material possession, overlooking emotional and spiritual well-being.”
  • “The journey, with its challenges and lessons, is as significant as the end-point in defining success.”
  • “Success in academics doesn’t always translate to success in real-life scenarios and vice versa.”
  • “The parameters of success differ across cultures, reflecting diverse values and priorities.”
  • “Individuals who overcome adversity often have a richer understanding of success.”
  • “Long-term contentment and understanding of self are underappreciated markers of success.”
  • “Success isn’t static; its definition evolves with personal experiences and milestones.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples for College

College life brings about a plethora of experiences and learnings. These college essay thesis statements shed light on the myriad facets of collegiate life:

  • “College isn’t merely an academic pursuit but a journey of self-discovery and growth.”
  • “The college experience is as much about developing soft skills as it is about academic excellence.”
  • “While college provides a structured learning environment, self-motivation remains a critical determinant of success.”
  • “Extracurricular activities in college play a pivotal role in shaping an individual’s character and perspective.”
  • “The diversity in a college setting fosters cultural appreciation and global-mindedness.”
  • “College debts, while burdensome, are investments in one’s future potential and aspirations.”
  • “Digital advancements have revolutionized the traditional college experience, making education more accessible.”
  • “The challenges faced during college years equip individuals with resilience and adaptability for future endeavors.”
  • “Networking in college can pave the way for professional opportunities and lasting friendships.”
  • “Critical thinking, a skill honed in college, is indispensable in navigating real-world complexities.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples for Students

Student life is characterized by its challenges, learnings, and milestones. These thesis statements reflect diverse aspects of student experiences:

  • “Balancing academics with extracurriculars equips students with multitasking abilities and time management skills.”
  • “For students, failure can be a profound learning experience, shaping resilience and adaptability.”
  • “Modern students grapple with the pressures of digital distractions and the advantages of technology-enhanced learning.”
  • “International exchange programs provide students with a broader perspective and cultural appreciation.”
  • “Students today are more attuned to global issues, thanks to digital interconnectedness.”
  • “Peer pressure, while often viewed negatively, can also motivate students to excel and set higher benchmarks.”
  • “Real-life education, often neglected in curriculum, is crucial in preparing students for adulthood challenges.”
  • “Active participation in student governance instills leadership qualities and a sense of responsibility.”
  • “Practical internships and workshops complement theoretical knowledge, giving students an edge in professional realms.”
  • “Mental health and well-being are as vital as academic achievements for holistic student development.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples About a Person

Thesis statements about individuals shed light on their characteristics, achievements, or significance. Here are some crafted examples:

  • “Nelson Mandela’s resilience against apartheid showcases the power of perseverance in the face of adversity.”
  • “Steve Jobs, beyond his technological innovations, exemplified the essence of visionary leadership and creative thinking.”
  • “Mother Teresa’s life underscores the profound impact of compassion and selflessness in addressing societal challenges.”
  • “Frida Kahlo, through her art, gave voice to pain, love, and the complexities of identity.”
  • “Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of non-violence resonates globally, advocating peace over conflict.”
  • “Oprah Winfrey’s journey from adversity to global influence underscores the possibilities of determination and a positive mindset.”
  • “Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, exemplifies the limitless potential of human curiosity and innovation.”
  • “Malala Yousafzai’s advocacy for girls’ education sheds light on the transformative power of youth activism.”
  • “Elon Musk’s ventures span various industries, reflecting an insatiable quest for innovation and progress.”
  • “Jane Austen, through her novels, offered incisive commentary on society, love, and individuality.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples About Family

Family forms the foundational fabric of our lives. These thesis statements reflect on its multifaceted nature:

  • “The modern family structure has evolved, reflecting societal changes and diverse cultural norms.”
  • “Families, beyond biological ties, are bound by shared experiences, values, and unconditional support.”
  • “Blended families, with their unique challenges, underscore the universality of love and understanding.”
  • “The role of grandparents in families extends beyond tradition, offering wisdom and timeless bonds.”
  • “In the digital age, maintaining familial connections requires conscious efforts amidst technological distractions.”
  • “The dynamics of sibling relationships play a pivotal role in shaping individual personalities and perspectives.”
  • “Families act as safe havens, providing emotional anchorage in an unpredictable world.”
  • “The challenges of modern parenting lie in balancing tradition with contemporary realities.”
  • “Familial roles are fluid, constantly adapting to changing life stages and circumstances.”
  • “Family traditions, while reflective of heritage, also evolve, mirroring changing times and values.”

Good Thesis Statement Examples About Life

Life, with its myriad experiences, offers endless perspectives. These thesis statements delve into its vast expanse:

  • “Life’s unpredictability demands resilience, adaptability, and an undying spirit of exploration.”
  • “Digital advancements, while enhancing life’s quality, also present challenges to genuine human connections.”
  • “The pursuit of happiness in life is a journey of self-discovery, introspection, and meaningful connections.”
  • “Life’s challenges, often viewed as setbacks, are pivotal in shaping character and destiny.”
  • “The essence of life lies in cherishing fleeting moments, recognizing their transient nature.”
  • “Balancing personal aspirations with societal expectations is a recurring challenge in modern life.”
  • “Mindfulness practices, in the hustle of life, offer solace and a deeper connection to the present.”
  • “Life, in its essence, is a continuous learning experience, offering lessons in unexpected places.”
  • “The concept of success in life is personal, reflecting individual goals, values, and benchmarks.”
  • “Life’s beauty lies in its diversity, presenting myriad experiences, emotions, and milestones.

What 3 things should be in a good thesis?

A well-crafted thesis statement serves as the backbone of your paper, providing clarity and direction. For a thesis to be effective, it should possess the following three characteristics:

  • Clear Focus: The thesis should pinpoint a specific idea or argument rather than being overly broad or vague. It should give the reader a clear understanding of what the paper will discuss.
  • Arguable Point: A good thesis often presents an argument that could be challenged. It shouldn’t state a fact but rather a claim that others might dispute.
  • Supporting Evidence or Reasoning: While the thesis statement doesn’t need to list all the supporting points, it should hint at or introduce the line of reasoning you’ll use to back up your claim.

How do you write a catchy thesis statement? – Step by Step Guide

  • Understand the Assignment: Before crafting your thesis, make sure you comprehend the requirements of the assignment. Is it analytical, argumentative, expository, etc.?
  • Research the Topic: A thorough understanding of your subject matter will help you formulate a robust and intriguing thesis. Dive deep into the available literature.
  • Identify a Specific Focus: Narrow down your topic to a specific area of interest or argument.
  • Draft a Preliminary Statement: Begin with a broad thesis statement, which you can refine as you progress.
  • Make it Debatable: Ensure your thesis makes a claim or presents a viewpoint that others could challenge.
  • Keep it Concise: While your thesis should be detailed enough to convey your argument, it should also be succinct and free from unnecessary jargon.
  • Revise and Refine: As you continue your research and start writing, revisit your thesis. Make sure it remains relevant and adjust as necessary for clarity and precision.
  • Seek Feedback: Discuss your thesis with peers, instructors, or mentors to get their insights.
  • Finalize with Confidence: Once you’ve honed your thesis to its best form, confidently place it at the beginning of your paper, usually at the end of the introduction.

Tips for Writing a Good Thesis Statement

  • Position it Right: Typically, the thesis statement should be at the end of your introduction, setting the tone for the rest of the paper.
  • Avoid Ambiguity: Be clear and precise. Vague thesis statements can confuse readers.
  • Stay Away from Clichés: While some generic statements can apply to many topics, they often lack depth and originality.
  • Use Strong Language: Avoid wishy-washy phrases like “I think” or “I believe.” Be assertive in presenting your argument.
  • Stay Relevant: As you progress in your writing, ensure every part of your paper supports or relates back to your thesis.
  • Avoid Superlatives: Words like “best,” “most,” “all,” etc., can make your thesis weaker. Stick to more nuanced language.
  • Revisit Regularly: As your paper evolves, make sure your thesis remains applicable. Adjust if necessary to reflect your paper’s direction.
  • Limit to One or Two Sentences: While this isn’t a strict rule, a concise thesis often makes a stronger point.
  • Practice Makes Perfect: The more you practice writing thesis statements, the better you’ll get at crafting compelling and effective ones.
  • Stay Passionate: If you’re genuinely interested in your thesis, it’ll reflect in your writing, making your entire paper more engaging.

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Thesis Statements

What this handout is about.

This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.

Introduction

Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
  • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
  • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
  • makes a claim that others might dispute.
  • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

How do I create a thesis?

A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.

Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .

How do I know if my thesis is strong?

If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :

  • Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to  be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.

Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:

Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.

You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.

  • Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?

After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:

Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.

This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.

Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.

You begin to analyze your thesis:

  • Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.

Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
  • Do I answer the question? Yes!
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”

After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:

Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.

This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.

Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Developing a Thesis Statement

Many papers you write require developing a thesis statement. In this section you’ll learn what a thesis statement is and how to write one.

Keep in mind that not all papers require thesis statements . If in doubt, please consult your instructor for assistance.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement . . .

  • Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic.
  • Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper.
  • Is focused and specific enough to be “proven” within the boundaries of your paper.
  • Is generally located near the end of the introduction ; sometimes, in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or in an entire paragraph.
  • Identifies the relationships between the pieces of evidence that you are using to support your argument.

Not all papers require thesis statements! Ask your instructor if you’re in doubt whether you need one.

Identify a topic

Your topic is the subject about which you will write. Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic; or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper.

Consider what your assignment asks you to do

Inform yourself about your topic, focus on one aspect of your topic, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts, generate a topic from an assignment.

Below are some possible topics based on sample assignments.

Sample assignment 1

Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II.

Identified topic

Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis

This topic avoids generalities such as “Spain” and “World War II,” addressing instead on Franco’s role (a specific aspect of “Spain”) and the diplomatic relations between the Allies and Axis (a specific aspect of World War II).

Sample assignment 2

Analyze one of Homer’s epic similes in the Iliad.

The relationship between the portrayal of warfare and the epic simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64.

This topic focuses on a single simile and relates it to a single aspect of the Iliad ( warfare being a major theme in that work).

Developing a Thesis Statement–Additional information

Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic, or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper. You’ll want to read your assignment carefully, looking for key terms that you can use to focus your topic.

Sample assignment: Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II Key terms: analyze, Spain’s neutrality, World War II

After you’ve identified the key words in your topic, the next step is to read about them in several sources, or generate as much information as possible through an analysis of your topic. Obviously, the more material or knowledge you have, the more possibilities will be available for a strong argument. For the sample assignment above, you’ll want to look at books and articles on World War II in general, and Spain’s neutrality in particular.

As you consider your options, you must decide to focus on one aspect of your topic. This means that you cannot include everything you’ve learned about your topic, nor should you go off in several directions. If you end up covering too many different aspects of a topic, your paper will sprawl and be unconvincing in its argument, and it most likely will not fulfull the assignment requirements.

For the sample assignment above, both Spain’s neutrality and World War II are topics far too broad to explore in a paper. You may instead decide to focus on Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis , which narrows down what aspects of Spain’s neutrality and World War II you want to discuss, as well as establishes a specific link between those two aspects.

Before you go too far, however, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts. Try to avoid topics that already have too much written about them (i.e., “eating disorders and body image among adolescent women”) or that simply are not important (i.e. “why I like ice cream”). These topics may lead to a thesis that is either dry fact or a weird claim that cannot be supported. A good thesis falls somewhere between the two extremes. To arrive at this point, ask yourself what is new, interesting, contestable, or controversial about your topic.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times . Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Derive a main point from topic

Once you have a topic, you will have to decide what the main point of your paper will be. This point, the “controlling idea,” becomes the core of your argument (thesis statement) and it is the unifying idea to which you will relate all your sub-theses. You can then turn this “controlling idea” into a purpose statement about what you intend to do in your paper.

Look for patterns in your evidence

Compose a purpose statement.

Consult the examples below for suggestions on how to look for patterns in your evidence and construct a purpose statement.

  • Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis
  • Franco turned to the Allies when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from the Axis

Possible conclusion:

Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: Franco’s desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power.

Purpose statement

This paper will analyze Franco’s diplomacy during World War II to see how it contributed to Spain’s neutrality.
  • The simile compares Simoisius to a tree, which is a peaceful, natural image.
  • The tree in the simile is chopped down to make wheels for a chariot, which is an object used in warfare.

At first, the simile seems to take the reader away from the world of warfare, but we end up back in that world by the end.

This paper will analyze the way the simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64 moves in and out of the world of warfare.

Derive purpose statement from topic

To find out what your “controlling idea” is, you have to examine and evaluate your evidence . As you consider your evidence, you may notice patterns emerging, data repeated in more than one source, or facts that favor one view more than another. These patterns or data may then lead you to some conclusions about your topic and suggest that you can successfully argue for one idea better than another.

For instance, you might find out that Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis, but when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from them, he turned to the Allies. As you read more about Franco’s decisions, you may conclude that Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: his desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power. Based on this conclusion, you can then write a trial thesis statement to help you decide what material belongs in your paper.

Sometimes you won’t be able to find a focus or identify your “spin” or specific argument immediately. Like some writers, you might begin with a purpose statement just to get yourself going. A purpose statement is one or more sentences that announce your topic and indicate the structure of the paper but do not state the conclusions you have drawn . Thus, you might begin with something like this:

  • This paper will look at modern language to see if it reflects male dominance or female oppression.
  • I plan to analyze anger and derision in offensive language to see if they represent a challenge of society’s authority.

At some point, you can turn a purpose statement into a thesis statement. As you think and write about your topic, you can restrict, clarify, and refine your argument, crafting your thesis statement to reflect your thinking.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Compose a draft thesis statement

If you are writing a paper that will have an argumentative thesis and are having trouble getting started, the techniques in the table below may help you develop a temporary or “working” thesis statement.

Begin with a purpose statement that you will later turn into a thesis statement.

Assignment: Discuss the history of the Reform Party and explain its influence on the 1990 presidential and Congressional election.

Purpose Statement: This paper briefly sketches the history of the grassroots, conservative, Perot-led Reform Party and analyzes how it influenced the economic and social ideologies of the two mainstream parties.

Question-to-Assertion

If your assignment asks a specific question(s), turn the question(s) into an assertion and give reasons why it is true or reasons for your opinion.

Assignment : What do Aylmer and Rappaccini have to be proud of? Why aren’t they satisfied with these things? How does pride, as demonstrated in “The Birthmark” and “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” lead to unexpected problems?

Beginning thesis statement: Alymer and Rappaccinni are proud of their great knowledge; however, they are also very greedy and are driven to use their knowledge to alter some aspect of nature as a test of their ability. Evil results when they try to “play God.”

Write a sentence that summarizes the main idea of the essay you plan to write.

Main idea: The reason some toys succeed in the market is that they appeal to the consumers’ sense of the ridiculous and their basic desire to laugh at themselves.

Make a list of the ideas that you want to include; consider the ideas and try to group them.

  • nature = peaceful
  • war matériel = violent (competes with 1?)
  • need for time and space to mourn the dead
  • war is inescapable (competes with 3?)

Use a formula to arrive at a working thesis statement (you will revise this later).

  • although most readers of _______ have argued that _______, closer examination shows that _______.
  • _______ uses _______ and _____ to prove that ________.
  • phenomenon x is a result of the combination of __________, __________, and _________.

What to keep in mind as you draft an initial thesis statement

Beginning statements obtained through the methods illustrated above can serve as a framework for planning or drafting your paper, but remember they’re not yet the specific, argumentative thesis you want for the final version of your paper. In fact, in its first stages, a thesis statement usually is ill-formed or rough and serves only as a planning tool.

As you write, you may discover evidence that does not fit your temporary or “working” thesis. Or you may reach deeper insights about your topic as you do more research, and you will find that your thesis statement has to be more complicated to match the evidence that you want to use.

You must be willing to reject or omit some evidence in order to keep your paper cohesive and your reader focused. Or you may have to revise your thesis to match the evidence and insights that you want to discuss. Read your draft carefully, noting the conclusions you have drawn and the major ideas which support or prove those conclusions. These will be the elements of your final thesis statement.

Sometimes you will not be able to identify these elements in your early drafts, but as you consider how your argument is developing and how your evidence supports your main idea, ask yourself, “ What is the main point that I want to prove/discuss? ” and “ How will I convince the reader that this is true? ” When you can answer these questions, then you can begin to refine the thesis statement.

Refine and polish the thesis statement

To get to your final thesis, you’ll need to refine your draft thesis so that it’s specific and arguable.

  • Ask if your draft thesis addresses the assignment
  • Question each part of your draft thesis
  • Clarify vague phrases and assertions
  • Investigate alternatives to your draft thesis

Consult the example below for suggestions on how to refine your draft thesis statement.

Sample Assignment

Choose an activity and define it as a symbol of American culture. Your essay should cause the reader to think critically about the society which produces and enjoys that activity.

  • Ask The phenomenon of drive-in facilities is an interesting symbol of american culture, and these facilities demonstrate significant characteristics of our society.This statement does not fulfill the assignment because it does not require the reader to think critically about society.
Drive-ins are an interesting symbol of American culture because they represent Americans’ significant creativity and business ingenuity.
Among the types of drive-in facilities familiar during the twentieth century, drive-in movie theaters best represent American creativity, not merely because they were the forerunner of later drive-ins and drive-throughs, but because of their impact on our culture: they changed our relationship to the automobile, changed the way people experienced movies, and changed movie-going into a family activity.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast-food establishments, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize America’s economic ingenuity, they also have affected our personal standards.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast- food restaurants, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize (1) Americans’ business ingenuity, they also have contributed (2) to an increasing homogenization of our culture, (3) a willingness to depersonalize relationships with others, and (4) a tendency to sacrifice quality for convenience.

This statement is now specific and fulfills all parts of the assignment. This version, like any good thesis, is not self-evident; its points, 1-4, will have to be proven with evidence in the body of the paper. The numbers in this statement indicate the order in which the points will be presented. Depending on the length of the paper, there could be one paragraph for each numbered item or there could be blocks of paragraph for even pages for each one.

Complete the final thesis statement

The bottom line.

As you move through the process of crafting a thesis, you’ll need to remember four things:

  • Context matters! Think about your course materials and lectures. Try to relate your thesis to the ideas your instructor is discussing.
  • As you go through the process described in this section, always keep your assignment in mind . You will be more successful when your thesis (and paper) responds to the assignment than if it argues a semi-related idea.
  • Your thesis statement should be precise, focused, and contestable ; it should predict the sub-theses or blocks of information that you will use to prove your argument.
  • Make sure that you keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Change your thesis as your paper evolves, because you do not want your thesis to promise more than your paper actually delivers.

In the beginning, the thesis statement was a tool to help you sharpen your focus, limit material and establish the paper’s purpose. When your paper is finished, however, the thesis statement becomes a tool for your reader. It tells the reader what you have learned about your topic and what evidence led you to your conclusion. It keeps the reader on track–well able to understand and appreciate your argument.

what is a thesis statement his 100

Writing Process and Structure

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Getting Started with Your Paper

Interpreting Writing Assignments from Your Courses

Generating Ideas for

Creating an Argument

Thesis vs. Purpose Statements

Architecture of Arguments

Working with Sources

Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources

Using Literary Quotations

Citing Sources in Your Paper

Drafting Your Paper

Generating Ideas for Your Paper

Introductions

Paragraphing

Developing Strategic Transitions

Conclusions

Revising Your Paper

Peer Reviews

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Writing a paper: thesis statements, basics of thesis statements.

The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper. Specific means the thesis deals with a narrow and focused topic, appropriate to the paper's length. Arguable means that a scholar in your field could disagree (or perhaps already has!).

Strong thesis statements address specific intellectual questions, have clear positions, and use a structure that reflects the overall structure of the paper. Read on to learn more about constructing a strong thesis statement.

Being Specific

This thesis statement has no specific argument:

Needs Improvement: In this essay, I will examine two scholarly articles to find similarities and differences.

This statement is concise, but it is neither specific nor arguable—a reader might wonder, "Which scholarly articles? What is the topic of this paper? What field is the author writing in?" Additionally, the purpose of the paper—to "examine…to find similarities and differences" is not of a scholarly level. Identifying similarities and differences is a good first step, but strong academic argument goes further, analyzing what those similarities and differences might mean or imply.

Better: In this essay, I will argue that Bowler's (2003) autocratic management style, when coupled with Smith's (2007) theory of social cognition, can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover.

The new revision here is still concise, as well as specific and arguable.  We can see that it is specific because the writer is mentioning (a) concrete ideas and (b) exact authors.  We can also gather the field (business) and the topic (management and employee turnover). The statement is arguable because the student goes beyond merely comparing; he or she draws conclusions from that comparison ("can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover").

Making a Unique Argument

This thesis draft repeats the language of the writing prompt without making a unique argument:

Needs Improvement: The purpose of this essay is to monitor, assess, and evaluate an educational program for its strengths and weaknesses. Then, I will provide suggestions for improvement.

You can see here that the student has simply stated the paper's assignment, without articulating specifically how he or she will address it. The student can correct this error simply by phrasing the thesis statement as a specific answer to the assignment prompt.

Better: Through a series of student interviews, I found that Kennedy High School's antibullying program was ineffective. In order to address issues of conflict between students, I argue that Kennedy High School should embrace policies outlined by the California Department of Education (2010).

Words like "ineffective" and "argue" show here that the student has clearly thought through the assignment and analyzed the material; he or she is putting forth a specific and debatable position. The concrete information ("student interviews," "antibullying") further prepares the reader for the body of the paper and demonstrates how the student has addressed the assignment prompt without just restating that language.

Creating a Debate

This thesis statement includes only obvious fact or plot summary instead of argument:

Needs Improvement: Leadership is an important quality in nurse educators.

A good strategy to determine if your thesis statement is too broad (and therefore, not arguable) is to ask yourself, "Would a scholar in my field disagree with this point?" Here, we can see easily that no scholar is likely to argue that leadership is an unimportant quality in nurse educators.  The student needs to come up with a more arguable claim, and probably a narrower one; remember that a short paper needs a more focused topic than a dissertation.

Better: Roderick's (2009) theory of participatory leadership  is particularly appropriate to nurse educators working within the emergency medicine field, where students benefit most from collegial and kinesthetic learning.

Here, the student has identified a particular type of leadership ("participatory leadership"), narrowing the topic, and has made an arguable claim (this type of leadership is "appropriate" to a specific type of nurse educator). Conceivably, a scholar in the nursing field might disagree with this approach. The student's paper can now proceed, providing specific pieces of evidence to support the arguable central claim.

Choosing the Right Words

This thesis statement uses large or scholarly-sounding words that have no real substance:

Needs Improvement: Scholars should work to seize metacognitive outcomes by harnessing discipline-based networks to empower collaborative infrastructures.

There are many words in this sentence that may be buzzwords in the student's field or key terms taken from other texts, but together they do not communicate a clear, specific meaning. Sometimes students think scholarly writing means constructing complex sentences using special language, but actually it's usually a stronger choice to write clear, simple sentences. When in doubt, remember that your ideas should be complex, not your sentence structure.

Better: Ecologists should work to educate the U.S. public on conservation methods by making use of local and national green organizations to create a widespread communication plan.

Notice in the revision that the field is now clear (ecology), and the language has been made much more field-specific ("conservation methods," "green organizations"), so the reader is able to see concretely the ideas the student is communicating.

Leaving Room for Discussion

This thesis statement is not capable of development or advancement in the paper:

Needs Improvement: There are always alternatives to illegal drug use.

This sample thesis statement makes a claim, but it is not a claim that will sustain extended discussion. This claim is the type of claim that might be appropriate for the conclusion of a paper, but in the beginning of the paper, the student is left with nowhere to go. What further points can be made? If there are "always alternatives" to the problem the student is identifying, then why bother developing a paper around that claim? Ideally, a thesis statement should be complex enough to explore over the length of the entire paper.

Better: The most effective treatment plan for methamphetamine addiction may be a combination of pharmacological and cognitive therapy, as argued by Baker (2008), Smith (2009), and Xavier (2011).

In the revised thesis, you can see the student make a specific, debatable claim that has the potential to generate several pages' worth of discussion. When drafting a thesis statement, think about the questions your thesis statement will generate: What follow-up inquiries might a reader have? In the first example, there are almost no additional questions implied, but the revised example allows for a good deal more exploration.

Thesis Mad Libs

If you are having trouble getting started, try using the models below to generate a rough model of a thesis statement! These models are intended for drafting purposes only and should not appear in your final work.

  • In this essay, I argue ____, using ______ to assert _____.
  • While scholars have often argued ______, I argue______, because_______.
  • Through an analysis of ______, I argue ______, which is important because_______.

Words to Avoid and to Embrace

When drafting your thesis statement, avoid words like explore, investigate, learn, compile, summarize , and explain to describe the main purpose of your paper. These words imply a paper that summarizes or "reports," rather than synthesizing and analyzing.

Instead of the terms above, try words like argue, critique, question , and interrogate . These more analytical words may help you begin strongly, by articulating a specific, critical, scholarly position.

Read Kayla's blog post for tips on taking a stand in a well-crafted thesis statement.

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  • What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples

What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples

Published on September 14, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on November 21, 2023.

A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master’s program or a capstone to a bachelor’s degree.

Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation , it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete. It relies on your ability to conduct research from start to finish: choosing a relevant topic , crafting a proposal , designing your research , collecting data , developing a robust analysis, drawing strong conclusions , and writing concisely .

Thesis template

You can also download our full thesis template in the format of your choice below. Our template includes a ready-made table of contents , as well as guidance for what each chapter should include. It’s easy to make it your own, and can help you get started.

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Table of contents

Thesis vs. thesis statement, how to structure a thesis, acknowledgements or preface, list of figures and tables, list of abbreviations, introduction, literature review, methodology, reference list, proofreading and editing, defending your thesis, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about theses.

You may have heard the word thesis as a standalone term or as a component of academic writing called a thesis statement . Keep in mind that these are two very different things.

  • A thesis statement is a very common component of an essay, particularly in the humanities. It usually comprises 1 or 2 sentences in the introduction of your essay , and should clearly and concisely summarize the central points of your academic essay .
  • A thesis is a long-form piece of academic writing, often taking more than a full semester to complete. It is generally a degree requirement for Master’s programs, and is also sometimes required to complete a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts colleges.
  • In the US, a dissertation is generally written as a final step toward obtaining a PhD.
  • In other countries (particularly the UK), a dissertation is generally written at the bachelor’s or master’s level.

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The final structure of your thesis depends on a variety of components, such as:

  • Your discipline
  • Your theoretical approach

Humanities theses are often structured more like a longer-form essay . Just like in an essay, you build an argument to support a central thesis.

In both hard and social sciences, theses typically include an introduction , literature review , methodology section ,  results section , discussion section , and conclusion section . These are each presented in their own dedicated section or chapter. In some cases, you might want to add an appendix .

Thesis examples

We’ve compiled a short list of thesis examples to help you get started.

  • Example thesis #1:   “Abolition, Africans, and Abstraction: the Influence of the ‘Noble Savage’ on British and French Antislavery Thought, 1787-1807” by Suchait Kahlon.
  • Example thesis #2: “’A Starving Man Helping Another Starving Man’: UNRRA, India, and the Genesis of Global Relief, 1943-1947″ by Julian Saint Reiman.

The very first page of your thesis contains all necessary identifying information, including:

  • Your full title
  • Your full name
  • Your department
  • Your institution and degree program
  • Your submission date.

Sometimes the title page also includes your student ID, the name of your supervisor, or the university’s logo. Check out your university’s guidelines if you’re not sure.

Read more about title pages

The acknowledgements section is usually optional. Its main point is to allow you to thank everyone who helped you in your thesis journey, such as supervisors, friends, or family. You can also choose to write a preface , but it’s typically one or the other, not both.

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what is a thesis statement his 100

An abstract is a short summary of your thesis. Usually a maximum of 300 words long, it’s should include brief descriptions of your research objectives , methods, results, and conclusions. Though it may seem short, it introduces your work to your audience, serving as a first impression of your thesis.

Read more about abstracts

A table of contents lists all of your sections, plus their corresponding page numbers and subheadings if you have them. This helps your reader seamlessly navigate your document.

Your table of contents should include all the major parts of your thesis. In particular, don’t forget the the appendices. If you used heading styles, it’s easy to generate an automatic table Microsoft Word.

Read more about tables of contents

While not mandatory, if you used a lot of tables and/or figures, it’s nice to include a list of them to help guide your reader. It’s also easy to generate one of these in Word: just use the “Insert Caption” feature.

Read more about lists of figures and tables

If you have used a lot of industry- or field-specific abbreviations in your thesis, you should include them in an alphabetized list of abbreviations . This way, your readers can easily look up any meanings they aren’t familiar with.

Read more about lists of abbreviations

Relatedly, if you find yourself using a lot of very specialized or field-specific terms that may not be familiar to your reader, consider including a glossary . Alphabetize the terms you want to include with a brief definition.

Read more about glossaries

An introduction sets up the topic, purpose, and relevance of your thesis, as well as expectations for your reader. This should:

  • Ground your research topic , sharing any background information your reader may need
  • Define the scope of your work
  • Introduce any existing research on your topic, situating your work within a broader problem or debate
  • State your research question(s)
  • Outline (briefly) how the remainder of your work will proceed

In other words, your introduction should clearly and concisely show your reader the “what, why, and how” of your research.

Read more about introductions

A literature review helps you gain a robust understanding of any extant academic work on your topic, encompassing:

  • Selecting relevant sources
  • Determining the credibility of your sources
  • Critically evaluating each of your sources
  • Drawing connections between sources, including any themes, patterns, conflicts, or gaps

A literature review is not merely a summary of existing work. Rather, your literature review should ultimately lead to a clear justification for your own research, perhaps via:

  • Addressing a gap in the literature
  • Building on existing knowledge to draw new conclusions
  • Exploring a new theoretical or methodological approach
  • Introducing a new solution to an unresolved problem
  • Definitively advocating for one side of a theoretical debate

Read more about literature reviews

Theoretical framework

Your literature review can often form the basis for your theoretical framework, but these are not the same thing. A theoretical framework defines and analyzes the concepts and theories that your research hinges on.

Read more about theoretical frameworks

Your methodology chapter shows your reader how you conducted your research. It should be written clearly and methodically, easily allowing your reader to critically assess the credibility of your argument. Furthermore, your methods section should convince your reader that your method was the best way to answer your research question.

A methodology section should generally include:

  • Your overall approach ( quantitative vs. qualitative )
  • Your research methods (e.g., a longitudinal study )
  • Your data collection methods (e.g., interviews or a controlled experiment
  • Any tools or materials you used (e.g., computer software)
  • The data analysis methods you chose (e.g., statistical analysis , discourse analysis )
  • A strong, but not defensive justification of your methods

Read more about methodology sections

Your results section should highlight what your methodology discovered. These two sections work in tandem, but shouldn’t repeat each other. While your results section can include hypotheses or themes, don’t include any speculation or new arguments here.

Your results section should:

  • State each (relevant) result with any (relevant) descriptive statistics (e.g., mean , standard deviation ) and inferential statistics (e.g., test statistics , p values )
  • Explain how each result relates to the research question
  • Determine whether the hypothesis was supported

Additional data (like raw numbers or interview transcripts ) can be included as an appendix . You can include tables and figures, but only if they help the reader better understand your results.

Read more about results sections

Your discussion section is where you can interpret your results in detail. Did they meet your expectations? How well do they fit within the framework that you built? You can refer back to any relevant source material to situate your results within your field, but leave most of that analysis in your literature review.

For any unexpected results, offer explanations or alternative interpretations of your data.

Read more about discussion sections

Your thesis conclusion should concisely answer your main research question. It should leave your reader with an ultra-clear understanding of your central argument, and emphasize what your research specifically has contributed to your field.

Why does your research matter? What recommendations for future research do you have? Lastly, wrap up your work with any concluding remarks.

Read more about conclusions

In order to avoid plagiarism , don’t forget to include a full reference list at the end of your thesis, citing the sources that you used. Choose one citation style and follow it consistently throughout your thesis, taking note of the formatting requirements of each style.

Which style you choose is often set by your department or your field, but common styles include MLA , Chicago , and APA.

Create APA citations Create MLA citations

In order to stay clear and concise, your thesis should include the most essential information needed to answer your research question. However, chances are you have many contributing documents, like interview transcripts or survey questions . These can be added as appendices , to save space in the main body.

Read more about appendices

Once you’re done writing, the next part of your editing process begins. Leave plenty of time for proofreading and editing prior to submission. Nothing looks worse than grammar mistakes or sloppy spelling errors!

Consider using a professional thesis editing service or grammar checker to make sure your final project is perfect.

Once you’ve submitted your final product, it’s common practice to have a thesis defense, an oral component of your finished work. This is scheduled by your advisor or committee, and usually entails a presentation and Q&A session.

After your defense , your committee will meet to determine if you deserve any departmental honors or accolades. However, keep in mind that defenses are usually just a formality. If there are any serious issues with your work, these should be resolved with your advisor way before a defense.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

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  • Self-serving bias
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The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.

If you only used a few abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation , you don’t necessarily need to include a list of abbreviations .

If your abbreviations are numerous, or if you think they won’t be known to your audience, it’s never a bad idea to add one. They can also improve readability, minimizing confusion about abbreviations unfamiliar to your reader.

When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.

Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation , such as:

  • Your anticipated title
  • Your abstract
  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review , research methods , avenues for future research, etc.)

A thesis is typically written by students finishing up a bachelor’s or Master’s degree. Some educational institutions, particularly in the liberal arts, have mandatory theses, but they are often not mandatory to graduate from bachelor’s degrees. It is more common for a thesis to be a graduation requirement from a Master’s degree.

Even if not mandatory, you may want to consider writing a thesis if you:

  • Plan to attend graduate school soon
  • Have a particular topic you’d like to study more in-depth
  • Are considering a career in research
  • Would like a capstone experience to tie up your academic experience

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Tips on writing a thesis statement: composing compelling thesis statements.

College-level courses demand a solid grasp of writing concepts, and some students arrive at Intro to Composition unprepared to write a high-quality essay. Teachers tend to give a bit more slack at the high school level, but college professors are often much more exacting. That’s why excellent writing skills are crucial to the majority of college courses — even outside the English department. 

One of the most important elements to master is the thesis statement. A strong thesis statement is at the root of all writing, from op-eds to research papers. It’s an essential element of any persuasive piece; something we look for without even thinking about it. A convincing, attention-grabbing thesis statement keeps the reader engaged — and lets them know where the piece is headed. 

Having a few tips and tricks in your toolbox can help you to make a convincing academic argument every time.

What is a Thesis Statement?

First, the basics. A thesis statement is a sentence or two that states the main idea of a writing assignment. It also helps to control the ideas presented within the paper. However, it is not merely a topic. It often reflects a claim or judgment that a writer has made about a reading or personal experience. For instance: Tocqueville believed that the domestic role most women held in America was the role that gave them the most power, an idea that many would hotly dispute today. 

Every assignment has a question or prompt. It’s important that your thesis statement answers the question. For the above thesis statement, the question being answered might be something like this: Why was Tocqueville wrong about women? If your thesis statement doesn’t answer a question, you’ll need to rework your statement.

Where Will I Use Thesis Statements?

Writing an exceptional thesis statement is a skill you’ll need both now and in the future, so you’ll want to be confident in your ability to create a great one. Whether in academic, professional, or personal writing, a strong thesis statement enhances the clarity, effectiveness, and impact of the overall message. Here are some real-world examples that demonstrate the importance of composing an outstanding thesis statement:

  • Academic writing. The success of academic research papers depends on an exceptional thesis statement. Along with establishing the focus of the paper, it also provides you with direction in terms of research. The thesis sets a clear intention for your essay, helping the reader understand the argument you’re presenting and why the evidence and analysis support it.
  • Persuasive writing. Persuasive writing depends on an excellent thesis statement that clearly defines the author’s position. Your goal is to persuade the audience to agree with your thesis. Setting an explicit stance also provides you with a foundation on which to build convincing arguments with relevant evidence.
  • Professional writing. In the business and marketing world, a sound thesis statement is required to communicate a project’s purpose. Thesis statements not only outline a project’s unique goals but can also guide the marketing team in creating targeted promotional strategies.

Where Do Thesis Statements Go? 

A good practice is to put the thesis statement at the end of your introduction so you can use it to lead into the body of your paper. This allows you, as the writer, to lead up to the thesis statement instead of diving directly into the topic. Placing your thesis here also sets you up for a brief mention of the evidence you have to support your thesis, allowing readers a preview of what’s to come.

A good introduction conceptualizes and anticipates the thesis statement, so ending your intro with your thesis makes the most sense. If you place the thesis statement at the beginning, your reader may forget or be confused about the main idea by the time they reach the end of the introduction. 

What Makes a Strong Thesis Statement?

A quality thesis statement is designed to both inform and compel. Your thesis acts as an introduction to the argument you’ll be making in your paper, and it also acts as the “hook”. Your thesis should be clear and concise, and you should be ready with enough evidence to support your argument. 

There are several qualities that make for a powerful thesis statement, and drafting a great one means considering all of them: 

A strong thesis makes a clear argument .

A thesis statement is not intended to be a statement of fact, nor should it be an opinion statement. Making an observation is not sufficient — you should provide the reader with a clear argument that cohesively summarizes the intention of your paper.

Originality is important when possible, but stick with your own convictions. Taking your paper in an already agreed-upon direction doesn’t necessarily make for compelling reading. Writing a thesis statement that presents a unique argument opens up the opportunity to discuss an issue in a new way and helps readers to get a new perspective on the topic in question. Again, don’t force it. You’ll have a harder time trying to support an argument you don’t believe yourself.

A strong thesis statement gives direction .

If you lack a specific direction for your paper, you’ll likely find it difficult to make a solid argument for anything. Your thesis statement should state precisely what your paper will be about, as a statement that’s overly general or makes more than one main point can confuse your audience. 

A specific thesis statement also helps you focus your argument — you should be able to discuss your thesis thoroughly in the allotted word count. A thesis that’s too broad won’t allow you to make a strong case for anything.

A strong thesis statement provides proof.

Since thesis statements present an argument, they require support. All paragraphs of the essay should explain, support, or argue with your thesis. You should support your thesis statement with detailed evidence that will interest your readers and motivate them to continue reading the paper.

Sometimes it is useful to mention your supporting points in your thesis. An example of this could be: John Updike's Trust Me is a valuable novel for a college syllabus because it allows the reader to become familiar with his writing and provides themes that are easily connected to other works. In the body of your paper, you could write a paragraph or two about each supporting idea. If you write a thesis statement like this, it will often help you to keep control of your ideas.

A strong thesis statement prompts discussion .

Your thesis statement should stimulate the reader to continue reading your paper. Many writers choose to illustrate that the chosen topic is controversial in one way or another, which is an effective way to pull in readers who might agree with you and those who don’t! 

The ultimate point of a thesis statement is to spark interest in your argument. This is your chance to grab (and keep) your reader’s attention, and hopefully, inspire them to continue learning about the topic.

Testing Your Thesis Statement

Because your thesis statement is vital to the quality of your paper, you need to ensure that your thesis statement posits a cohesive argument. Once you’ve come up with a working thesis statement, ask yourself these questions to further refine your statement: 

  • Is it interesting ? If your thesis is dull, consider clarifying your argument or revising it to make a connection to a relatable issue. Again, your thesis statement should draw the reader into the paper.
  • Is it specific enough ? If your thesis statement is too broad, you won’t be able to make a persuasive argument. If your thesis contains words like “positive” or “effective”, narrow it down. Tell the reader why something is “positive”. What in particular makes something “effective”?
  • Does it answer the question ? Review the prompt or question once you’ve written your working thesis and be sure that your thesis statement directly addresses the given question.
  • Does my paper successfully support my thesis statement ? If you find that your thesis statement and the body of your paper don’t mesh well, you’re going to have to change one of them. But don’t worry too much if this is the case — writing is intended to be revised and reworked.
  • Does my thesis statement present the reader with a new perspective? Is it a fresh take on an old idea? Will my reader learn something from my paper? If your thesis statement has already been widely discussed, consider if there’s a fresh angle to take before settling.
  • Finally, am I happy with my thesis ? If not, you may have difficulty writing your paper. Composing an essay about an argument you don’t believe in can be more difficult than taking a stand for something you believe in.

Quick Tips for Writing Thesis Statements

If you’re struggling to come up with a thesis statement, here are a few tips you can use to help:

  • Know the topic. The topic should be something you know or can learn about. It is difficult to write a thesis statement, let alone a paper, on a topic that you know nothing about. Reflecting on personal experience and/or researching your thesis topic thoroughly will help you present more convincing information about your statement.
  • Brainstorm. If you are having trouble beginning your paper or writing your thesis, take a piece of paper and write down everything that comes to mind about your topic. Did you discover any new ideas or connections? Can you separate any of the things you jotted down into categories? Do you notice any themes? Think about using ideas generated during this process to shape your thesis statement and your paper.
  • Phrase the topic as a question. If your topic is presented as a statement, rephrasing it as a question can make it easier to develop a thesis statement.
  • Limit your topic. Based on what you know and the required length of your final paper, limit your topic to a specific area. A broad scope will generally require a longer paper, while a narrow scope can be sufficiently proven by a shorter paper.

Writing Thesis Statements: Final Thoughts

The ability to compose a strong thesis statement is a skill you’ll use over and over again during your college days and beyond. Compelling persuasive writing is important, whether you’re writing an academic essay or putting together a professional pitch. 

If your thesis statement-writing skills aren’t already strong, be sure to practice before diving into college-level courses that will test your skills. If you’re currently looking into colleges, Gustavus Adolphus offers you the opportunity to refine your writing skills in our English courses and degree program . Explore Gustavus Adolphus’ undergraduate majors here .

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what is a thesis statement his 100

How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement: 4 Steps + Examples

what is a thesis statement his 100

What’s Covered:

What is the purpose of a thesis statement, writing a good thesis statement: 4 steps, common pitfalls to avoid, where to get your essay edited for free.

When you set out to write an essay, there has to be some kind of point to it, right? Otherwise, your essay would just be a big jumble of word salad that makes absolutely no sense. An essay needs a central point that ties into everything else. That main point is called a thesis statement, and it’s the core of any essay or research paper.

You may hear about Master degree candidates writing a thesis, and that is an entire paper–not to be confused with the thesis statement, which is typically one sentence that contains your paper’s focus. 

Read on to learn more about thesis statements and how to write them. We’ve also included some solid examples for you to reference.

Typically the last sentence of your introductory paragraph, the thesis statement serves as the roadmap for your essay. When your reader gets to the thesis statement, they should have a clear outline of your main point, as well as the information you’ll be presenting in order to either prove or support your point. 

The thesis statement should not be confused for a topic sentence , which is the first sentence of every paragraph in your essay. If you need help writing topic sentences, numerous resources are available. Topic sentences should go along with your thesis statement, though.

Since the thesis statement is the most important sentence of your entire essay or paper, it’s imperative that you get this part right. Otherwise, your paper will not have a good flow and will seem disjointed. That’s why it’s vital not to rush through developing one. It’s a methodical process with steps that you need to follow in order to create the best thesis statement possible.

Step 1: Decide what kind of paper you’re writing

When you’re assigned an essay, there are several different types you may get. Argumentative essays are designed to get the reader to agree with you on a topic. Informative or expository essays present information to the reader. Analytical essays offer up a point and then expand on it by analyzing relevant information. Thesis statements can look and sound different based on the type of paper you’re writing. For example:

  • Argumentative: The United States needs a viable third political party to decrease bipartisanship, increase options, and help reduce corruption in government.
  • Informative: The Libertarian party has thrown off elections before by gaining enough support in states to get on the ballot and by taking away crucial votes from candidates.
  • Analytical: An analysis of past presidential elections shows that while third party votes may have been the minority, they did affect the outcome of the elections in 2020, 2016, and beyond.

Step 2: Figure out what point you want to make

Once you know what type of paper you’re writing, you then need to figure out the point you want to make with your thesis statement, and subsequently, your paper. In other words, you need to decide to answer a question about something, such as:

  • What impact did reality TV have on American society?
  • How has the musical Hamilton affected perception of American history?
  • Why do I want to major in [chosen major here]?

If you have an argumentative essay, then you will be writing about an opinion. To make it easier, you may want to choose an opinion that you feel passionate about so that you’re writing about something that interests you. For example, if you have an interest in preserving the environment, you may want to choose a topic that relates to that. 

If you’re writing your college essay and they ask why you want to attend that school, you may want to have a main point and back it up with information, something along the lines of:

“Attending Harvard University would benefit me both academically and professionally, as it would give me a strong knowledge base upon which to build my career, develop my network, and hopefully give me an advantage in my chosen field.”

Step 3: Determine what information you’ll use to back up your point

Once you have the point you want to make, you need to figure out how you plan to back it up throughout the rest of your essay. Without this information, it will be hard to either prove or argue the main point of your thesis statement. If you decide to write about the Hamilton example, you may decide to address any falsehoods that the writer put into the musical, such as:

“The musical Hamilton, while accurate in many ways, leaves out key parts of American history, presents a nationalist view of founding fathers, and downplays the racism of the times.”

Once you’ve written your initial working thesis statement, you’ll then need to get information to back that up. For example, the musical completely leaves out Benjamin Franklin, portrays the founding fathers in a nationalist way that is too complimentary, and shows Hamilton as a staunch abolitionist despite the fact that his family likely did own slaves. 

Step 4: Revise and refine your thesis statement before you start writing

Read through your thesis statement several times before you begin to compose your full essay. You need to make sure the statement is ironclad, since it is the foundation of the entire paper. Edit it or have a peer review it for you to make sure everything makes sense and that you feel like you can truly write a paper on the topic. Once you’ve done that, you can then begin writing your paper.

When writing a thesis statement, there are some common pitfalls you should avoid so that your paper can be as solid as possible. Make sure you always edit the thesis statement before you do anything else. You also want to ensure that the thesis statement is clear and concise. Don’t make your reader hunt for your point. Finally, put your thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph and have your introduction flow toward that statement. Your reader will expect to find your statement in its traditional spot.

If you’re having trouble getting started, or need some guidance on your essay, there are tools available that can help you. CollegeVine offers a free peer essay review tool where one of your peers can read through your essay and provide you with valuable feedback. Getting essay feedback from a peer can help you wow your instructor or college admissions officer with an impactful essay that effectively illustrates your point.

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Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

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This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

  • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
  • An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
  • An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

Thesis Statement Examples

Example of an analytical thesis statement:

The paper that follows should:

  • Explain the analysis of the college admission process
  • Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors

Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

  • Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

  • Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college
  • Request Info
  • Resource Library

How to Research and Write a Compelling History Thesis

student works on history thesis in university library

Just as history is more than a collection of facts about past events, an effective history thesis goes beyond simply sharing recorded information. Writing a compelling history thesis requires making an argument about a historical fact and, then, researching and providing a well-crafted defense for that position.

With so many sources available—some of which may provide conflicting findings—how should a student research and write a history thesis? How can a student create a thesis that’s both compelling and supports a position that academic editors describe as “concise, contentious, and coherent”?

Key steps in how to write a history thesis include evaluating source materials, developing a strong thesis statement, and building historical knowledge.

The Importance of Research for Writing a History Thesis

Compelling theses provide context about historical events. This context, according to the reference website ThoughtCo., refers to the social, religious, economic, and political conditions during an occurrence that “enable us to interpret and analyze works or events of the past, or even the future, rather than merely judge them by contemporary standards”.

The context supports the main point of a thesis, called the thesis statement, by providing an interpretive and analytical framework of the facts, instead of simply stating them. Research uncovers the evidence necessary to make the case for that thesis statement.

To gather evidence that contributes to a deeper understanding of a given historical topic, students should reference both primary and secondary sources of research.

Primary Sources

Primary sources are firsthand accounts of events in history, according to Professor David Ulbrich, director of Norwich University’s online Master of Arts in History program. These sources provide information not only about what happened and how it happened but also why it happened.

Primary sources can include letters, diaries, photos, and videos as well as material objects such as “spent artillery shells, architectural features, cemetery headstones, chemical analysis of substances, shards of bowls or bottles, farming implements, or earth or environmental features or factors,” Ulbrich says. “The author of the thesis can tell how people lived, for example, by the ways they arranged their material lives.”

Primary research sources are the building blocks to help us better understand and appreciate history. It is critical to find as many primary sources from as many perspectives as possible. Researching these firsthand accounts can provide evidence that helps answer those “what”, “how”, and “why” questions about the past, Ulbrich says.

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are materials—such as books, articles, essays, and documentaries—gathered and interpreted by other researchers. These sources often provide updates and evaluation of the thesis topic or viewpoints that support the theories presented in the thesis.

Primary and secondary sources are complementary types of research that form a convincing foundation for a thesis’ main points.

How to Write a History Thesis

What are the steps to write a history thesis? The process of developing a thesis that provides a thorough analysis of a historical event—and presents academically defensible arguments related to that analysis—includes the following:

1. Gather and Analyze Sources

When collecting sources to use in a thesis, students should analyze them to ensure they demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the materials. A student should evaluate the attributes of sources such as their origin and point-of-view.

An array of primary and secondary sources can help provide a thorough understanding of a historical event, although some of those sources may include conflicting views and details. In those cases, the American Historical Association says, it’s up to the thesis author to determine which source reflects the appropriate point-of-view.

2. Develop a Thesis Statement

To create a thesis statement, a student should establish a specific idea or theory that makes the main point about a historical event. Scribbr, an editing website, recommends starting with a working thesis, asking the question the thesis intends to answer, and, then, writing the answer.

The final version of a thesis statement might be argumentative, for example, taking a side in a debate. Or it might be expository, explaining a historical situation. In addition to being concise and coherent, a thesis statement should be contentious, meaning it requires evidence to support it.

3. Create an Outline

Developing a thesis requires an outline of the content that will support the thesis statement. Students should keep in mind the following key steps in creating their outline:

  • Note major points.
  • Categorize ideas supported by the theories.
  • Arrange points according to the importance and a timeline of events addressed by the thesis.
  • Create effective headings and subheadings.
  • Format the outline.

4. Organize Information

Thesis authors should ensure their content follows a logical order. This may entail coding resource materials to help match them to the appropriate theories while organizing the information. A thesis typically contains the following elements.

  • Abstract —Overview of the thesis.
  • Introduction —Summary of the thesis’ main points.
  • Literature review —Explanation of the gap in previous research addressed by this thesis.
  • Methods —Outline how the author reviewed the research and why materials were selected.
  • Results —Description of the research findings.
  • Discussion —Analysis of the research.
  • Conclusion —Statements about what the student learned.

5. Write the Thesis

Online writing guide Paperpile recommends that students start with the literature review when writing the thesis. Developing this section first will help the author gain a more complete understanding of the thesis’ source materials. Writing the abstract last can give the student a thorough picture of the work the abstract should describe.

The discussion portion of the thesis typically is the longest since it’s here that the writer will explain the limitations of the work, offer explanations of any unexpected results, and cite remaining questions about the topic.

In writing the thesis, the author should keep in mind that the document will require multiple changes and drafts—perhaps even new insights. A student should gather feedback from a professor and colleagues to ensure their thesis is clear and effective before finalizing the draft.      

6. Prepare to Defend the Thesis

A committee will evaluate the student’s defense of the thesis’ theories. Students should prepare to defend their thesis by considering answers to questions posed by the committee. Additionally, students should develop a plan for addressing questions to which they may not have a ready answer, understanding the evaluation likely will consider how the author handles that challenge.

Developing Skills to Write a Compelling History Thesis

When looking for direction on how to write a history thesis, Norwich University’s online Master of Arts in History program can provide the needed skills and knowledge. The program’s tracks and several courses—taken as core classes or as electives in multiple concentrations—can provide a strong foundation for thesis work.

Master of Arts in History Tracks

In the Norwich online Master of Arts in History program, respected scholars help students improve their historical insight, research, writing, analytical, and presentation skills. They teach the following program tracks.

  • Public History —Focuses on the preservation and interpretation of historic documents and artifacts for purposes of public observation.
  • American History —Emphasizes the exploration and interpretation of key events associated with U.S. history.
  • World History —Prepares students to develop an in-depth understanding of world history from various eras.
  • Legal and Constitutional History —Provides a thorough study of the foundational legal and constitutional elements in the U.S. and Europe.

Master of Arts in History Courses

Norwich University’s online Master of Arts in History program enables students to customize studies based on career goals and personal interests through the following courses:

  • Introduction to History and Historiography —Covers the core concepts of history-based study and research methodology, highlighting how these concepts are essential to developing an effective history thesis.
  • Directed Readings in History —Highlights different ways to use sources that chronicle American history to assist in researching and writing a thorough and complete history thesis.
  • Race, Gender, and U.S. Constitution —Explores key U.S. Supreme Court decisions relating to national race and gender relations and rights, providing a deeper context to develop compelling history theses.
  • Archival Studies —Breaks down the importance of systematically overseeing archival materials, highlighting how to build historical context to better educate and engage with the public.

Start Your Path Toward Writing a Compelling History Thesis

For over two centuries, Norwich University has played a vital role in history as America’s first private military college and the birthplace of the ROTC. As such, the university is uniquely positioned to lead students through a comprehensive analysis of the major developments, events, and figures of the past.

Explore Norwich University’s online Master of Arts in History program. Start your path toward writing a compelling history thesis and taking your talents further.

Recommended Readings

Achieving Your Educational Goals: The Ultimate Guide to Getting the Most from a Master’s Degree      What Can I Do With a History Degree? Defining Different Career Tracks      What Is Digital History? A Guide to Digital History Resources, Museums, and Job Description

Writing History: An Introductory Guide to How History Is Produced , American Historical Association     How to Write a Thesis Statement , Scribbr     The Importance of Historic Context in Analysis and Interpretation , ThoughtCo.     7 Reasons Why Research Is Important , Owlcation     Primary and Secondary Sources , Scribbr     Secondary Sources in Research , ThoughtCo.     Analysis of Sources , History Skills     Research Paper Outline , Scribbr     How to Structure a Thesis , Paperpile     Writing Your Final Draft , History Skills     How to Prepare an Excellent Thesis Defense , Paperpile

Reference management. Clean and simple.

How to write a thesis statement + examples

Thesis statement

What is a thesis statement?

Is a thesis statement a question, how do you write a good thesis statement, how do i know if my thesis statement is good, examples of thesis statements, helpful resources on how to write a thesis statement, frequently asked questions about writing a thesis statement, related articles.

A thesis statement is the main argument of your paper or thesis.

The thesis statement is one of the most important elements of any piece of academic writing . It is a brief statement of your paper’s main argument. Essentially, you are stating what you will be writing about.

You can see your thesis statement as an answer to a question. While it also contains the question, it should really give an answer to the question with new information and not just restate or reiterate it.

Your thesis statement is part of your introduction. Learn more about how to write a good thesis introduction in our introduction guide .

A thesis statement is not a question. A statement must be arguable and provable through evidence and analysis. While your thesis might stem from a research question, it should be in the form of a statement.

Tip: A thesis statement is typically 1-2 sentences. For a longer project like a thesis, the statement may be several sentences or a paragraph.

A good thesis statement needs to do the following:

  • Condense the main idea of your thesis into one or two sentences.
  • Answer your project’s main research question.
  • Clearly state your position in relation to the topic .
  • Make an argument that requires support or evidence.

Once you have written down a thesis statement, check if it fulfills the following criteria:

  • Your statement needs to be provable by evidence. As an argument, a thesis statement needs to be debatable.
  • Your statement needs to be precise. Do not give away too much information in the thesis statement and do not load it with unnecessary information.
  • Your statement cannot say that one solution is simply right or simply wrong as a matter of fact. You should draw upon verified facts to persuade the reader of your solution, but you cannot just declare something as right or wrong.

As previously mentioned, your thesis statement should answer a question.

If the question is:

What do you think the City of New York should do to reduce traffic congestion?

A good thesis statement restates the question and answers it:

In this paper, I will argue that the City of New York should focus on providing exclusive lanes for public transport and adaptive traffic signals to reduce traffic congestion by the year 2035.

Here is another example. If the question is:

How can we end poverty?

A good thesis statement should give more than one solution to the problem in question:

In this paper, I will argue that introducing universal basic income can help reduce poverty and positively impact the way we work.

  • The Writing Center of the University of North Carolina has a list of questions to ask to see if your thesis is strong .

A thesis statement is part of the introduction of your paper. It is usually found in the first or second paragraph to let the reader know your research purpose from the beginning.

In general, a thesis statement should have one or two sentences. But the length really depends on the overall length of your project. Take a look at our guide about the length of thesis statements for more insight on this topic.

Here is a list of Thesis Statement Examples that will help you understand better how to write them.

Every good essay should include a thesis statement as part of its introduction, no matter the academic level. Of course, if you are a high school student you are not expected to have the same type of thesis as a PhD student.

Here is a great YouTube tutorial showing How To Write An Essay: Thesis Statements .

what is a thesis statement his 100

Module 4: Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests (1763-1774)

Historical thesis statements, learning objectives.

  • Recognize and create high-quality historical thesis statements

Some consider all writing a form of argument—or at least of persuasion. After all, even if you’re writing a letter or an informative essay, you’re implicitly trying to persuade your audience to care about what you’re saying. Your thesis statement represents the main idea—or point—about a topic or issue that you make in an argument. For example, let’s say that your topic is social media. A thesis statement about social media could look like one of the following sentences:

  • Social media are hurting the communication skills of young Americans.
  • Social media are useful tools for social movements.

A basic thesis sentence has two main parts: a claim  and support for that claim.

  • The Immigration Act of 1965 effectively restructured the United States’ immigration policies in such a way that no group, minority or majority, was singled out by being discriminated against or given preferential treatment in terms of its ability to immigrate to America.

Identifying the Thesis Statement

A thesis consists of a specific topic and an angle on the topic. All of the other ideas in the text support and develop the thesis. The thesis statement is often found in the introduction, sometimes after an initial “hook” or interesting story; sometimes, however, the thesis is not explicitly stated until the end of an essay, and sometimes it is not stated at all. In those instances, there is an implied thesis statement. You can generally extract the thesis statement by looking for a few key sentences and ideas.

Most readers expect to see the point of your argument (the thesis statement) within the first few paragraphs. This does not mean that it has to be placed there every time. Some writers place it at the very end, slowly building up to it throughout their work, to explain a point after the fact. For history essays, most professors will expect to see a clearly discernible thesis sentence in the introduction. Note that many history papers also include a topic sentence, which clearly state what the paper is about

Thesis statements vary based on the rhetorical strategy of the essay, but thesis statements typically share the following characteristics:

  • Presents the main idea
  • Most often is one sentence
  • Tells the reader what to expect
  • Is a summary of the essay topic
  • Usually worded to have an argumentative edge
  • Written in the third person

This video explains thesis statements and gives a few clear examples of how a good thesis should both make a claim and forecast specific ways that the essay will support that claim.

You can view the  transcript for “Thesis Statement – Writing Tutorials, US History, Dr. Robert Scafe” here (opens in new window) .

Writing a Thesis Statement

A good basic structure for a thesis statement is “they say, I say.” What is the prevailing view, and how does your position differ from it? However, avoid limiting the scope of your writing with an either/or thesis under the assumption that your view must be strictly contrary to their view.

Following are some typical thesis statements:

  • Although many readers believe Romeo and Juliet to be a tale about the ill fate of two star-crossed lovers, it can also be read as an allegory concerning a playwright and his audience.
  • The “War on Drugs” has not only failed to reduce the frequency of drug-related crimes in America but actually enhanced the popular image of dope peddlers by romanticizing them as desperate rebels fighting for a cause.
  • The bulk of modern copyright law was conceived in the age of commercial printing, long before the Internet made it so easy for the public to compose and distribute its own texts. Therefore, these laws should be reviewed and revised to better accommodate modern readers and writers.
  • The usual moral justification for capital punishment is that it deters crime by frightening would-be criminals. However, the statistics tell a different story.
  • If students really want to improve their writing, they must read often, practice writing, and receive quality feedback from their peers.
  • Plato’s dialectical method has much to offer those engaged in online writing, which is far more conversational in nature than print.

Thesis Problems to Avoid

Although you have creative control over your thesis sentence, you still should try to avoid the following problems, not for stylistic reasons, but because they indicate a problem in the thinking that underlies the thesis sentence.

  • Hospice workers need support. This is a thesis sentence; it has a topic (hospice workers) and an argument (need support). But the argument is very broad. When the argument in a thesis sentence is too broad, the writer may not have carefully thought through the specific support for the rest of the writing. A thesis argument that’s too broad makes it easy to fall into the trap of offering information that deviates from that argument.
  • Hospice workers have a 55% turnover rate compared to the general health care population’s 25% turnover rate.  This sentence really isn’t a thesis sentence at all, because there’s no argument to support it. A narrow statistic, or a narrow statement of fact, doesn’t offer the writer’s own ideas or analysis about a topic.

Let’s see some examples of potential theses related to the following prompt:

  • Bad thesis : The relationship between the American colonists and the British government changed after the French & Indian War.
  • Better thesis : The relationship between the American colonists and the British government was strained following the Revolutionary war.
  • Best thesis : Due to the heavy debt acquired by the British government during the French & Indian War, the British government increased efforts to tax the colonists, causing American opposition and resistance that strained the relationship between the colonists and the crown.

Practice identifying strong thesis statements in the following interactive.

Supporting Evidence for Thesis Statements

A thesis statement doesn’t mean much without supporting evidence. Oftentimes in a history class, you’ll be expected to defend your thesis, or your argument, using primary source documents. Sometimes these documents are provided to you, and sometimes you’ll need to go find evidence on your own. When the documents are provided for you and you are asked to answer questions about them, it is called a document-based question, or DBQ. You can think of a DBQ like a miniature research paper, where the research has been done for you. DBQs are often used on standardized tests, like this DBQ from the 2004 U.S. History AP exam , which asked students about the altered political, economic, and ideological relations between Britain and the colonies because of the French & Indian War. In this question, students were given 8 documents (A through H) and expected to use these documents to defend and support their argument. For example, here is a possible thesis statement for this essay:

  • The French & Indian War altered the political, economic, and ideological relations between the colonists and the British government because it changed the nature of British rule over the colonies, sowed the seeds of discontent, and led to increased taxation from the British.

Now, to defend this thesis statement, you would add evidence from the documents. The thesis statement can also help structure your argument. With the thesis statement above, we could expect the essay to follow this general outline:

  • Introduction—introduce how the French and Indian War altered political, economic, and ideological relations between the colonists and the British
  • Show the changing map from Doc A and greater administrative responsibility and increased westward expansion
  • Discuss Doc B, frustrations from the Iroquois Confederacy and encroachment onto Native lands
  • Could also mention Doc F and the result in greater administrative costs
  • Use Doc D and explain how a colonial soldier notices disparities between how they are treated when compared to the British
  • Use General Washington’s sentiments in Doc C to discuss how these attitudes of reverence shifted after the war. Could mention how the war created leadership opportunities and gave military experience to colonists.
  • Use Doc E to highlight how the sermon showed optimism about Britain ruling the colonies after the war
  • Highlight some of the political, economic, and ideological differences related to increased taxation caused by the War
  • Use Doc F, the British Order in Council Statement, to indicate the need for more funding to pay for the cost of war
  • Explain Doc G, frustration from Benjamin Franklin about the Stamp Act and efforts to repeal it
  • Use Doc H, the newspaper masthead saying “farewell to liberty”, to highlight the change in sentiments and colonial anger over the Stamp Act

As an example, to argue that the French & Indian War sowed the seeds of discontent, you could mention Document D, from a Massachusetts soldier diary, who wrote, “And we, being here within stone walls, are not likely to get liquors or clothes at this time of the year; and though we be Englishmen born, we are debarred [denied] Englishmen’s liberty.” This shows how colonists began to see their identity as Americans as distinct from those from the British mainland.

Remember, a strong thesis statement is one that supports the argument of your writing. It should have a clear purpose and objective, and although you may revise it as you write, it’s a good idea to start with a strong thesis statement the give your essay direction and organization. You can check the quality of your thesis statement by answering the following questions:

  • If a specific prompt was provided, does the thesis statement answer the question prompt?
  • Does the thesis statement make sense?
  • Is the thesis statement historically accurate?
  • Does the thesis statement provide clear and cohesive reasoning?
  • Is the thesis supportable by evidence?

thesis statement : a statement of the topic of the piece of writing and the angle the writer has on that topic

  • Thesis Statements. Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : https://courses.lumenlearning.com/englishcomp1/wp-admin/post.php?post=576&action=edit . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  • Thesis Examples. Authored by : Cody Chun, Kieran O'Neil, Kylie Young, Julie Nelson Christoph. Provided by : The University of Puget Sound. Located at : https://soundwriting.pugetsound.edu/universal/thesis-dev-six-steps.html . Project : Sound Writing. License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  • Writing Practice: Building Thesis Statements. Provided by : The Bill of Rights Institute, OpenStax, and contributing authors. Located at : https://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:L3kRHhAr@7/1-22-%F0%9F%93%9D-Writing-Practice-Building-Thesis-Statements . License : CC BY: Attribution . License Terms : Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected].
  • Thesis Statement - Writing Tutorials, US History, Dr. Robert Scafe. Provided by : OU Office of Digital Learning. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2hjAk8JI0IY&t=310s . License : Other . License Terms : Standard YouTube License

Handbook for Historians

  • Choosing a Paper Topic

What is a Thesis Statement?

How to develop a thesis statement.

  • What Sources Can I use?
  • Gathering sources
  • Find Primary Sources
  • Paraphrasing and Quoting Sources
  • How to create an Annotated Bibliography
  • Formatting Endnotes/Footnotes
  • Formatting Bibliographies
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Sample Papers
  • Research Paper Checklist

The thesis statement summarizes the central argument of your paper. It is placed at the top of the outline page, and appears again in the opening paragraph. A clearly stated thesis performs three functions:

  • it provides a focus for your research, helping to prevent time wasting digressions
  • it furnishes an organizational theme for the paper, which then becomes easier to write
  • it gives the reader precise knowledge of what the paper will argue, thereby making it easier to read

You cannot formulate a thesis statement until you know a great deal about your subject.  It is often wise to begin your research in pursuit of the answer to a question about your topic  - but this question is not a thesis statement. A helpful web site that can advise you on how to formulate a thesis is:  http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/thesis-statements/

Guidelines for formulating the thesis statement are as follows:

  • The thesis must focus on a single contention. You cannot list multiple reasons for the “truth” of your contention because the paper must follow a unified line of reasoning; a multifaceted thesis statement prevents this.
  • The thesis must be precisely phrased and coherent . Generalizations and a failure to define terms results in vagueness and lack of direction in argumentation.
  • The thesis must be a declarative statement. The object of your research was to answer a question; when you found the answer, you embodied it in your thesis statement. Hence a thesis can never be a question.

Here are some examples of thesis statements that strive to incorporate these recommendations...

POOR : Miguel Hidalgo’s uprising in 1810 led to a long war for independence in Mexico.    WHY: The above-stated thesis is a statement of fact that provides no clue about what you plan to do with that fact in your paper. Since there is no argument here, this is not a thesis. Improved : Miguel Hidalgo’s 1810 uprising mobilized poor and native Mexicans whose violence frightened elites and prolonged the war for independence. WHY: The above-stated thesis very specifically explains why the uprising resulted in a long war for independence. What’s more, it is debatable, since there may be other explanations for the war’s length. 

POOR : The creation of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza created great tension between the Israelis and  Palestinians for numerous reasons. WHY : The above-stated thesis is poor because it is too general and it deals with the obvious – that there is tension between Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East. It needs to explain what the “numerous reasons” are; focus on one of them; and drop the reference to the obvious. Remember: a thesis statement makes a specific argument and here only a vague reference to multiple reasons for tension is provided. Improved : The creation of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza was both an expression of Zionist expansionism and a means to isolate Palestinian population centers. WHY : The above-stated thesis is much better because it explains what the “numerous reasons” are and focuses on one of them. Now an argument has been created because a concrete explanation has been stated. Also,  this statement removes the obvious fact that tension exists between the two ethnic groups.

POOR : Louis XIV was a strong king who broke the power of the French nobility. WHY : The above-stated thesis contains a vague judgment about Louis XIV; that he was “strong.” In addition, it fails to specify exactly how he broke the nobles’ power. Improved : The Intendant System was the most effective method used by Louis XIV to break the power of the French nobility. WHY : The above-stated thesis eliminates the vague word “strong” and specifies the mechanism Louis XIV used to break the nobles’ power. Moreover, since this  was not the only policy Louis XIV used in his efforts to control the nobles, you have shown that your paper will defend a debatable position.

POOR : Gandhi was a man of peace who led the Indian resistance movement to British rule. WHY : The above-stated thesis does not clarify what about Gandhi made him a man of peace, nor does it specify anything he did to undermine British rule. Improved : Gandhi employed passive non-resistance during his Great Salt March and that enabled him to organize the Indian masses to resist British rule. WHY : The above-stated thesis specifies what has caused Gandhi to be remembered as a man of peace (his promotion of passive non-resistance to oppression) and it names one of the protests he organized against British rule. In addition, since it suggests that the technique of passive non-resistance is what made the Indian  populace rally behind him, it is debatable; there were other reasons why the poor in particular were ready to protest the British monopoly on salt.

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The thesis statement

  • How do I cite?
  • Glossary: Library terms

What is a thesis statement ?

  • A thesis statement comes at the beginning of your paper. 
  • It is a statement that answers your research question.
  • The statement is supported throughout your paper with examples and evidence.

What makes a good thesis statement?

  • It takes a position, or advances an opinion.
  • It is specific, not too broad, but not too narrow.
  • It is an arguable statement; there is room for discussion or disagreement.
  • It provides focus and generates interest in the reader.
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What is a thesis | A Complete Guide with Examples

Madalsa

Table of Contents

A thesis is a comprehensive academic paper based on your original research that presents new findings, arguments, and ideas of your study. It’s typically submitted at the end of your master’s degree or as a capstone of your bachelor’s degree.

However, writing a thesis can be laborious, especially for beginners. From the initial challenge of pinpointing a compelling research topic to organizing and presenting findings, the process is filled with potential pitfalls.

Therefore, to help you, this guide talks about what is a thesis. Additionally, it offers revelations and methodologies to transform it from an overwhelming task to a manageable and rewarding academic milestone.

What is a thesis?

A thesis is an in-depth research study that identifies a particular topic of inquiry and presents a clear argument or perspective about that topic using evidence and logic.

Writing a thesis showcases your ability of critical thinking, gathering evidence, and making a compelling argument. Integral to these competencies is thorough research, which not only fortifies your propositions but also confers credibility to your entire study.

Furthermore, there's another phenomenon you might often confuse with the thesis: the ' working thesis .' However, they aren't similar and shouldn't be used interchangeably.

A working thesis, often referred to as a preliminary or tentative thesis, is an initial version of your thesis statement. It serves as a draft or a starting point that guides your research in its early stages.

As you research more and gather more evidence, your initial thesis (aka working thesis) might change. It's like a starting point that can be adjusted as you learn more. It's normal for your main topic to change a few times before you finalize it.

While a thesis identifies and provides an overarching argument, the key to clearly communicating the central point of that argument lies in writing a strong thesis statement.

What is a thesis statement?

A strong thesis statement (aka thesis sentence) is a concise summary of the main argument or claim of the paper. It serves as a critical anchor in any academic work, succinctly encapsulating the primary argument or main idea of the entire paper.

Typically found within the introductory section, a strong thesis statement acts as a roadmap of your thesis, directing readers through your arguments and findings. By delineating the core focus of your investigation, it offers readers an immediate understanding of the context and the gravity of your study.

Furthermore, an effectively crafted thesis statement can set forth the boundaries of your research, helping readers anticipate the specific areas of inquiry you are addressing.

Different types of thesis statements

A good thesis statement is clear, specific, and arguable. Therefore, it is necessary for you to choose the right type of thesis statement for your academic papers.

Thesis statements can be classified based on their purpose and structure. Here are the primary types of thesis statements:

Argumentative (or Persuasive) thesis statement

Purpose : To convince the reader of a particular stance or point of view by presenting evidence and formulating a compelling argument.

Example : Reducing plastic use in daily life is essential for environmental health.

Analytical thesis statement

Purpose : To break down an idea or issue into its components and evaluate it.

Example : By examining the long-term effects, social implications, and economic impact of climate change, it becomes evident that immediate global action is necessary.

Expository (or Descriptive) thesis statement

Purpose : To explain a topic or subject to the reader.

Example : The Great Depression, spanning the 1930s, was a severe worldwide economic downturn triggered by a stock market crash, bank failures, and reduced consumer spending.

Cause and effect thesis statement

Purpose : To demonstrate a cause and its resulting effect.

Example : Overuse of smartphones can lead to impaired sleep patterns, reduced face-to-face social interactions, and increased levels of anxiety.

Compare and contrast thesis statement

Purpose : To highlight similarities and differences between two subjects.

Example : "While both novels '1984' and 'Brave New World' delve into dystopian futures, they differ in their portrayal of individual freedom, societal control, and the role of technology."

When you write a thesis statement , it's important to ensure clarity and precision, so the reader immediately understands the central focus of your work.

What is the difference between a thesis and a thesis statement?

While both terms are frequently used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings.

A thesis refers to the entire research document, encompassing all its chapters and sections. In contrast, a thesis statement is a brief assertion that encapsulates the central argument of the research.

Here’s an in-depth differentiation table of a thesis and a thesis statement.

Now, to craft a compelling thesis, it's crucial to adhere to a specific structure. Let’s break down these essential components that make up a thesis structure

15 components of a thesis structure

Navigating a thesis can be daunting. However, understanding its structure can make the process more manageable.

Here are the key components or different sections of a thesis structure:

Your thesis begins with the title page. It's not just a formality but the gateway to your research.

title-page-of-a-thesis

Here, you'll prominently display the necessary information about you (the author) and your institutional details.

  • Title of your thesis
  • Your full name
  • Your department
  • Your institution and degree program
  • Your submission date
  • Your Supervisor's name (in some cases)
  • Your Department or faculty (in some cases)
  • Your University's logo (in some cases)
  • Your Student ID (in some cases)

In a concise manner, you'll have to summarize the critical aspects of your research in typically no more than 200-300 words.

Abstract-section-of-a-thesis

This includes the problem statement, methodology, key findings, and conclusions. For many, the abstract will determine if they delve deeper into your work, so ensure it's clear and compelling.

Acknowledgments

Research is rarely a solitary endeavor. In the acknowledgments section, you have the chance to express gratitude to those who've supported your journey.

Acknowledgement-section-of-a-thesis

This might include advisors, peers, institutions, or even personal sources of inspiration and support. It's a personal touch, reflecting the humanity behind the academic rigor.

Table of contents

A roadmap for your readers, the table of contents lists the chapters, sections, and subsections of your thesis.

Table-of-contents-of-a-thesis

By providing page numbers, you allow readers to navigate your work easily, jumping to sections that pique their interest.

List of figures and tables

Research often involves data, and presenting this data visually can enhance understanding. This section provides an organized listing of all figures and tables in your thesis.

List-of-tables-and-figures-in-a-thesis

It's a visual index, ensuring that readers can quickly locate and reference your graphical data.

Introduction

Here's where you introduce your research topic, articulate the research question or objective, and outline the significance of your study.

Introduction-section-of-a-thesis

  • Present the research topic : Clearly articulate the central theme or subject of your research.
  • Background information : Ground your research topic, providing any necessary context or background information your readers might need to understand the significance of your study.
  • Define the scope : Clearly delineate the boundaries of your research, indicating what will and won't be covered.
  • Literature review : Introduce any relevant existing research on your topic, situating your work within the broader academic conversation and highlighting where your research fits in.
  • State the research Question(s) or objective(s) : Clearly articulate the primary questions or objectives your research aims to address.
  • Outline the study's structure : Give a brief overview of how the subsequent sections of your work will unfold, guiding your readers through the journey ahead.

The introduction should captivate your readers, making them eager to delve deeper into your research journey.

Literature review section

Your study correlates with existing research. Therefore, in the literature review section, you'll engage in a dialogue with existing knowledge, highlighting relevant studies, theories, and findings.

Literature-review-section-thesis

It's here that you identify gaps in the current knowledge, positioning your research as a bridge to new insights.

To streamline this process, consider leveraging AI tools. For example, the SciSpace literature review tool enables you to efficiently explore and delve into research papers, simplifying your literature review journey.

Methodology

In the research methodology section, you’ll detail the tools, techniques, and processes you employed to gather and analyze data. This section will inform the readers about how you approached your research questions and ensures the reproducibility of your study.

Methodology-section-thesis

Here's a breakdown of what it should encompass:

  • Research Design : Describe the overall structure and approach of your research. Are you conducting a qualitative study with in-depth interviews? Or is it a quantitative study using statistical analysis? Perhaps it's a mixed-methods approach?
  • Data Collection : Detail the methods you used to gather data. This could include surveys, experiments, observations, interviews, archival research, etc. Mention where you sourced your data, the duration of data collection, and any tools or instruments used.
  • Sampling : If applicable, explain how you selected participants or data sources for your study. Discuss the size of your sample and the rationale behind choosing it.
  • Data Analysis : Describe the techniques and tools you used to process and analyze the data. This could range from statistical tests in quantitative research to thematic analysis in qualitative research.
  • Validity and Reliability : Address the steps you took to ensure the validity and reliability of your findings to ensure that your results are both accurate and consistent.
  • Ethical Considerations : Highlight any ethical issues related to your research and the measures you took to address them, including — informed consent, confidentiality, and data storage and protection measures.

Moreover, different research questions necessitate different types of methodologies. For instance:

  • Experimental methodology : Often used in sciences, this involves a controlled experiment to discern causality.
  • Qualitative methodology : Employed when exploring patterns or phenomena without numerical data. Methods can include interviews, focus groups, or content analysis.
  • Quantitative methodology : Concerned with measurable data and often involves statistical analysis. Surveys and structured observations are common tools here.
  • Mixed methods : As the name implies, this combines both qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

The Methodology section isn’t just about detailing the methods but also justifying why they were chosen. The appropriateness of the methods in addressing your research question can significantly impact the credibility of your findings.

Results (or Findings)

This section presents the outcomes of your research. It's crucial to note that the nature of your results may vary; they could be quantitative, qualitative, or a mix of both.

Results-section-thesis

Quantitative results often present statistical data, showcasing measurable outcomes, and they benefit from tables, graphs, and figures to depict these data points.

Qualitative results , on the other hand, might delve into patterns, themes, or narratives derived from non-numerical data, such as interviews or observations.

Regardless of the nature of your results, clarity is essential. This section is purely about presenting the data without offering interpretations — that comes later in the discussion.

In the discussion section, the raw data transforms into valuable insights.

Start by revisiting your research question and contrast it with the findings. How do your results expand, constrict, or challenge current academic conversations?

Dive into the intricacies of the data, guiding the reader through its implications. Detail potential limitations transparently, signaling your awareness of the research's boundaries. This is where your academic voice should be resonant and confident.

Practical implications (Recommendation) section

Based on the insights derived from your research, this section provides actionable suggestions or proposed solutions.

Whether aimed at industry professionals or the general public, recommendations translate your academic findings into potential real-world actions. They help readers understand the practical implications of your work and how it can be applied to effect change or improvement in a given field.

When crafting recommendations, it's essential to ensure they're feasible and rooted in the evidence provided by your research. They shouldn't merely be aspirational but should offer a clear path forward, grounded in your findings.

The conclusion provides closure to your research narrative.

It's not merely a recap but a synthesis of your main findings and their broader implications. Reconnect with the research questions or hypotheses posited at the beginning, offering clear answers based on your findings.

Conclusion-section-thesis

Reflect on the broader contributions of your study, considering its impact on the academic community and potential real-world applications.

Lastly, the conclusion should leave your readers with a clear understanding of the value and impact of your study.

References (or Bibliography)

Every theory you've expounded upon, every data point you've cited, and every methodological precedent you've followed finds its acknowledgment here.

References-section-thesis

In references, it's crucial to ensure meticulous consistency in formatting, mirroring the specific guidelines of the chosen citation style .

Proper referencing helps to avoid plagiarism , gives credit to original ideas, and allows readers to explore topics of interest. Moreover, it situates your work within the continuum of academic knowledge.

To properly cite the sources used in the study, you can rely on online citation generator tools  to generate accurate citations!

Here’s more on how you can cite your sources.

Often, the depth of research produces a wealth of material that, while crucial, can make the core content of the thesis cumbersome. The appendix is where you mention extra information that supports your research but isn't central to the main text.

Appendices-section-thesis

Whether it's raw datasets, detailed procedural methodologies, extended case studies, or any other ancillary material, the appendices ensure that these elements are archived for reference without breaking the main narrative's flow.

For thorough researchers and readers keen on meticulous details, the appendices provide a treasure trove of insights.

Glossary (optional)

In academics, specialized terminologies, and jargon are inevitable. However, not every reader is versed in every term.

The glossary, while optional, is a critical tool for accessibility. It's a bridge ensuring that even readers from outside the discipline can access, understand, and appreciate your work.

Glossary-section-of-a-thesis

By defining complex terms and providing context, you're inviting a wider audience to engage with your research, enhancing its reach and impact.

Remember, while these components provide a structured framework, the essence of your thesis lies in the originality of your ideas, the rigor of your research, and the clarity of your presentation.

As you craft each section, keep your readers in mind, ensuring that your passion and dedication shine through every page.

Thesis examples

To further elucidate the concept of a thesis, here are illustrative examples from various fields:

Example 1 (History): Abolition, Africans, and Abstraction: the Influence of the ‘Noble Savage’ on British and French Antislavery Thought, 1787-1807 by Suchait Kahlon.
Example 2 (Climate Dynamics): Influence of external forcings on abrupt millennial-scale climate changes: a statistical modelling study by Takahito Mitsui · Michel Crucifix

Checklist for your thesis evaluation

Evaluating your thesis ensures that your research meets the standards of academia. Here's an elaborate checklist to guide you through this critical process.

Content and structure

  • Is the thesis statement clear, concise, and debatable?
  • Does the introduction provide sufficient background and context?
  • Is the literature review comprehensive, relevant, and well-organized?
  • Does the methodology section clearly describe and justify the research methods?
  • Are the results/findings presented clearly and logically?
  • Does the discussion interpret the results in light of the research question and existing literature?
  • Is the conclusion summarizing the research and suggesting future directions or implications?

Clarity and coherence

  • Is the writing clear and free of jargon?
  • Are ideas and sections logically connected and flowing?
  • Is there a clear narrative or argument throughout the thesis?

Research quality

  • Is the research question significant and relevant?
  • Are the research methods appropriate for the question?
  • Is the sample size (if applicable) adequate?
  • Are the data analysis techniques appropriate and correctly applied?
  • Are potential biases or limitations addressed?

Originality and significance

  • Does the thesis contribute new knowledge or insights to the field?
  • Is the research grounded in existing literature while offering fresh perspectives?

Formatting and presentation

  • Is the thesis formatted according to institutional guidelines?
  • Are figures, tables, and charts clear, labeled, and referenced in the text?
  • Is the bibliography or reference list complete and consistently formatted?
  • Are appendices relevant and appropriately referenced in the main text?

Grammar and language

  • Is the thesis free of grammatical and spelling errors?
  • Is the language professional, consistent, and appropriate for an academic audience?
  • Are quotations and paraphrased material correctly cited?

Feedback and revision

  • Have you sought feedback from peers, advisors, or experts in the field?
  • Have you addressed the feedback and made the necessary revisions?

Overall assessment

  • Does the thesis as a whole feel cohesive and comprehensive?
  • Would the thesis be understandable and valuable to someone in your field?

Ensure to use this checklist to leave no ground for doubt or missed information in your thesis.

After writing your thesis, the next step is to discuss and defend your findings verbally in front of a knowledgeable panel. You’ve to be well prepared as your professors may grade your presentation abilities.

Preparing your thesis defense

A thesis defense, also known as "defending the thesis," is the culmination of a scholar's research journey. It's the final frontier, where you’ll present their findings and face scrutiny from a panel of experts.

Typically, the defense involves a public presentation where you’ll have to outline your study, followed by a question-and-answer session with a committee of experts. This committee assesses the validity, originality, and significance of the research.

The defense serves as a rite of passage for scholars. It's an opportunity to showcase expertise, address criticisms, and refine arguments. A successful defense not only validates the research but also establishes your authority as a researcher in your field.

Here’s how you can effectively prepare for your thesis defense .

Now, having touched upon the process of defending a thesis, it's worth noting that scholarly work can take various forms, depending on academic and regional practices.

One such form, often paralleled with the thesis, is the 'dissertation.' But what differentiates the two?

Dissertation vs. Thesis

Often used interchangeably in casual discourse, they refer to distinct research projects undertaken at different levels of higher education.

To the uninitiated, understanding their meaning might be elusive. So, let's demystify these terms and delve into their core differences.

Here's a table differentiating between the two.

Wrapping up

From understanding the foundational concept of a thesis to navigating its various components, differentiating it from a dissertation, and recognizing the importance of proper citation — this guide covers it all.

As scholars and readers, understanding these nuances not only aids in academic pursuits but also fosters a deeper appreciation for the relentless quest for knowledge that drives academia.

It’s important to remember that every thesis is a testament to curiosity, dedication, and the indomitable spirit of discovery.

Good luck with your thesis writing!

Frequently Asked Questions

A thesis typically ranges between 40-80 pages, but its length can vary based on the research topic, institution guidelines, and level of study.

A PhD thesis usually spans 200-300 pages, though this can vary based on the discipline, complexity of the research, and institutional requirements.

To identify a thesis topic, consider current trends in your field, gaps in existing literature, personal interests, and discussions with advisors or mentors. Additionally, reviewing related journals and conference proceedings can provide insights into potential areas of exploration.

The conceptual framework is often situated in the literature review or theoretical framework section of a thesis. It helps set the stage by providing the context, defining key concepts, and explaining the relationships between variables.

A thesis statement should be concise, clear, and specific. It should state the main argument or point of your research. Start by pinpointing the central question or issue your research addresses, then condense that into a single statement, ensuring it reflects the essence of your paper.

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Netflix’s Avatar: The Last Airbender sparks but never blazes as bright as the original

The beloved Nickelodeon show gets a new live-action adaptation — one that’s blessedly better than M. Night Shyamalan's version.

Devan Coggan (rhymes with seven slogan) is a staff writer at Entertainment Weekly. Most of her personality is just John Mulaney quotes and Lord of the Rings references.

what is a thesis statement his 100

When Netflix announced plans to adapt Avatar: The Last Airbender back in 2018 , fans met the news with curiosity and a significant dose of skepticism. For some, a live-action adaptation of one of the most beloved animated shows of all time seemed like a no-brainer, a chance to finally right the wrongs of M. Night Shyamalan’s ugly and misguided 2010 attempt . For other fans, the very notion of adaptation was sacrilege: The original show, which ran from 2005 to 2008 on Nickelodeon, is widely hailed as one of the greatest animated series of the 21st century , an ambitious, anime-inspired saga that blended gorgeous world-building and thoughtful storytelling. (It’s certainly one of the few kids' TV shows to deftly tackle themes of morality, imperialism, and self-determination.) As the Netflix premiere date crept closer and fans continued to bicker online, a general consensus began to emerge: How could any live-action adaptation possibly live up to the charms of the original animated series? And how could it be any worse than the previous attempt?

Perhaps unsurprisingly, Netflix’s Avatar falls somewhere in the middle. The series arrives more than a half-decade after it was first announced, with a new creative team and cheery young cast of newcomers . The result is a charming but imperfect adaptation that vastly improves upon the 2010 film — but never soars quite as high as the original animated show.

Hollywood loves a live-action version of a beloved animated IP, and previous Netflix attempts have varied from decent ( One Piece ) to decidedly mediocre ( Cowboy Bebop ). The new Avatar follows a similar model, hewing closely to the plot of the original series even as it trades 20-minute episodes for sprawling, hour-long installments. Heavily inspired by real-world Asian and Indigenous cultures, the world of Avatar is divided into four nations — water, earth, fire, and air — where some residents can manipulate or “bend” a chosen element. The power-hungry Fire Nation disrupts years of peace when it wages war against the other nations, slaughtering the peaceful Air Nomads and kickstarting 100 years of violence. But a savior emerges in the form of the Avatar, a powerful figure who can wield all four elements and is reincarnated with every new generation. The latest incarnation is a 12-year-old airbender named Aang (Gordon Cormier), an optimistic daredevil who has to balance global responsibility with the pressures of being a preteen.

After Aang wakes from a 100-year sleep at the South Pole, he sets out on a journey to master all four elements, joined by waterbending friend Katara (Kiawantiio) and her boomerang-wielding brother Sokka (Ian Ousley, who gets some of the show’s best one-liners). Accompanied by Aang’s trusty flying bison Appa, the trio crisscrosses the countryside — all while being hunted by the exiled Fire Nation prince Zuko (Dallas Liu). The young Zuko has been tasked with finding and capturing the Avatar, all in an attempt to impress his domineering father, the sinister Fire Lord Ozai (played by Daniel Dae Kim , who voiced roles in the original series and its spinoff The Legend of Korra ).

Together, the young members of Team Avatar have a sparkling chemistry, bantering and bonding as they zoom through the air on Appa’s back. (Unlike the Shyamalan version, this Avatar insisted on casting exclusively Asian and Indigenous actors.) Cormier in particular brings a wide-eyed wonder to the naïve Aang, who’s juggling the pressure of saving the world with the fact that he’s, well, 12. The original show excelled at melding thrilling action with introspective moral dilemmas, and Cormier deftly handles some of the show’s more serious moments.  

Robert Falconer/Netflix

But even with charming lead performances, the show’s biggest weakness is its style: For adapting such a gorgeous piece of animation, Avatar looks surprisingly drab in places. Part of what made the original series so magical was its lavish world-building, tracking Team Avatar as they journeyed from arctic oceans to bustling cities to lush, verdant forests. The Netflix show retraces those same steps, replacing hand-drawn animation with CG spectacle — and the effect is considerably less impressive. The series clearly relies on the same StageCraft “Volume” technology that’s been popularized by Star Wars and Marvel projects, and as a result, the show trades its unique visual style for the same glossy, uninspired sheen that looks like everything else on TV right now. There are a few bright spots: In one early episode, Aang and Katara practice waterbending by an actual river, scooping up fistfuls of water to playfully splash each other. (The series filmed in British Columbia.) Watching the actors actually interact with the world around them — especially in a show that’s literally about harmony with nature — just serves to make the over reliance on the Volume that much more blatant.

The story itself sticks closely to the plot of the original series, but the new scripts do make a few thoughtful adjustments: One smart decision is introducing Zuko’s unhinged sister Azula (Elizabeth Yu) as early as possible, instead of saving her for season 2 (as the original series does). Like Zuko, Azula is desperate for the attention of their domineering father, pushing her fiery powers to the limit and scheming ways to unseat her brother. Ozai himself also looms large throughout the season, and Kim brings a regal, paternalistic malice to the role, stalking through war rooms and palace hallways with unsettling regality. These early peeks into the Fire Nation add depth to Zuko’s fractured family and his single-minded quest to come home. And Liu is excellent as the tortured young prince, torn between his father’s harsh mandates and the softer guidance of his Uncle Iroh (Paul Sun-Hyung Lee).

Animated series creators Bryan Konietzsko and Michael Dante DiMartino were originally attached to helm the Netflix show, before departing in 2020 due to “creative differences.” New showrunner Albert Kim soon took over, and Kim has spoken reverently about his admiration for the original series. His adoration is clear on screen, and many of the show’s highlights are faithfully recreated in live-action, from the crowded streets of the Earth Kingdom city Omashu to the ethereal forests of the Spirit World. Indeed, the series packs each episode with Easter eggs that are sure to delight fans, including a certain familiar earworm and the return of everyone’s favorite cabbage merchant . The new Avatar is clearly a labor of love, but its very existence raises the question: Who, exactly, is this for? Cast and creators alike have teased this version as being “ slightly darker ” than the original series, and the very first episode kicks off with the Fire Nation brutally massacring the monks of Aang’s air temple (an event that was described in the original series but depicted off screen). The writers — clearly guided by Netflix oversight — are aiming for an all-ages adventure, targeting both nostalgic millennials and a new generation of preteen fans.

But a show needs more reason to exist than just retreading a fan favorite. The best adaptations have some sort of thesis statement, responding to their source material with the narrative equivalent of a “Yes, And.” (To look at Disney, another studio that has embraced the animation-to-live-action pipeline, think of the difference between inventive fare like Pete’s Dragon and the soulless 2019 Lion King remake, which exists only to imitate.) Netflix’s Avatar is so faithful to the original series that it automatically invites comparison — a comparison where it inevitably comes up short. If the two shows are too similar, why would anyone bother to watch the live-action show at all?

There is potential here. Drab visuals aside, the actual bending scenes are a vast improvement over Shyamalan’s version, and there’s a distinct thrill in watching characters lob fireballs, raise walls of solid rock, or freeze ocean waves into spiky shards of ice. The cast also elevates every conversation and fight scene, and the main kids seem just as comfortable grappling with heavy themes as they do executing a backflip. After bingeing the season’s eight episodes, I found myself imagining how actors like Cormier or Liu might only continue to grow, especially when tackling plot points from later seasons. (And besides, I can’t be the only fan longing to see favorites like Toph Beifong back on screen.)

Hopefully, Netflix’s Avatar proves to be a bit like its titular hero — still early in its journey, with great potential on the horizon. As Aang comes to learn, he contains the souls of every Avatar to come before him, and he often leans on them for insight and advice. Past incarnations can be a useful guidepost, but eventually, every Avatar needs to find their own voice, too. Grade: B-

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  • How  Avatar: The Last Airbender  brought back the OG Cabbage Merchant: 'The biggest celebrity we had on set'
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Biden warns opposing Ukraine funding plays ‘into Putin’s hands,’ but faces resistance in House

President Joe Biden is calling for House Republicans to get behind a supplemental spending bill that would send $60 billion to Ukraine for its fight against Russia. He warned that opposing it would play into “Putin’s hands.” (Feb. 13)

what is a thesis statement his 100

President Joe Biden slammed rival Donald Trump Tuesday for his “dumb,” “dangerous” and “un-American” comments over the weekend encouraging Russia to do whatever it wants to NATO countries that he believes don’t pay enough to the alliance. (Feb. 13)

what is a thesis statement his 100

Senate passes $95.3 billion aid package for Ukraine, Israel and Taiwan

what is a thesis statement his 100

Early Tuesday morning, the Senate passed a $95.3 billion aid package for Ukraine, Israel and Taiwan after almost a week of debate and growing political divisions in the Republican Party over the role of the United States abroad. (Feb. 13)

President Joe Biden delivers remarks on a $95 billion Ukraine Israel aid package being debated in Congress, in the State Dining Room of the White House, Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024, in Washington. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

President Joe Biden delivers remarks on a $95 billion Ukraine Israel aid package being debated in Congress, in the State Dining Room of the White House, Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024, in Washington. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

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Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y., signals success to reporters after a divided Senate passed an emergency spending package to provide send military aid to Ukraine and Israel, replenish U.S. weapons systems, and provide food, water and other humanitarian aid to civilians in Gaza, at the Capitol in Washington, Tuesday, Feb. 13, 2024. The measure has an uncertain future in the House where it is opposed by Republicans in the face of pressure from former President Donald Trump. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

FILE - Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, center, is escorted by Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., left, and Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y., as he comes to the Capitol in Washington to issue a plea for Congress to break its deadlock and approve continued wartime funding for Ukraine, Dec. 12, 2023. Two months later, that aid request had still not been met but Schumer and McConnell are keeping the Senate in session on Super Bowl weekend to force funding for Ukraine and Israel. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite, File)

Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., arrives as the Senate moves closer to a final vote on an emergency spending package that would provide military aid to Ukraine and Israel, replenish U.S. weapons systems and provide food, water and other humanitarian aid to civilians in Gaza, at the Capitol in Washington, Monday, Feb. 12, 2024. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

WASHINGTON (AP) — President Joe Biden on Tuesday called for House Republicans to urgently bring a $95.3 billion aid package for Ukraine, Israel and Taiwan to a vote, warning that refusal to take up the bill, passed by the Senate in the morning, would be “playing into Putin’s hands .”

“Supporting this bill is standing up to Putin,” Biden said, raising his voice in strong comments from the White House as he referred to the Russian leader. “We can’t walk away now. That’s what Putin is betting on.”

But the package faces a deeply uncertain future in the House, where hardline Republicans aligned with former President Donald Trump — the front-runner for the GOP presidential nomination, and a critic of support for Ukraine — oppose the legislation. Speaker Mike Johnson has cast new doubt on the package and made clear that it could be weeks or months before Congress sends the legislation to Biden’s desk — if at all.

The potential impasse comes at a crucial point in the nearly two-year-old war, and supporters warn that abandoning Ukraine could embolden Russian President Vladimir Putin and threaten national security across the globe . Yet the months-long push to approve the $60 billion in aid for Kyiv that is included in the package has exposed growing political divisions in the Republican Party over the role of the United States abroad.

Speaker of the House Rep. Mike Johnson, R-La., speaks during a news conference on Capitol Hill in Washington, Tuesday, Feb. 6, 2024. (AP Photo/Jose Luis Magana)

Biden also lashed at Trump, who on Saturday said during a campaign appearance that he once warned he would allow Russia to do whatever it wants to NATO member nations that are “delinquent” in devoting 2% of their gross domestic product to defense.

“When America gives its word it means something,” Biden said. “Donald Trump looks at this as if it’s a burden.”

The Senate vote came early Tuesday after a small group of Republicans opposed to the $60 billion for Ukraine held the Senate floor through the night, using the final hours of debate to argue that the U.S. should focus on its own problems before sending more money overseas. Yet 22 Republicans voted with nearly all Democrats to pass the package 70-29.

“With this bill, the Senate declares that American leadership will not waver, will not falter, will not fail,” said Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, who worked closely with Republican Leader Mitch McConnell on the legislation.

The bill’s passage through the Senate with a flourish of GOP support was a welcome sign for Ukraine amid critical shortages on the battlefield .

“Ukrainian soldiers out of artillery shells, Ukrainian units rationing rounds of ammunition to defend themselves, Ukrainian families worried that the next Russian strike will permanently plunge them into darkness, or worse,” Biden said.

The president appealed to House members in stark terms and called on Johnson to let the matter come to a vote. Ukraine supporters were also hoping that the showing of bipartisan support in the Senate would pressure Johnson to advance the bill. McConnell has made the issue his top priority in recent months, and was resolute in the face of considerable pushback from his own GOP conference.

Speaking directly to his detractors, the longtime Republican leader said in a statement, “History settles every account. And today, on the value of American leadership and strength, history will record that the Senate did not blink.”

Dollars provided by the legislation would purchase U.S.-made defense equipment, including munitions and air defense systems that authorities say are desperately needed as Russia batters the country. It also includes $8 billion for the government in Kyiv and other assistance.

“Putin’s ambitions have never been limited to Ukraine. His goals are far broader. This means that our defense solidarity must be even broader,” Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy posted on social media.

In addition, the legislation would provide $14 billion for Israel’s war with Hamas, $8 billion for Taiwan and partners in the Indo-Pacific to counter China, and $9.1 billion in humanitarian assistance for Gaza and the West Bank, Ukraine, and other populations caught in conflict zones across the globe.

Progressive lawmakers have objected to sending offensive weaponry to Israel, and Sen. Bernie Sanders, an independent of Vermont, as well as two Democrats, Sens. Jeff Merkley of Oregon and Peter Welch of Vermont, voted against it.

“I cannot in good conscience support sending billions of additional taxpayer dollars for Prime Minister Netanyahu’s military campaign in Gaza,” Welch said. “It’s a campaign that has killed and wounded a shocking number of civilians. It’s created a massive humanitarian crisis.”

The bill’s passage followed almost five months of torturous negotiations over an expansive proposal that would have paired the foreign aid with an overhaul of border and asylum policies. Republicans demanded the trade-off, saying the surge of migration into the United States had to be addressed alongside the security of allies.

But a bipartisan deal on border security fell apart just days after its unveiling, a head-spinning development that left negotiators deeply frustrated. Republicans declared the bill insufficient and blocked it on the Senate floor.

After the deal collapsed, the two leaders abandoned the border provisions and pushed forward with passing the foreign aid package alone — as Democrats had originally intended.

While the slimmed-down foreign aid bill eventually won a healthy showing of GOP support, several Republicans who had previously expressed support for Ukraine voted against it. The episode further exposed divisions in the party, made more public as Trump dug in and a handful of lawmakers openly called for McConnell to step down.

Sen. J.D. Vance, an Ohio Republican, argued that the U.S. should step back from the conflict and help broker an end to it with Russia’s Putin. He questioned the wisdom of continuing to fuel Ukraine’s defense when Putin appears committed to fighting for years.

“I think it deals with the reality that we’re living in, which is they’re a more powerful country, and it’s their region of the world,” he said.

Vance, along with Kentucky Sen. Rand Paul and other opponents, spent several hours on the floor railing against the aid and complaining about Senate process. They dug in their heels to delay a final vote, speaking on the floor until daybreak.

Supporters of the aid pushed back, warning that bowing to Russia would be a historic mistake with devastating consequences. They pointed out that if Putin were to attack a NATO member in Europe, the U.S. would be bound by treaty to become directly involved in the conflict — a commitment that Trump has called into question as he seeks another term in the White House.

In the House, many Republicans have opposed the aid and are unlikely to cross Trump, but some key GOP lawmakers have signaled they will push to get it passed.

House Intelligence Committee Chairman Mike Turner, R-Ohio, traveled to Ukraine last week with a bipartisan delegation and met with Zelenskyy. Turner posted on X, formerly Twitter, after the trip that “I reiterated America’s commitment to support Ukraine in its fight against Russia.”

But Speaker Johnson is in a tough position. A majority of his conference opposes the aid, and he is trying to lead the narrowest of majorities and avoid the fate of his predecessor, former Speaker Kevin McCarthy, who was ousted in October.

Johnson, R-La., said in a statement Monday that because the foreign aid package lacks border security provisions, it is “silent on the most pressing issue facing our country.” It was the latest — and potentially most consequential — sign of opposition to the Ukraine aid from House GOP leadership, who had rejected the bipartisan border compromise as “dead on arrival,” contributing to its rapid demise.

House Democratic leaders are looking at rarely used procedures to force a vote on the bill, but those represent a long-shot effort without Johnson’s support.

House Democratic Leader Hakeem Jeffries said in a letter to fellow Democrats Tuesday, “The American people deserve an up or down vote, and we will use every available legislative tool to get comprehensive national security legislation over the finish line.”

Associated Press writers Lisa Mascaro and Kevin Freking contributed to this report.

STEPHEN GROVES

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Trump Fraud Trial Penalty Will Exceed $450 Million

The ruling in Donald J. Trump’s civil fraud case could cost him all his available cash. The judge said that the former president’s “complete lack of contrition” bordered on pathological.

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Donald Trump, wearing a blue suit and blue tie, sits at the defendant’s table in a courtroom.

By Jonah E. Bromwich and Ben Protess

A New York judge on Friday handed Donald J. Trump a crushing defeat in his civil fraud case , finding the former president liable for conspiring to manipulate his net worth and ordering him to pay a penalty of nearly $355 million plus interest that could wipe out his entire stockpile of cash .

The decision by Justice Arthur F. Engoron caps a chaotic, yearslong case in which New York’s attorney general put Mr. Trump’s fantastical claims of wealth on trial. With no jury, the power was in Justice Engoron’s hands alone, and he came down hard: The judge delivered a sweeping array of punishments that threatens the former president’s business empire as he simultaneously contends with four criminal prosecutions and seeks to regain the White House.

Justice Engoron barred Mr. Trump for three years from serving in top roles at any New York company, including portions of his own Trump Organization. He also imposed a two-year ban on the former president’s adult sons and ordered that they pay more than $4 million each. One of them, Eric Trump, is the company’s de facto chief executive, and the ruling throws into doubt whether any member of the family can run the business in the near term.

The judge also ordered that they pay substantial interest, pushing the penalty for the former president to $450 million, according to the attorney general, Letitia James.

In his unconventional style, Justice Engoron criticized Mr. Trump and the other defendants for refusing to admit wrongdoing for years. “Their complete lack of contrition and remorse borders on pathological,” he said.

He noted that Mr. Trump had not committed violent crimes and also conceded that “Donald Trump is not Bernard Madoff.” Still, he wrote, “defendants are incapable of admitting the error of their ways.”

what is a thesis statement his 100

The Civil Fraud Ruling on Donald Trump, Annotated

Former President Donald J. Trump was penalized $355 million plus interest and banned for three years from serving in any top roles at a New York company, including his own, in a ruling on Friday by Justice Arthur F. Engoron.

Mr. Trump will appeal the financial penalty but will have to either come up with the money or secure a bond within 30 days. The ruling will not render him bankrupt, because most of his wealth is in real estate, which altogether is worth far more than the penalty.

Mr. Trump will also ask an appeals court to halt the restrictions on him and his sons from running the company while it considers the case. In a news conference from his Palm Beach, Fla., home, Mar-a-Lago, on Friday evening, he attacked Ms. James and Justice Engoron, calling them both “corrupt.”

Alina Habba, one of Mr. Trump’s lawyers, described the ruling in her own statement as “a manifest injustice — plain and simple.” She added that “given the grave stakes, we trust that the Appellate Division will overturn this egregious verdict.”

But there might be little Mr. Trump can do to thwart one of the judge’s most consequential punishments: extending for three years the appointment of an independent monitor who is the court’s eyes and ears at the Trump Organization. Justice Engoron also strengthened the monitor’s authority to watch for fraud and second-guess transactions that look suspicious.

Mr. Trump’s lawyers have railed against the monitor, Barbara Jones, saying that her work had already cost the business more than $2.5 million; the decision to extend her oversight of the privately held company could enrage the Trumps, who see her presence as an irritant and an insult.

Ms. James had sought an even harsher penalty, asking for Mr. Trump to be permanently barred from New York’s business world. In the 2022 lawsuit that precipitated the trial, she accused Mr. Trump of inflating his net worth to obtain favorable treatment from banks and other lenders, attacking the foundation of his public persona as a billionaire businessman.

Even though the lenders made money from Mr. Trump, they were the purported victims in the case, with Ms. James arguing that without his fraud, they could have made even more.

The financial penalty reflects those lost profits, with nearly half of the $355 million — $168 million — representing the interest that Mr. Trump saved, and the remaining sum representing his profit on the recent sale of two properties, money that the judge has now clawed back from Mr. Trump and corporate entities he owns.

Before the trial began, Justice Engoron ruled that the former president had used his annual financial statements to defraud the lenders, siding with the attorney general on her case’s central claim. The judge’s Friday ruling ratified almost all of the other accusations Ms. James had leveled against Mr. Trump, finding that the former president had conspired with his top executives to violate several state laws.

The judge’s decision for now grants Ms. James, a Democrat, a career-defining victory. She campaigned for office promising to bring Mr. Trump to justice, and sat calmly in the courtroom as the former president attacked her, calling her a corrupt politician motivated solely by self-interest.

“This long running fraud was intentional, egregious, illegal,” Ms. James said during a Friday evening news conference, adding that “there cannot be different rules for different people in this country, and former presidents are no exception.”

New York Attorney General Speaks on Trump Fraud Case Decision

“today we are holding donald trump accountable,” said the attorney general, letitia james, after a new york judge found donald j. trump’s claims of wealth fraudulent..

No matter how rich, powerful or politically connected you are, everyone must play by the same rules. We have a responsibility to protect the integrity of the marketplace. And for years, Donald Trump engaged in deceptive business practices and tremendous fraud. Donald Trump falsely, knowingly, inflated his net worth by billions of dollars to unjustly enrich himself, his family, and to cheat the system. After 11 weeks of trial, we showed the staggering extent of his fraud and exactly how Donald Trump and the other defendants deceived banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions for their own personal gain. We prove just how much Donald Trump, his family and his company unjustly benefited from his fraud. White-collar financial fraud is not a victimless crime. When the powerful break the law and take more than their fair share, there are fewer resources available for working people, small businesses and families. Today we are holding Donald Trump accountable.

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Her win is Mr. Trump’s second major courtroom loss in two months, following a January jury verdict in a defamation case brought by E. Jean Carroll, a writer whom he was found liable of sexually abusing. The jury penalized him $83.3 million.

Friday’s ruling comes as Manhattan prosecutors are set to try Mr. Trump on criminal charges late next month . He is also contending with 57 more felony counts across three other criminal cases.

But none of his legal troubles seem to have anguished Mr. Trump quite like the fraud case. During the trial, he protested its premise, pleading, “This has been a persecution of somebody that’s done a good job in New York.”

Mr. Trump’s lawyers argued that the fraud did not have a victim in the traditional sense , daring the attorney general to find someone who was harmed. And in a statement on Friday, a Trump Organization spokeswoman noted that the company had “never missed any loan payment or been in default on any loan” and that the lenders “performed extensive due diligence prior to entering into these transactions.”

At trial, Mr. Trump’s lawyers called as witnesses the president’s former bankers, who testified that they had been delighted to have Mr. Trump as a client.

Eric Trump and his brother Donald Trump Jr. also testified, but their efforts to distance themselves from their father’s financial statements fell flat with the judge. Justice Engoron’s decision to bar them from running any New York business for two years — and Mr. Trump for three — will likely strike a nerve with the Trump family.

Before the trial, the fallout from the case seemed to threaten the Trump Organization’s very existence. When Justice Engoron first ruled that Mr. Trump had committed fraud, he ordered the dissolution of much of the former president’s New York empire.

But legal experts had questioned the judge’s ability to do that , and in his ruling on Friday, Justice Engoron pulled back. Instead, the judge said any “restructuring and potential dissolution” would be up to Ms. Jones, the independent monitor.

The judge also granted Ms. Jones new authority as part of an “enhanced monitorship,” and asked her to recommend an independent compliance director who will oversee the company’s financial reporting from within its ranks.

The monitorship and other penalties, including a three-year ban on Mr. Trump and his company seeking loans from banks registered in New York, could hamstring the company as it seeks to compete in the state’s crowded real estate market.

However, nothing will hurt quite as much as the financial penalty. If upheld on appeal, it could erase the cushion of liquidity — cash, stocks and bonds — that Mr. Trump built in his post-presidential life.

Mr. Trump claimed under oath last year that he was sitting on more than $400 million in cash, but between Justice Engoron’s $355 million punishment, the interest Mr. Trump owes and the $83.3 million payout to Ms. Carroll, that might all be gone. If so, Mr. Trump might have to sell one of his properties or another asset to cover the payouts.

The symbolism of the punishments cannot be overlooked, either. Mr. Trump is synonymous with the company he ran for decades, and by severing him from its operations, the judge has written an embarrassing epilogue to the former president’s story of his career as a New York mogul.

For now, Mr. Trump has spun his legal misfortunes into what he sees as political gold. He has used the cases to falsely portray himself as a victim of a Democratic cabal led by President Biden, and he has campaigned at every courthouse he has visited.

In Justice Engoron’s courtroom, Mr. Trump delivered a rally-made rant from the witness stand, marking the climax of a monthslong proceeding that was alternately stultifying and scintillating. The former president attacked one of Ms. James’s lawyers, saying: “You and about every other Democrat, district attorney, A.G. and U.S. attorney were coming after me from 15 different sides. All Democrats, all Trump haters.”

He did not spare Ms. James herself, or the judge, calling the attorney general a “political hack” and Justice Engoron an “extremely hostile judge.”

Mr. Trump later delivered his own closing statement, calling Ms. James’s fraud accusation a “fraud on me” and saying that the attorney general was the one who “should pay me.”

He generated drama even when not in the spotlight, rolling his eyes at the defense table and muttering to his lawyers. He was particularly enraged by the testimony of his former fixer, Michael D. Cohen , who linked Mr. Trump directly to the fraud scheme.

Mr. Trump’s lawyers succeeded in rattling Mr. Cohen, and asked, based on apparent contradictions in his testimony, that Justice Engoron throw out the case. When the judge declined, Mr. Trump abruptly stood up and stormed out of the courtroom.

The judge largely tolerated Mr. Trump’s behavior, but early on, he barred the former president from attacking his staff members, most prominently his law clerk, who sat near the judge throughout the trial so they could confer. Mr. Trump twice violated that order, prompting $15,000 in fines from the judge.

Courtroom theatrics notwithstanding, the evidence presented was often tedious, consisting of years-old emails and spreadsheets. Through that documentary evidence, Ms. James’s lawyers showed that Mr. Trump’s company had ignored appraisals and manipulated numbers to inflate the value of properties such as golf clubs and office buildings, sometimes to absurd heights.

The most blatant exaggeration was the listed size of Mr. Trump’s triplex apartment in Trump Tower on Fifth Avenue. For years, the former president had valued it as if it were 30,000 square feet, when it was actually 10,996.

In his ruling, Justice Engoron blasted Mr. Trump and the other defendants, saying that misstating the apartment’s size was the only error to which they would admit.

Justice Engoron wrote that he was not looking to “judge morality” — only to find facts and apply the law.

“The court intends to protect the integrity of the financial marketplace and, thus, the public as a whole,” he wrote.

Justice Engoron added that Mr. Trump’s refusal to admit error left him with no choice but to conclude that the former president would continue to commit fraud unless he was stopped.

William K. Rashbaum , Claire Fahy and Maggie Haberman contributed reporting.

Jonah E. Bromwich covers criminal justice in New York, with a focus on the Manhattan district attorney's office, state criminal courts in Manhattan and New York City's jails. More about Jonah E. Bromwich

Ben Protess is an investigative reporter at The Times, writing about public corruption. He has been covering the various criminal investigations into former President Trump and his allies. More about Ben Protess

A California man was found with 1 million rounds of ammo and 248 illegally owned guns in his house, state authorities say

  • A man was arrested after agents found 248 guns and 1 million rounds of ammo in his California home.
  • The state attorney general said he also had 3,000 gun magazines and several grenades in his home.
  • The weapons included 11 machine guns, 133 handguns, and 60 assault rifles, authorities said.

Insider Today

A man in Richmond, California, was arrested last month after authorities found an illegal cache of 248 guns and 1 million rounds of ammo in his home, the state attorney general said on Thursday.

Attorney General Rob Bonta said in a statement that the man, who was not named, was legally prohibited from owning guns in California.

Law-enforcement officials who searched the man's home on January 31 found 11 military-style machine guns, 133 handguns, 37 rifles, 60 assault rifles, seven shotguns, and 3,000 large-capacity magazines, Bonta said.

Authorities also found 1 million rounds of "miscellaneous caliber ammunition" and dozens of rifle receivers and pistol frames, the attorney general said.

Several grenades were also discovered, but they were determined to be inert by local bomb squads, per the statement.

The man's home also contained 20 silencers and four flare guns, it said.

"In our efforts to retrieve guns from a prohibited individual, we found hundreds of allegedly illegal weapons and approximately one million rounds of ammunition," Bonta said.

The authorities did not disclose the man's address.

A video released by the attorney general's office showed part of what appears to be a small armory, replete with mounted, belt-fed machine guns, long-range caliber rifles, and dozens of ammunition crates.

Unauthorized possession of a machine gun is illegal in California, which has some of the strictest gun control laws in the US.

The state's Armed and Prohibited Persons System, established in 2006, tracks people who lawfully bought and owned firearms but were later barred from possessing them.

what is a thesis statement his 100

Watch: We decoded the guns people bring to protests and rallies across the US

what is a thesis statement his 100

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Kid Cudi Says He's Not Interested in Collaborating With Childish Gambino: 'I'm Cool'

Don't expect to hear a Gambino and Cudi collab anytime soon.

Kid Cudi has shot down fans' hopes and dreams of seeing him collaborate with Donald Glover .

Cudi was fielding questions from fans on Twitter, formerly X, on Wednesday, Feb. 21, when he gave a very blunt answer to one fan. "You and Gambino gotta work on something whether it's TV, movies, or music we'd love to see/hear it! Your guys' song 'Warlords' needs an official release" wrote the fan, to which Cudi responded, "I'm cool."

View this photo on Instagram

In 2020, a collaboration between the two rumored to be titled "Warlords" leaked online, although it's unclear when they recorded the song. There's been no sign of an official release and this is the closest that Cudi has gotten to even acknowledging its existence. He didn't elaborate further on why he's not interested in collaborating with Glover, whether it be a song with Glover as Childish Gambino or Cudi acting in something alongside him.

Glover also opened for Cudi in 2011 at a show at New York City's Terminal 5, something he opened up about last year in an interview with GQ . "At the time I had a full band and a violinist," said Glover, recalling how he was booed by the audience. "I just kept turning to the band and telling them, ‘Next song! Next song!’ I put on a really intense show through the boos."

During his Q&A session on social media, Cudi reiterated his position on the unreleased Playboi Carti collaboration "Mr. Solo Dolo Part IV." Last year he said it was "weak" that Carti wouldn't clear the track, but didn't seem too fussed and indicated it would never come out.

When a fan asked him about the song again, he replied, "NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO STOP ASKIN NO NO NO NO NO STOP ASKIN NO NO NO NO." A fan who expressed their disappointed also got a response, to which he told them to relax. "I have way better songs," Cudi wrote. "Breathe."

A screenshot of a Twitter exchange where @KiDCuDi repeatedly replies &quot;NO&quot; to a fan&#x27;s question about solo music

Cudi said he's planning to follow up his ninth studio album, Insano , with a project entitled Insano (Nitro Mega) . He's insisted it's not a deluxe edition of the record, but he also revealed that he doesn't plan to put any sad songs on the project. "I don't do sad songs anymore," he told one fan. "Sorry. 'Tortured' was the last sad song I wrote 2 years ago. We on some new shit now. We in the light. If ur not ready, I have about 9 older albums w that vibe u can still listen to."

Twitter exchange between Kid Cudi, stating no more sad songs, and a fan inquiring about sad songs on an album

Insano (Nitro Mega) is scheduled to be released on Feb. 23.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Placement of the thesis statement. Step 1: Start with a question. Step 2: Write your initial answer. Step 3: Develop your answer. Step 4: Refine your thesis statement. Types of thesis statements. Other interesting articles. Frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

  2. 100+ Good Thesis Statement Examples, How to Write, Tips

    Here are 100 examples of good thesis statements to inspire your own academic endeavors. "The advancement of internet technology has revolutionized modern communication, leading to numerous societal changes, including a more interconnected world and the rise of telecommuting."

  3. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement is a sentence in a paper or essay (in the opening paragraph) that introduces the main topic to the reader. As one of the first things your reader sees, your thesis statement is one of the most important sentences in your entire paper—but also one of the hardest to write!

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    directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel. makes a claim that others might dispute.

  5. Developing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper.

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    The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable. An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim. In other words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no ...

  7. Academic Guides: Writing a Paper: Thesis Statements

    The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper.

  8. What Is a Thesis?

    A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master's program or a capstone to a bachelor's degree. Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation, it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete.

  9. Tips on Writing a Thesis Statement: Composing Compelling Thesis

    A thesis statement is a sentence or two that states the main idea of a writing assignment. It also helps to control the ideas presented within the paper. However, it is not merely a topic. It often reflects a claim or judgment that a writer has made about a reading or personal experience.

  10. How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement: 4 Steps + Examples

    Step 1: Decide what kind of paper you're writing When you're assigned an essay, there are several different types you may get. Argumentative essays are designed to get the reader to agree with you on a topic. Informative or expository essays present information to the reader.

  11. Creating a Thesis Statement, Thesis Statement Tips

    Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement. 1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.; An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.; An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies ...

  12. How to Research and Write a Compelling History Thesis

    In writing the thesis, the author should keep in mind that the document will require multiple changes and drafts—perhaps even new insights. A student should gather feedback from a professor and colleagues to ensure their thesis is clear and effective before finalizing the draft. 6. Prepare to Defend the Thesis.

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    Often answers WHY or HOW questions related to the topic at hand. A thesis statement is NOT: A statement of fact or observation (no matter how astute the observation). A statement of personal conviction or opinion. A generalization or overly broad claim. For the writer, the thesis statement: Helps the writer determine the essay's real focus.

  14. How to Write a Thesis: A Guide for Master's Students

    Tip #2: Begin Work on the Thesis Statement and Break Up the Thesis into Manageable Sections. After selecting an appropriate topic and developing a central research question for the thesis statement, it is then necessary to apply the research and writing skills you have learned throughout your degree program.

  15. How to write a thesis statement + Examples

    Definition A thesis statement is the main argument of your paper or thesis. The thesis statement is one of the most important elements of any piece of academic writing. It is a brief statement of your paper's main argument. Essentially, you are stating what you will be writing about. Organize your papers in one place. Try Paperpile.

  16. Historical Thesis Statements

    Thesis statements vary based on the rhetorical strategy of the essay, but thesis statements typically share the following characteristics: Presents the main idea. Most often is one sentence. Tells the reader what to expect. Is a summary of the essay topic. Usually worded to have an argumentative edge.

  17. HIS 100 3-2 Quiz Thesis Statements.docx

    100% (50) HIS 100 3-2 Quiz Theis Statements 1. What is a thesis statement? It is a sentence at the beginning of your research paper or the end of your paper's introduction that tells the reader what your paper's purpose is. a. Feed Back You are correct!

  18. Thesis Statement

    The thesis statement summarizes the central argument of your paper. It is placed at the top of the outline page, and appears again in the opening paragraph. A clearly stated thesis performs three functions: it provides a focus for your research, helping to prevent time wasting digressions. it furnishes an organizational theme for the paper ...

  19. What Is a Thesis Statement? Definition and Examples.

    A thesis statement is a declaration of one or two sentences that gives the topic and purpose of an essay or speech. More specifically, it provides information to the audience about what the author/speaker intends to prove or declare, with specific discussion points. The thesis statement is usually placed toward the end of the introductory ...

  20. Library Research 101: Start Your Research

    It is a statement that answers your research question. The statement is supported throughout your paper with examples and evidence. What makes a good thesis statement? It takes a position, or advances an opinion. It is specific, not too broad, but not too narrow. It is an arguable statement; there is room for discussion or disagreement.

  21. What is a thesis

    A thesis is an in-depth research study that identifies a particular topic of inquiry and presents a clear argument or perspective about that topic using evidence and logic. Writing a thesis showcases your ability of critical thinking, gathering evidence, and making a compelling argument. Integral to these competencies is thorough research ...

  22. Writing a Thesis Statement

    The kind of thesis statement you write will depend on the type of paper you are writing. Here is how to write the different kinds of thesis statements: Argumentative Thesis Statement: Making a Claim. Analytical Thesis Statement: Analyzing an Issue. Expository Thesis Statement: Explaining a Topic.

  23. 'Avatar: The Last Airbender' review: Live-action show is charming but

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  25. Trump Ordered to Pay $355 Million in NY Civil Fraud Trial Ruling

    Feb. 16, 2024 Updated 7:25 p.m. ET. A New York judge on Friday handed Donald J. Trump a crushing defeat in his civil fraud case, finding the former president liable for conspiring to manipulate ...

  26. California Man Found With 248 Guns, 1 Million Rounds of Ammo in Home

    A man was arrested after agents found 248 guns and 1 million rounds of ammo in his California home. ... per the statement. The man's home also contained 20 silencers and four flare guns, it said.

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    Feb 22, 2024. COMMENT. Catherine Powell / Stringer and Theo Wargo via Getty Images. Kid Cudi has shot down fans' hopes and dreams of seeing him collaborate with Donald Glover. Cudi was fielding ...

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