no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands

Profile image of soha izd

Michalis Kavaratzis studied business administration in Greece and marketing in Scotland. Since April 2003 he has been a researcher in the Urban and Regional Studies Institute (URSI) of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, focusing on the topics of place and city marketing. His particular interest is in place and city branding and he recently commenced work on a project which will investigate branding processes in major European cities. Abstract Cities all over Europe include more and more marketing techniques and methods in their administration practice and governing philosophy. The transfer of marketing knowledge, however, to the operational environment of cities proves a cause of difficulties and misalignments, mostly due to the peculiar nature of places in general and cities in particular as marketable assets. In this paper, city branding is suggested as the appropriate way to describe and implement city marketing. City marketing application is largely dependent on the construction, communication and management of the city's image, as it is accepted that encounters with the city take place through perceptions and images. Therefore the object of city marketing is the city's image, which in turn is the starting point for developing the city's brand. The most appropriate concept to understand marketing applicability within cities is the recently developed concept of corporate branding, which with the necessary modifications is applied to cities. The core of the paper is a theoretical framework to understand the city's brand and its management, which was developed through a review of the literature on both city marketing and the corporate brand. City branding provides, on the one hand, the basis for developing policy to pursue economic development and, at the same time, it serves as a conduit for city residents to identify with their city. In this sense the relevance of and need for a framework describing and clarifying the processes involved in city branding are equally strong for facing increasing competition for resources, investment and tourism on the one hand and for addressing urgent social issues like social exclusion and cultural diversity on the other. The framework focuses on the use of city branding and its potential effects on city residents and the way residents associate with and experience their city, and it is based on a combination of city marketing measures and the components of the city's brand management.

Related Papers

Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

Mihalis Kavaratzis

thesis on branding pdf

mehdi mirmoini

Cities are in search for new ways to get promoted. Regarding the fast changes in technology and the shift from local to a globalized environment, cities are forced to compete with each other in order to become an attractive tourist destination, workplace, cultural rich place and much more. City branding has been introduced as a new and creative solution to be adopted by cities to achieve success in this hard competition. Although the promotion of cities dates back to the 19th century, the emergence of concepts such as place marketing, place branding, and city branding is relatively new in the academic language. City branding is not only a promotional activity but also it should be considered as a strategic process. So, city branding should be a vision-driven process in order to be successful. But unfortunately, there is a gap in strategic city branding literature from the practical point of view. This study focuses on filling this gap by reviewing the evolution of city branding from...

Journal of Intercultural Management

Margarita Išoraitė

The article analyses theoretical aspects of a city brand definition, applying cases of various brands of Lithuanian cities. A brand is any sign or symbol which helps to distinguish goods or services for one person from the goods or services of another, and which may be represented graphically. The brand can be a variety of symbols, their combination, and other visual manifestations of information, such as words, names, slogans, letters, numbers, drawings, emblems; or spatial characteristics of the product itself – its image, packaging, shape, color, color combination or a combination of all these. City development usually includes an image dimension. The common ground for this is that a well-known toponym often generates events, investments, etc. Many cities are actively positioning and promoting their strategic intentions. Often times a city brand is associated with its fight for investment, tourist numbers, or successful businesses. Objective: To scrutinize relevant theories appli...

Place Branding

Cities throughout Europe are increasingly importing the concept and techniques of product branding for use within place marketing, in pursuit of wider urban management goals, especially within the new conditions created by European integration. However, there is as yet little consensus about the nature of city branding, let alone its role in public sector urban planning and management. This exploratory paper will first, use contemporary developments in marketing theory and practice to suggest how product branding can be transformed into city branding as a powerful image-building strategy, with significant relevance to the contemporary city. Second, it will define city branding, as it is being currently understood by city administrators and critically examine its contemporary use so that a framework for an effective place branding strategy can be constructed.

Julia Gorgorova

In the article, the author analyzes the global experience of designing an urban environment based on the concept of a city brand. Considered examples of the visual representation of the city brand. Examples when color is the main concept of a city brand. The results of the experimental design of the urban environment, made on the basis of the brand of the city.

Jason Mújica

Journal of Place Management and …

Andrea Lucarelli

European Journal of Social Science Education and Research

sonia jojic

For many years now the topic of city branding has gained a significant interest in both the academics and policy maker’s specified fields. As many cities tend to compete globally in attracting tourism, investment or talents, the concepts of brand strategy has been increasingly adopted from the commercial filed and has been applied to the urban development, regeneration and quality of life of cities. Nevertheless, city branding helps in increasing the status of the place as touristic destination, residential, or business location. As many places are mainly branded as touristic destinations, urban tourism is one of the fastest growing segments of worldwide tourism market. Thus this article intends to explore the essence of city branding related to tourism and John Urry, “Tourist Gaze”; city image, and the relationship between city branding and its residents.



fethi aslan


Colin A Chapman

European Heart Journal

chiara Minoia

An Najah University Journal For Research Humanities

Intisar Mustafeh

Heidi Kloos

Clinical epigenetics

Anna Latiano

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

Arantxa Fraile-Rodriguez

2008 38th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference

Daniel Jimenez Gonzalez


Piotr Gietka

International Journal of Advanced Research

rado yendra

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

International Immunopharmacology


Michael Mond

Discover Water


Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto

Paula Silva

European Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences

Joseph Afriyie

haiden paul

International Journal of Case Reports in Medicine

Khairil Sayuti

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering

Karl Unterkofler

Nguyễn Hoàng An

Journal of medicinal chemistry

Dr. Srinivasan Jayakumar

Public Health

Osman Hayran

Lucy Nicholas

Women and Birth

Roslyn Donnellan

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024


Supported by

Trump’s Harsh Punishment Was Made Possible by This New York Law

The little-known measure meant hundreds of millions in penalties in the civil fraud case brought by Attorney General Letitia James.

  • Share full article

Letitia James sits in court behind Donald Trump, who is blurred and out of focus.

By Ben Protess and Jonah E. Bromwich

The $355 million penalty that a New York judge ordered Donald J. Trump to pay in his civil fraud trial might seem steep in a case with no victim calling for redress and no star witness pointing the finger at Mr. Trump. But a little-known 70-year-old state law made the punishment possible.

The law, often referred to by its shorthand, 63(12), which stems from its place in New York’s rule book, is a regulatory bazooka for the state’s attorney general, Letitia James. Her office has used it to aim at a wide range of corporate giants: the oil company Exxon Mobil, the tobacco brand Juul and the pharma executive Martin Shkreli.

On Friday, the law enabled Ms. James to win an enormous victory against Mr. Trump. Along with the financial penalty , the judge barred Mr. Trump from running a business in New York for three years. His adult sons were barred for two years.

The judge also ordered a monitor, Barbara Jones, to assume more power over Mr. Trump’s company, and asked her to appoint an independent executive to report to her from within the company.

A lawyer for Mr. Trump, Christopher M. Kise, reacted with fury, saying “the sobering future consequences of this tyrannical abuse of power do not just impact President Trump.”

“When a court willingly allows a reckless government official to meddle in the lawful, private and profitable affairs of any citizen based on political bias, America’s economic prosperity and way of life are at extreme risk of extinction,” he said.

In the Trump case, Ms. James accused the former president of inflating his net worth to obtain favorable loans and other financial benefits. Mr. Trump, she argued, defrauded his lenders and in doing so, undermined the integrity of New York’s business world.

Mr. Trump’s conduct “distorts the market,” Kevin Wallace, a lawyer for Ms. James’s office, said during closing arguments in the civil fraud trial.

“It prices out honest borrowers and can lead to more catastrophic results,” Mr. Wallace said, adding, “That’s why it’s important for the court to take the steps to protect the marketplace to prevent this from happening again.”

Yet the victims — the bankers who lent to Mr. Trump — testified that they were thrilled to have him as a client. And while a parade of witnesses echoed Ms. James’s claim that the former president’s annual financial statements were works of fiction, none offered evidence showing that Mr. Trump explicitly intended to fool the banks.

That might seem unusual, but under 63(12), such evidence was not necessary to find fraud.

The law did not require the attorney general to show that Mr. Trump had intended to defraud anyone or that his actions resulted in financial loss.

“This law packs a wallop,” said Steven M. Cohen, a former federal prosecutor and top official in the attorney general’s office, noting that it did not require the attorney general to show that anyone had been harmed.

With that low bar, Justice Arthur F. Engoron, the judge presiding over the case, sided with Ms. James on her core claim before the trial began, finding that Mr. Trump had engaged in a pattern of fraud by exaggerating the value of his assets in statements filed to his lenders.

Ms. James’s burden of proof at the trial was higher: To persuade the judge that Mr. Trump had violated other state laws, she had to convince him that the former president acted with intent. And some of the evidence helped her cause: Two of Mr. Trump’s former employees testified that he had final sign-off on the financial statements, and Mr. Trump admitted on the witness stand that he had a role in drafting them.

Still, her ability to extract further punishments based on those other violations is also a product of 63(12), which grants the attorney general the right to pursue those who engage in “repeated fraudulent or illegal acts.”

In other fraud cases, authorities must persuade a judge or jury that someone was in fact defrauded. But 63(12) required Ms. James only to show that conduct was deceptive or created “an atmosphere conducive to fraud.” Past cases suggest that the word “fraud” itself is effectively a synonym for dishonest conduct, the attorney general argued in her lawsuit.

Once the attorney general has convinced a judge or jury that a defendant has acted deceptively, the punishment can be severe. The law allows Ms. James to seek the forfeit of money obtained through fraud.

Of the roughly $355 million that Mr. Trump was ordered to pay, $168 million represents the sum that Mr. Trump saved on loans by inflating his worth, she argued. In other words, the extra interest the lenders missed.

The penalty was in the judge’s hands — there was no jury — and 63(12) gave him wide discretion.

The law also empowered Justice Engoron to set new restrictions on Mr. Trump and his family business, all of which Mr. Trump is expected to appeal.

The judge also ordered a monitor to assume more power over Mr. Trump’s company, who will appoint an independent executive who will report to the monitor from within the company.

Even before she filed her lawsuit against the Trumps in 2022, Ms. James used 63(12) as a cudgel to aid her investigation.

The law grants the attorney general’s office something akin to prosecutorial investigative power. In most civil cases, a person or entity planning to sue cannot collect documents or conduct interviews until after the lawsuit is filed. But 63(12) allows the attorney general to do a substantive investigation before deciding whether to sue, settle or abandon a case. In the case against Mr. Trump, the investigation proceeded for nearly three years before a lawsuit was filed.

The case is not Mr. Trump’s first brush with 63(12). Ms. James’s predecessors used it in actions against Trump University, his for-profit education venture, which paid millions of dollars to resolve the case.

The law became so important to Ms. James’s civil fraud case that it caught the attention of Mr. Trump, who lamented the sweeping authority it afforded the attorney general and falsely claimed that her office rarely used it.

He wrote on social media last year that 63(12) was “VERY UNFAIR.”

William K. Rashbaum contributed reporting.

Ben Protess is an investigative reporter at The Times, writing about public corruption. He has been covering the various criminal investigations into former President Trump and his allies. More about Ben Protess

Jonah E. Bromwich covers criminal justice in New York, with a focus on the Manhattan district attorney's office, state criminal courts in Manhattan and New York City's jails. More about Jonah E. Bromwich


  1. (PDF) Personal Branding: Interdisciplinary Systematic Review and

    thesis on branding pdf

  2. Branding and Marketing Management

    thesis on branding pdf

  3. Dynamic Branding Thesis by Emanuel Jochum

    thesis on branding pdf


    thesis on branding pdf

  5. (PDF) Global branding

    thesis on branding pdf

  6. (PDF) Product Appearance and Brand Knowledge: An Analysis of Critical

    thesis on branding pdf


  1. SVA Master's in Branding 2022 Thesis Presentation

  2. SVA Master's in Branding 2023 Thesis Presentation: Mediamorphosis

  3. How to Write a STRONG Thesis Statement

  4. What is Dynamic Branding?

  5. SVA Masters in Branding 2017 Thesis Presentation

  6. 2014 Three Minute Thesis winning presentation by Emily Johnston


  1. PDF Brand Management and Branding

    This thesis has been created to help a new advertising agency called ADcode begin the process of branding. Branding will be used to differentiate the company from competition. The brand will reinforce both the internal and the external position of ADcode and will act as a tool for strategic- decision making for company management.

  2. PDF Master Thesis Creating Strong Brand Identity

    Master Thesis Creating Strong Brand Identity - Facilitating Internationalization of Norwegian Sports-Clothing Brands Cand. Merc. International Marketing and Management (IMM) Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy Copenhagen Business School, 2014 Supervisor: Arne Lycke


    Amazon, E-commerce, and the New Brand World . Approved: _____ Lynn Kahle . This thesis evaluates the impact of e-commerce on brands by analyzing Amazon, the largest e-commerce company in the world. Amazon's success is dependent on the existence of the brands it carries, yet its business model does not support its

  4. PDF The Purposeful Brand as a Driver of Consumer Preference

    This thesis is the result of a partnership with LynxEye Brand Consultants, Stockholm. We are very appreciative of the opportunity to combine the research presented in this thesis with a brand strategy consultancy internship, thus enhancing our understanding for the brand management field in practice and theory.

  5. PDF The Role of Social Media in Personal Branding

    influential. This master thesis investigates the creation and phenomenon of personal brand in social media and how it helps create and alter people's identity. Online personal branding refers to communicating positive personality traits on an online platform to differentiate yourself from others, which will help achieve professional goals. Personal

  6. PDF Self-branding: a cross-cultural perspective The Chiara Ferragni Case

    This thesis reviews the concept of self-branding and the way in which it is concretely done. However, the focus of the dissertation revolves around how such practice is . 8 perceived by individuals. The authors' interest arose after observing how personal branding is actually very similar to corporate branding. ...

  7. A Quantitative Study of the Impact of Social Media Reviews on Brand

    thesis is to quantify the impact of social media reviews on brand perception. Specifically, this thesis focuses on two diverse media platforms commonly used for sharing opinions about products or services by publishing audio-visual or textual reviews: YouTube and Yelp. First, we

  8. State Branding in the 21st Century

    The Journal of Brand Management (page 249), vol 9. no 4-5, April 2002. 4 Philip Kotler and David Gertner. "Country as a brand, product and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective". The Journal of Brand Management (page 249), vol 9. no 4-5, April 2002. 5 David Arnold. The Handbook of Brand Management. The Economist Books ...

  9. PDF [Publication] The effects of social media marketing on brand ...

    Previous studies provide a based understanding about the concepts of branding, brand awareness, social media marketing and their applications in business perspectives. Main secondary sources include textbooks, e-books, academic journals, theses, government publications, other Internet references.

  10. (PDF) Topics on Branding

    PDF | In this thesis, the brand construct and its connections to risk, value and trust are explored in a Business-to-Business context. The different... | Find, read and cite all the research...

  11. (PDF) The Power of Visual Branding: the impact of visual branding on

    The Open University (UK) Abstract This research deals with the impact of visual branding on consumer's perception. The purpose of this thesis is to study how visual branding affects consumer...

  12. PDF Branding in Social Media and the Impact of Social Media on ...

    The topic of the thesis is branding in social media and the impact of social media on brand image. In the context of this thesis, branding is defined as the activities that aim to enhance brand equity. Brand image refers to consumers' perceptions of a brand. The purpose of the thesis is to examine how social media can be used for

  13. (PDF) Master's thesis: 'Corporate design strategy and branding: The

    Master's thesis: 'Corporate design strategy and branding: The role of design management in developing the corporate identity' Marko Savić : Design managers and strategy consultants' skills and perspectives..... 36 The "Strathclyde Statement" can be found in its entirety in Appendix B of the thesis. See Full PDF Download PDF Related Papers

  14. (PDF) Cultural Branding: A Critical Stance to ...

    2016, p. 46). With this in mind, a historical view is offered to the development seen in cultural. branding and adds to this by emphasizing and seeing communication as a dynamic process in. p. 399 ...

  15. PDF A Research about the Adidas Group

    This thesis seeks to clarify the above mentioned statement by outlining the role of branding in customer satisfaction. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the role of branding, to study the process of branding, how a brand can influence customers' perception and

  16. PDF Master Thesis On Branding in small companies A case STUDY of ...

    3 ABSTRACT Title: Branding In Small Companies. A Case Study of Vital Tea Pakistan Language: English Authors: Waqas Khalid, Waqar Ahmad Supervisor: Prof. Ian Robson Publication type: Master Thesis (MSc in Business Administration). Institute: Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. Department: School of Management Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises, Branding, Competitive Advantages,


    This thesis focused on discussing the definition of visual branding and how to de-sign a visual identity. The main objectives of this thesis are to emphasise the im- ... brand and branding, and the reasons why visual branding is important (Nieves 2016). 2.1 What is a brand? The practice of branding has been around for a long time. More than a ...

  18. (PDF) From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical

    In an 64 Place Branding Vol. 1, 1, 58-73 䉷 Henry Stewart Publications 1744-070X (2004) From city marketing to city branding attempt to define the corporate brand on small municipalities in Britain Knox and Bickerton (2003: 1013) state 'a suggest that branding as a concept was corporate brand is the visual, verbal and seen as relevant ...

  19. PDF Brand Management A qualitative stud on branding in a SME

    This thesis will focus on brand management within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are defined by the European Union (2003) as companies with 250 or less employees. A vast majority, about 99 percent, of all enterprises within the European Union are SMEs. Brand management, or branding that it is commonly referred to, is the way

  20. (Pdf) Consumer Perspectives About the Effect of Branding on Product

    Swathi Padubidri CMR University Abstract The research report explores the effect of branding on product marketing, how branding influences the market, and why branding is important for a...

  21. PDF Employer Branding as a competitive advantage in attracting, recruiting

    Employer Branding as a competitive advantage in attracting, recruiting, and retaining high quality employees Ioannis Mousios SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION & LEGAL STUDIES A thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Science (MSc) in Management December 2020 Thessaloniki - Greece . Student Name: Ioannis Mousios

  22. PDF Brand Strategy: Company X

    X brand represents a strong competitor through urban and resort hotels in the local and international markets. The thesis considers the theoretical concepts of sociocultural meaning of brands, brand equity and brand building, brand strategy including unique, cor-porate, line extension, blend brand and brand portfolio strategies. In addition,

  23. PDF Thesis

    Thesis Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs

  24. PDF Branding a lifestyle

    Branding part started with Strategic Brand Management by Keller (2013) mainly because his theories are perhaps the most known and widely referenced by other authors. Keller provides the definition of a brand, the basics of brand image and categorization with an insight to brands marketing activities. The fundamentals of branding by Davis (2009) was

  25. Trump's Harsh Punishment Was Made Possible by This New York Law

    The $355 million penalty that a New York judge ordered Donald J. Trump to pay in his civil fraud trial might seem steep in a case with no victim calling for redress and no star witness pointing ...