• Personal Development
  • Sales Training
  • Business Training
  • Time Management
  • Leadership Training
  • Book Writing
  • Public Speaking
  • Live Speaker Training With Brian
  • See Brian Speak
  • Coaching Programs
  • Become a Coach
  • Personal Success
  • Sales Success
  • Business Success
  • Leadership Success

How To Write A Speech Outline

Do you have a speech coming up soon, but don’t know where to start when it comes to writing it? 

Don’t worry. 

The best way to start writing your speech is to first write an outline.

While to some, an outline may seem like an unnecessary extra step — after giving hundreds of speeches in my own career, I can assure you that first creating a speech outline is truly the best way to design a strong presentation that your audience will remember.

Should I Write A Speech Outline?

You might be wondering if you should really bother with a preparation outline. Is a speaking outline worth your time, or can you get through by just keeping your supporting points in mind?

Again, I highly recommend that all speakers create an outline as part of their speechwriting process. This step is an extremely important way to organize your main ideas and all the various elements of your speech in a way that will command your audience’s attention.

Good public speaking teachers will agree that an outline—even if it’s a rough outline—is the easiest way to propel you forward to a final draft of an organized speech that audience members will love.

Here are a few of the biggest benefits of creating an outline before diving straight into your speech.

Gain More Focus

By writing an outline, you’ll be able to center the focus of your speech where it belongs—on your thesis statement and main idea.

Remember, every illustration, example, or piece of information you share in your speech should be relevant to the key message you’re trying to deliver. And by creating an outline, you can ensure that everything relates back to your main point.

Keep Things Organized

Your speech should have an overall organizational pattern so that listeners will be able to follow your thoughts. You want your ideas to be laid out in a logical order that’s easy to track, and for all of the speech elements to correspond.

An outline serves as a structure or foundation for your speech, allowing you to see all of your main points laid out so you can easily rearrange them into an order that makes sense for easy listening.

Create Smoother Transitions

A speaking outline helps you create smoother transitions between the different parts of your speech.

When you know what’s happening before and after a certain section, it will be easy to accurately deliver transitional statements that make sense in context. Instead of seeming like several disjointed ideas, the parts of your speech will naturally flow into each other.

Save Yourself Time

An outline is an organization tool that will save you time and effort when you get ready to write the final draft of your speech. When you’re working off of an outline to write your draft, you can overcome “blank page syndrome.”

It will be much easier to finish the entire speech because the main points and sub-points are already clearly laid out for you.

Your only job is to finish filling everything in.

Preparing to Write A Speech Outline

Now that you know how helpful even the most basic of speech outlines can be in helping you write the best speech, here’s how to write the best outline for your next public speaking project.

How Long Should A Speech Outline Be?

The length of your speech outline will depend on the length of your speech. Are you giving a quick two-minute talk or a longer thirty-minute presentation? The length of your outline will reflect the length of your final speech.

Another factor that will determine the length of your outline is how much information you actually want to include in the outline. For some speakers, bullet points of your main points might be enough. In other cases, you may feel more comfortable with a full-sentence outline that offers a more comprehensive view of your speech topic.

The length of your outline will also depend on the type of outline you’re using at any given moment.

Types of Outlines

Did you know there are several outline types? Each type of outline is intended for a different stage of the speechwriting process. Here, we’re going to walk through:

  • Working outlines
  • Full-sentence outlines
  • Speaking outlines

Working Outline

Think of your working outline as the bare bones of your speech—the scaffolding you’re using as you just start to build your presentation. To create a working outline, you will need:

  • A speech topic
  • An idea for the “hook” in your introduction
  • A thesis statement
  • 3-5 main points (each one should make a primary claim that you support with references)
  • A conclusion

Each of your main points will also have sub-points, but we’ll get to those in a later step.

The benefit of a working outline is that it’s easy to move things around. If you think your main points don’t make sense in a certain order—or that one point needs to be scrapped entirely—it’s no problem to make the needed changes. You won’t be deleting any of your prior hard work because you haven’t really done any work yet.

Once you are confident in this “skeleton outline,” you can move on to the next, where you’ll start filling in more detailed information.

Full-sentence outline

As the name implies, your full-sentence outline contains full sentences. No bullet points or scribbled, “talk about x, y, z here.” Instead, research everything you want to include and write out the information in full sentences.

Why is this important? A full-sentence outline helps ensure that you are:

  • Including all of the information your audience needs to know
  • Organizing the material well
  • Staying within any time constraints you’ve been given

Don’t skip this important step as you plan your speech.

Speaking outline

The final type of outline you’ll need is a speaking outline. When it comes to the level of detail, this outline is somewhere in between your working outline and a full-sentence outline. 

You’ll include the main parts of your speech—the introduction, main points, and conclusion. But you’ll add a little extra detail about each one, too. This might be a quote that you don’t want to misremember or just a few words to jog your memory of an anecdote to share.

When you actually give your speech, this is the outline you will use. It might seem like it makes more sense to use your detailed full-sentence outline up on stage. However, if you use this outline, it’s all too easy to fall into the trap of reading your speech—which is not what you want to do. You’ll likely sound much more natural if you use your speaking outline.

How to Write A Speech Outline

We’ve covered the types of outlines you’ll work through as you write your speech. Now, let’s talk more about how you’ll come up with the information to add to each outline type.

Pick A Topic

Before you can begin writing an outline, you have to know what you’re going to be speaking about. In some situations, you may have a topic given to you—especially if you are in a public speaking class and must follow the instructor’s requirements. But in many cases, speakers must come up with their own topic for a speech.

Consider your audience and what kind of educational, humorous, or otherwise valuable information they need to hear. Your topic and message should of course be highly relevant to them. If you don’t know your audience well enough to choose a topic, that’s a problem.

Your audience is your first priority. If possible, however, it’s also helpful to choose a topic that appeals to you. What’s something you’re interested in and/or knowledgeable about? 

It will be much easier to write a speech on a topic you care about rather than one you don’t. If you can come up with a speech topic that appeals to your audience and is interesting to you, that’s the sweet spot for writing and delivering an unforgettable speech.

Write A Thesis Statement

The next step is to ask yourself two important questions:

  • What do you want your audience to take away from your speech?
  • How will you communicate this main message?

The key message of your speech can also be called your “thesis statement.”

Essentially, this is your main point—the most important thing you hope to get across.

You’ll most likely actually say your thesis statement verbatim during your speech. It should come at the end of your introduction. Then, you’ll spend the rest of your talk expanding on this statement, sharing more information that will prove the statement is true.

Consider writing your thesis statement right now—before you begin researching or outlining your speech. If you can refer back to this statement as you get to work, it will be much easier to make sure all of the elements correspond with each other throughout your speech.

An example of a good thesis statement might read like this:

  • Going for a run every day is good for your health.
  • It’s important to start saving for retirement early.
  • The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on many small businesses.

The second part of this step is to know how you will communicate your main message . For example, if your key point is that running improves physical health, you might get this across by:

  • Citing scientific studies that proved running is good for your health
  • Sharing your personal experience of going for a run every day

Your goal is for all of your sub-points and supporting material to reflect and support your main point. At the end of the speech, your audience should be appropriately motivated, educated, or convinced that your thesis statement is true.

Once you have a topic for your presentation and a good thesis statement, you can move on to the bulk of the outline.

The first part of your speech is the introduction, which should include a strong “hook” to grab the attention of your audience. There are endless directions you can go to create this hook. Don’t be afraid to get creative! You might try:

  • Telling a joke
  • Sharing an anecdote
  • Using a prop or visual aid
  • Asking a question (rhetorical or otherwise)

These are just a few examples of hooks that can make your audience sit up and take notice.

The rest of your introduction shouldn’t be too long—as a general rule of thumb, you want your introduction to take up about 10% of your entire speech. But there are a few other things you need to say.

Briefly introduce yourself and who you are to communicate why the audience should trust you. Mention why you’re giving this speech. 

Explain that you’re going to cover X main points—you can quickly list them—and include your thesis statement. 

You could also mention how long your speech will be and say what your audience will take away from it (“At the end of our 15 minutes together today, you’ll understand how to write a resume”).

Then smoothly transition into the body of your speech.

Next, you’ll write the body of your speech. This is the bulk of your presentation. It will include your main points and their sub-points. Here’s how this should look:

Your subpoints might be anecdotes, visual aids, or studies. However you decide to support your main points, make them memorable and engaging. Nobody wants to sit and listen to you recite a dry list of facts.

Remember, the amount of detail you include right now will depend on which outline you’re on. Your first outline, or working outline, doesn’t have to include every last little detail. Your goal is to briefly encapsulate all of the most important elements in your speech. 

But beyond that, you don’t need to write down every last detail or example right now. You don’t even have to write full sentences at this point. That will come in your second outline and other future drafts.

Your conclusion should concisely summarize the main points of your speech. You could do this by saying, “To recap as I finish up, today we learned…” and reiterate those primary points.

It’s also good to leave the audience with something to think about and/or discuss. Consider asking them a question that expands on your speech—something they can turn over in their minds the rest of the day. 

Or share one final story or quote that will leave them with lasting inspiration. Bonus points if your conclusion circles back around to your introduction or hook.

In other cases, you may want to end with a call to action. Are you promoting something? Make sure your audience knows what it is, how it will benefit them, and where they can find it. Or, your CTA might be as simple as plugging your Twitter handle and asking listeners to follow you.

Finally, don’t forget to say thank you to your audience for taking the time to listen.

Additional Helpful Speechwriting Tips

Your speech outline is important, but it’s not the only thing that goes into preparing to give a presentation. Take a look at these additional tips I recommend to help your speech succeed.

Use Visual Aids

Visual aids are a good way to make sure your audience stays engaged—that they listen closely, and remember what you said. Visual aids serve as an attention-getter for people who may not be listening closely. These aids also ensure that your points are sufficiently supported.

You might choose to incorporate any of the following in your talk:

  • A PowerPoint presentation
  • A chart or graph
  • A whiteboard or blackboard
  • A flip chart
  • A prop that you hold or interact with

Don’t overdo it. Remember, your speech is the main thing you’re presenting. Any visual aids are just that—aids. They’re a side dish, not the main entrée. Select one primary type of aid for your speech.

If you decide to include visual aids, use your speaking outline to make a note of which items you will incorporate where. You may want to place these items on your working outline. They should definitely be on your full-sentence outline.

Keep Your Audience Engaged

As you write and practice your speech, make sure you’re doing everything you can to keep your audience engaged the entire time. We’ve already talked about including stories and jokes, using visual aids, or asking questions to vary your talk and make it more interesting.

Your body language is another important component of audience engagement. Your posture should be straight yet relaxed, with shoulders back and feet shoulder-width apart. Keep your body open to the audience.

Make eye contact with different people in the audience. Incorporate hand gestures that emphasize certain points or draw attention to your visual aids.

Don’t be afraid to move around whatever space you have. Movement is especially helpful to indicate a clearer transition from one part of your speech to another. And smile! A simple smile goes a long way to help your audience relax.

Practice Your Speech

When you’re done with speechwriting, it’s time to get in front of the mirror and practice. Pay attention to your body language, gestures, and eye contact. 

Practice working with any visual aids or props you will be using. It’s also helpful to make a plan B—for instance, what will you do if the projector isn’t working and you can’t use your slides?

Ask a friend or family member if you can rehearse your speech for them. When you’re through, ask them questions about which parts held their attention and which ones didn’t.

You should also use your speaking outline and whatever other notes you’ll be using in your speech itself. Get used to referring to this outline as you go. But remember, don’t read anything verbatim (except maybe a quote). Your speaking outline is simply a guide to remind you where you’re going.

Learn to Speak Like A Leader

There’s a lot of work that goes into writing a speech outline. That’s undeniable. But an outline is the best way to organize and plan your presentation. When your speech outline is ready, it will be a breeze to write and then present your actual speech.

If you’re looking for more help learning how to become a strong public speaker, I recommend my free 5 Minute Speech Formula . This will help you start writing your speech and turn any idea into a powerful message.

« Previous Post Productivity Tips – Be More Productive With Less Effort Next Post » How To Communicate Effectively In Any Situation

About Brian Tracy — Brian is recognized as the top sales training and personal success authority in the world today. He has authored more than 60 books and has produced more than 500 audio and video learning programs on sales, management, business success and personal development, including worldwide bestseller The Psychology of Achievement. Brian's goal is to help you achieve your personal and business goals faster and easier than you ever imagined. You can follow him on Twitter , Facebook , Pinterest , Linkedin and Youtube .

  • Most Recent
  • How to Sell and Become a Master Salesperson
  • Navigating Life with a Professional Life Coach & How to Become One
  • 165 Inspirational Quotes To Keep You Motivated In Life
  • How to Create a SMART Goals Action Plan
  • Increase Sales at Any Time of the Year with These Sales Strategies
  • Free Webinar: How To Write a Book and Become a Published Author
  • Free Video Series: 3-Part Sales Mastery Training Series
  • Free Assessment: The Confidence Factor
  • Free Assessment: Discovering Your Talents

Browse Categories

  • Financial Success

Follow Brian & Join the Discussion

  • Free Resources
  • Best Sellers
  • Knowledge Base
  • Shipping & Returns
  • Privacy Policy
  • About Brian
  • Brian Recommends

Your Privacy is Guaranteed. We will never give, lease or sell your personal information. Period!

© Copyright 2001-2024 Brian Tracy International. All Rights Reserved.

  • PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
  • EDIT Edit this Article
  • EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
  • Browse Articles
  • Learn Something New
  • Quizzes Hot
  • This Or That Game New
  • Train Your Brain
  • Explore More
  • Support wikiHow
  • About wikiHow
  • Log in / Sign up
  • Education and Communications
  • Communication Skills
  • Public Speaking
  • Speechwriting

How to Write a Speech Outline

Last Updated: January 3, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Emily Listmann, MA and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Emily Listmann is a private tutor in San Carlos, California. She has worked as a Social Studies Teacher, Curriculum Coordinator, and an SAT Prep Teacher. She received her MA in Education from the Stanford Graduate School of Education in 2014. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 501,044 times.

A speech outline can increase your confidence and help you keep your place so you sound authoritative and in control. As you write your speech outline, focus on how you'll introduce yourself and your topic, the points you'll cover, and the interests of your audience.

Sample Outline and Writing Help

speech have outline

Crafting Your Introduction

Step 1 Start with a greeting.

  • Keep in mind you may be nervous when you start your speech. Include this in your outline so you won't forget.
  • If there's anything about you that relates you to your audience, or to the group that organized the event, you want to include that in your brief greeting as well – especially if you didn't have the benefit of an introduction from someone else.
  • For example, you might say "Good afternoon. I'm Sally Sunshine, and I've been a volunteer with the Springfield Animal Society for five years. I'm honored they've invited me to speak here today about the importance of spaying or neutering your pets."

Step 2 Open your speech with an attention-getter.

  • When choosing your attention-getter, keep your audience in mind. Think about what would grab their attention – not necessarily what you personally find interesting or humorous.
  • If you're not sure whether your attention-getter will work, try practicing it in front of friends or family members who are similar in age and interests to the people who will be in the audience when you give your speech.
  • For example, if you're giving a speech on spaying and neutering pets to a group of suburban families, you might open with a humorous reference to the Disney movie "101 Dalmatians."

Step 3 Give your audience a reason to listen to your speech.

  • Briefly explain the importance of the topic or issue you'll be discussing in your speech.
  • If your speech is an informative one, explain why the information is important or relevant to your audience.
  • For argumentative speeches, explain what might happen if action isn't taken on the issue.
  • For example, you might say "Every year, our local animal shelter has to put down 500 unwanted cats and dogs. If all pets were spayed and neutered, it's estimated this number would decrease to under 100."

Step 4 Present your thesis statement.

  • If you're giving an argumentative speech, your thesis statement will be a statement of the ultimate point you hope to prove through the information and evidence you lay out in your speech.
  • For example, the thesis statement for a speech arguing that all pet owners should spay or neuter their pets might be "Our entire community would benefit if all pets were spayed or neutered."
  • The thesis statement for a more informative speech will simply summarize the type of information you're going to provide the audience through your speech.
  • For a more scientific speech, your thesis statement will reflect the hypothesis of the scientific study you're presenting in your speech.

Step 5 Establish your credibility.

  • If you're giving a speech for a class in school, your "credibility" may be as simple as the fact that you took the class and researched the topic.
  • However, if you have a more personalized interest in the topic of your speech, this is a good time to mention that.
  • For an argumentative speech, a personal connection to the subject matter can enhance your credibility. For example, maybe you're giving a speech about local urban housing policy and you became interested in the topic when you learned your family was facing eviction. A personal connection often can mean more to members of your audience than extensive professional experience in the area.

Step 6 Preview your main points.

  • There's no hard and fast rule, but speeches typically have three main points. You should list them in your introduction in the order you plan to present them in your speech. The order in which you discuss your points depends on the type of speech you're giving.
  • For example, your speech on spaying or neutering pets might address the benefits to the pet first, then the benefit to the pet's family, then the benefit to the community at large. This starts small and moves outward.
  • For an argumentative speech, you typically want to lead with your strongest argument and work down in order of strength.
  • If you're giving an informative speech based on a historical event, you may want to provide your points chronologically. Other informative speeches may be better served by starting with the broadest point and moving to more narrow points.
  • Ultimately, you want to order your points in a way that feels natural to you and will enable you to easily transition from one point to another.

Building the Body of Your Speech

Step 1 State your first point.

  • Your first point will be a top-level entry on your outline, typically noted by a Roman numeral.
  • Beneath that top-level, you will have a number of sub-points which are comments, statistics, or other evidence supporting that point. Depending on how your outline is formatted, these typically will be letters or bullet points.

Step 2 Present your supporting evidence or arguments.

  • As with the points themselves, with your evidence you typically want to start with the strongest or most important sub-point or piece of evidence and move down. This way, if you start running short on time, you can easily cut the last points without worrying that you're leaving out something important.
  • The type of evidence or sub-points you'll want to include will depend on the type of speech you're giving.
  • Try to avoid pounding your audience with long series of numbers or statistics – they typically won't retain the information. If you have a significant amount of numerical data or statistics, creating an infographic you can project during your presentation may be more useful.
  • Keep in mind that additional personal stories or anecdotes can be particularly effective to get your point across in a speech.
  • For example, if your first point in your speech about spaying or neutering pets is that the procedure benefits the pets themselves, you might point out that pets that are spayed or neutered live longer, are at a decreased risk for certain types of cancer, and are generally more healthy than pets who aren't spayed or neutered.

Step 3 Transition to your next point.

  • Avoid over-thinking your transition. It really doesn't need to be incredibly sophisticated. If you can't come up with anything specific, using a simple transitional phrase will work fine.
  • For example, you might say "Now that I've discussed how spaying and neutering has a positive effect on your pet's health, I want to move to the effect that spaying and neutering has on your family."
  • Some of the most effective transitions turn on a particular word or phrase, such as the word "effect" in the example above.

Step 4 Repeat the same process for all remaining points.

  • When choosing your sub-points or the facts that you want to emphasize in your speech, keep your audience in mind as well as the overall point. Think about what's important to them, or what they potentially would find most surprising or most interesting.

Creating Your Closing

Step 1 Provide a smooth transition.

  • This transition doesn't need to be fancy – it doesn't even have to be a whole sentence. You can simply say "In conclusion," and then launch into your summary.

Step 2 Summarize the points you've discussed.

  • You don't need to go into detail here – you're just reinforcing what you've already told your audience.
  • Make sure you don't introduce any new information in your closing summary.
  • For example, you might say "As you've seen, spaying or neutering your pet has substantial benefits not only for you and your pet, but also for the community at large."

Step 3 Restate your thesis statement.

  • If your speech went well, you have fully proven your thesis and demonstrated its importance. This statement should relate back to the summary of your points and present a strong statement.
  • Particularly for brief speeches, you can even combine your summary of points with your thesis statement in a single sentence that wraps up your speech.
  • For example, you might say "Given the benefits to your pet's health, to your family, and to the overall well-being of your community, it is clear that spaying or neutering pets should be a top priority for all pet owners."

Step 4 Leave your audience something to remember.

  • You may want to think of a way to bring the entire speech back around to that story you initially told to grab your audience's attention.
  • If you have an argumentative or similar speech, your closing lines typically will include a call to action. Give your audience an example of how important the subject of your speech is, and implore them to act on the information you gave them in a specific way.
  • When making a call to action, make sure you include specific details, such as where to go, who to contact, and when to act.
  • For example, you might say "For the next week, the Springfield Animal Society will be spaying and neutering pets for free at their clinic on 123 Main Street. Call 555-555-5555 to make an appointment for your furry friend today!"

Step 5 Thank the audience and anyone who invited you.

  • Particularly if your speech was longer or if you went over the time allotted, be sure to tell them that you appreciate their time.
  • As with your initial greeting, including this in your outline ensures you won't forget it in the moment. That doesn't mean you should try to write something verbatim. Rather, you should focus on your thanks being more off-the-cuff and sincere.

Step 6 Note time for questions.

  • If you want to establish parameters for the questions, be sure to list these in your outline so you can mention them when you announce that you're open for questions.
  • Anticipate questions that may be asked dependent on your speech topic. Preemptively answer those questions and include them in your outline.
  • You also should note if you only have a specified period of time for questions, or if you're only taking a set number of questions.

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Outlines can vary in how formal or informal you make them. You could either make it a full script or use shorthand with highlighted main points. Use the outline that works best for you. Thanks Helpful 11 Not Helpful 0
  • Use a large font that you can easily read by glancing down. Print your outline and place it on a desk, then stand and look down at the paper. If it's too small or you find yourself leaning over to read it, increase the font size. Thanks Helpful 15 Not Helpful 3
  • If you're giving the speech for a class, you may need to turn in an outline of your speech that follows particular content or format requirements. Review your assignment carefully and turn in an outline that follows your instructor's requirements, even if you decide to use a slightly different outline when you give your speech. Thanks Helpful 4 Not Helpful 0

speech have outline

You Might Also Like

Write a Welcome Speech

  • ↑ https://www.unr.edu/writing-speaking-center/student-resources/writing-speaking-resources/speech-introductions
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/the_writing_process/thesis_statement_tips.html
  • ↑ https://lewisu.edu/writingcenter/pdf/final-developing-a-speech-outline.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.unr.edu/writing-speaking-center/student-resources/writing-speaking-resources/speech-evidence
  • ↑ https://open.lib.umn.edu/publicspeaking/chapter/10-2-keeping-your-speech-moving/

About This Article

Emily Listmann, MA

The best way to write a speech outline is to write the main points of your greeting and introduction in the first section, including your name and what you’ll be talking about. Then, make a second section with bullet points of all the important details you want to mention in the body of your speech. Make sure to include facts and evidence to back your argument up. Finish your outline with a section that summarizes your points concisely. To learn how to keep your audience's attention throughout your speech, keep reading below! Did this summary help you? Yes No

  • Send fan mail to authors

Reader Success Stories

Ren Solomon

Ren Solomon

Oct 1, 2018

Did this article help you?

speech have outline

Erick Villegas

Sep 21, 2017

Fernando Patino

Fernando Patino

Nov 19, 2018

Tristan Doell

Tristan Doell

Oct 12, 2017

L. P.

Nov 23, 2017

Am I a Narcissist or an Empath Quiz

Featured Articles

Enjoy Your Early Teen Years

Trending Articles

What is Golden Child Syndrome? 7 Signs You Were the Golden Child

Watch Articles

Wrap a Round Gift

  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Info
  • Not Selling Info

Don’t miss out! Sign up for

wikiHow’s newsletter


7.4 Outlining Your Speech

OSU student standing between two tall library shelves while reading a book

Most speakers and audience members would agree that an organized speech is both easier to present as well as more persuasive. Public speaking teachers especially believe in the power of organizing your speech, which is why they encourage (and often require) that you create an outline for your speech. Outlines, or textual arrangements of all the various elements of a speech, are a very common way of organizing a speech before it is delivered. Most extemporaneous speakers keep their outlines with them during the speech as a way to ensure that they do not leave out any important elements and to keep them on track. Writing an outline is also important to the speechwriting process since doing so forces the speakers to think about the main ideas, known as main points, and subpoints, the examples they wish to include, and the ways in which these elements correspond to one another. In short, the outline functions both as an organization tool and as a reference for delivering a speech.

Outline Types

There are two types of outlines, the preparation outline and the speaking outline.

Preparation Outline

The first outline you will write is called the preparation outline . Also called a skeletal, working, practice, or rough outline, the preparation outline is used to work through the various components of your speech in an organized format. Stephen E. Lucas (2004) put it simply: “The preparation outline is just what its name implies—an outline that helps you prepare the speech.” When writing the preparation outline, you should focus on  finalizing the specific purpose and thesis statement, logically ordering your main points, deciding where supporting material should be included, and refining the overall organizational pattern of your speech. As you write the preparation outline, you may find it necessary to rearrange your points or to add or subtract supporting material. You may also realize that some of your main points are sufficiently supported while others are lacking. The final draft of your preparation outline should include full sentences. In most cases, however, the preparation outline is reserved for planning purposes only and is translated into a speaking outline before you deliver the speech. Keep in mind though, even a full sentence outline is not an essay.

Speaking Outline

A speaking outline is the outline you will prepare for use when delivering the speech. The speaking outline is much more succinct than the preparation outline and includes brief phrases or words that remind the speakers of the points they need to make, plus supporting material and signposts (Beebe & Beebe, 2003). The words or phrases used on the speaking outline should briefly encapsulate all of the information needed to prompt the speaker to accurately deliver the speech. Although some cases call for reading a speech verbatim from the full-sentence outline, in most cases speakers will simply refer to their speaking outline for quick reminders and to ensure that they do not omit any important information. Because it uses just words or short phrases, and not full sentences, the speaking outline can easily be transferred to index cards that can be referenced during a speech. However, check with your instructor regarding what you will be allowed to use for your speech.

Components of Outlines

The main components of the outlines are the main points, subordination and coordination, parallelism, division, and the connection of main points.

Main Points

Main points are the main ideas in the speech. In other words, the main points are what your audience should remember from your talk, and they are phrased as single, declarative sentences. These are never phrased as a question, nor can they be a quote or form of citation. Any supporting material you have will be put in your outline as a subpoint. Since this is a public speaking class, your instructor will decide how long your speeches will be, but in general, you can assume that no speech will be longer than 10 minutes in length. Given that alone, we can make one assumption. All speeches will fall between 2 to 5 main points based simply on length. If you are working on an outline and you have ten main points, something is wrong, and you need to revisit your ideas to see how you need to reorganize your points.

All main points are preceded by Roman numerals (I, II, III, etc.). Subpoints are preceded by capital letters (A, B, C, etc.), then Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.), lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.). You can subordinate further than this. Speak with your instructor regarding his or her specific instructions. Each level of subordination is also differentiated from its predecessor by indenting a few spaces. Indenting makes it easy to find your main points, subpoints, and the supporting points and examples below them.

Let’s work on understanding how to take main points and break them into smaller ideas by subordinating them further and further as we go by using the following outline example:

Topic : Dog

Specific Purpose : To inform my audience about characteristics of dogs

Thesis : There are many types of dogs that individuals can select from before deciding which would make the best family pet.

Preview : First, I will describe the characteristics of large breed dogs, and then I will discuss characteristics of small breed dogs.

I.     First, let’s look at the characteristics of large breed dogs      A.     Some large breed dogs need daily activity.      B.     Some large breed dogs are dog friendly.      C.     Some large breed dogs drool.           1.     If you are particularly neat, you may not want one of these.               a.     Bloodhounds drool the most.                   1)     After eating is one of the times drooling is bad.                   2)     The drooling is horrible after they drink, so beware!               b.    English bloodhounds drool a lot as well.           2.     If you live in an apartment, these breeds could pose a problem. II.    Next, let’s look at the characteristics of small breed dogs.      A.     Some small breed dogs need daily activity.      B.     Some small breed dogs are dog friendly.      C.     Some small breed dogs are friendly to strangers.           1.    Welsh Terriers love strangers.               a.     They will jump on people.               b.     They will wag their tails and nuzzle.           2.    Beagles love strangers.           3.    Cockapoos also love strangers.

Subordination and Coordination

You should have noticed that as ideas were broken down, or subordinated, there was a hierarchy to the order. To check your outline for coherence, think of the outline as a staircase. All of the points that are beneath and on a diagonal to the points above them are subordinate points. So using the above example, points A, B, and C dealt with characteristics of large breed dogs, and those points are all subordinate to main point I. Similarly, points 1 and 2 under point C both dealt with drool, so those are subordinate. This is the subordination of points. If we had discussed food under point C, you would know that something didn’t make sense. You will also see that there is coordination of points. As part of the hierarchy, coordination simply means that all of the numbers or letters should represent the same idea. In this example, A, B, and C were all characteristics, so those are all coordinate to each other. Had C been “German Shepherd,” then the outline would have been incorrect because that is a type of dog, not a characteristic.


Another important rule in outlining is known as parallelism . This means that when possible, you begin your sentences in a similar way, using a similar grammatical structure. For example, in the previous example on dogs, some of the sentences began “some large breed dogs.” This type of structure adds clarity to your speaking. Students often worry that parallelism will sound boring. It’s actually the opposite! It adds clarity. However, if you had ten sentences in a row, we would never recommend you begin them all the same way. That is where transitions come into the picture and break up any monotony that could occur.

The principle of division is an important part of outlining. When you have a main point, you will be explaining it. You should have enough meaningful information that you can divide it into two subpoints A and B. If subpoint A has enough information that you can explain it, then it, too, should be able to be divided into two subpoints. So, division means this: If you have an A, then you need a B; if you have a 1, then you need a 2, and so on. What if you cannot divided the point? In a case like that you would simply incorporate the information in the point above.

Connecting Your Main Points

One way to connect points is to include transitional statements . Transitional statements are phrases or sentences that lead from one distinct- but-connected idea to another. They are used to alert the audience to the fact that you are getting ready to discuss something else. When moving from one point to another, your transition may just be a word or short phrase, known as a sign post. For instance, you might say “next,” “also,” or “moreover.” You can also enumerate your speech points and signal transitions by starting each point with “First,” “Second,” “Third,” et cetera. You might also incorporate non-verbal transitions, such as brief pauses or a movement across the stage. Pausing to look at your audience, stepping out from behind a podium, or even raising or lowering the rate of your voice can signal to audience members that you are transitioning.

Another way to incorporate transitions into your speech is by offering internal summaries and internal previews within your speech. Summaries provide a recap of what has already been said, making it more likely that audiences will remember the points that they hear again. For example, an internal summary may sound like this:

So far, we have seen that the pencil has a long and interesting history. We also looked at the many uses the pencil has that you may not have known about previously.

Like the name implies, internal previews lay out what will occur next in your speech. They are longer than transitional words or signposts .

Next, let us explore what types of pencils there are to pick from that will be best for your specific project.

Additionally, summaries can be combined with internal previews to alert audience members that the next point builds on those that they have already heard.

Now that I have told you about the history of the pencil, as well as its many uses, let’s look at what types of pencils you can pick from that might be best for your project.

It is important to understand that if you use an internal summary and internal preview between main points, you need to state a clear main point following the internal preview. Here’s an example integrating all of the points on the pencil:

I. First, let me tell you about the history of the pencil.

So far we have seen that the pencil has a long and interesting history. Now, we can look at how the pencil can be used (internal summary, signpost, and internal preview).

II. The pencil has many different uses, ranging from writing to many types of drawing.

Now that I have told you about the history of the pencil, as well as its many uses, let’s look at what types of pencils you can pick from that might be best for your project (Signpost, internal summary and preview).

III. There are over fifteen different types of pencils to choose from ranging in hardness and color.

Had Meg, the student mentioned in the opening anecdote, taken some time to work through the organizational process, it is likely her speech would have gone much more smoothly when she finished her introduction. It is very common for beginning speakers to spend a great deal of their time preparing catchy introductions, fancy PowerPoint presentations, and nice conclusions, which are all very important. However, the body of any speech is where the speaker must make effective arguments, provide helpful information, entertain, and the like, so it makes sense that speakers should devote a proportionate amount of time to these areas as well. By following this chapter, as well as studying the other chapters in this text, you should be prepared to craft interesting, compelling, and organized speeches.

used to work through the various components of your speech in an organized format

much more succinct than the preparation outline and includes brief phrases or words that remind the speakers of the points they need to make, plus supporting material and signposts

the main ideas in the speech

a hierarchy to the order of the points of a speech

all of the numbers or letters of points should represent the same idea

the repetition of grammatical structures that correspond in sound, meter, or meaning

if you have an A, then you need a B; if you have a 1, then you need a 2, and so on

phrases or sentences that lead from one distinct- but-connected idea to another

transition using just a word or short phrase

Introduction to Speech Communication Copyright © 2021 by Individual authors retain copyright of their work. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book

My Speech Class

Public Speaking Tips & Speech Topics

How to Craft a Masterful Outline of Speech

Photo of author

Jim Peterson has over 20 years experience on speech writing. He wrote over 300 free speech topic ideas and how-to guides for any kind of public speaking and speech writing assignments at My Speech Class.

How to Craft a Masterful Outline of Speech intro image

I’m sure you have all seen at least one captivating Ted Talk online. One thing you probably noticed is how smoothly it went. I can assure you that every public speaker has done their homework and put together an outline of speech before presenting it in front of an audience. This wouldn’t be possible without some preparation beforehand.

An outline done right can do wonders for organizing your speech, and public speaking teachers often stress the importance of this organization tool. A rough outline can help you come up with more main points and sub-points for your arguments. It will help you brainstorm ideas. Some people use index cards with keywords or brief phrases from their speech outline to help them accurately deliver their speech.

The outline functions as a visual aid, too. Some people with photographic memory can use the outline as supporting material and ensure they do not forget crucial elements of their speech. Logically ordering your speech points can also smoothen your speechwriting process.

The speech outline is one of the most critical elements to have. Simply put, it has two main functions: it’s a point of reference and an organizational tool. Our guide will help you understand how an outline is used, the structure of an outline, and the different types, so you can create the most helpful outline for you.

Speech Outline Types

Preparation outline.

The preparation outline is your first draft. It includes the bare bones of your speech, and it’s often referred to as a working/rough/practice outline. You will write the main points of your speech, the supporting points, organized logically, and the other various components, such as attention getter and so on (we expand on the parts of a speech outline further in the article).

The preparation outline is used to help put your thoughts on paper and arrange your material. It is also the place where you should pay attention to your arguments. Are they convincing or lacking evidence? You might need to rearrange some parts to make your speech flows better. Don’t be afraid of removing parts of your preparation outline if they don’t make sense.

The preparation outline is then transformed into a speaking outline. Even though your preparation outline should include full sentences, don’t forget your it is not an essay. Try not to get carried away with writing, and use it to get your textual arguments in order.

Can We Write Your Speech?

Get your audience blown away with help from a professional speechwriter. Free proofreading and copy-editing included.

Speaking Outline

The speaking outline is your reference point. Unlike the preparation outline, this one is more concise includes keywords to serve as quick reminders during your speech. These short phrases should briefly encapsulate your main points, conclusion, introduction, and an attention grabber. Unlike the first outline, which uses long sentences and breakdowns of your textual arguments, the speaking outline could easily fit on cue cards and help prepare for your speech.

You shouldn’t solely rely on index cards, however, as you may come across as unprepared in the eyes of the audience. Most speakers use them to prepare for their speech and simply refer to them when they get stuck. Make sure to check the instructor’s requirements to see if you’re allowed index cards during your speech.

Things to Consider Before Outlining Your Speech

The big picture.

Before you get into arranging your outline, it’s essential to think about the big picture. Before you begin, consider three things: think about the speaker, the subject, and the audience. Here is more detail about each element:

Speaker – Why are you discussing the topic at hand? Why does this subject matter to you? Do you have any significant insights on the topic? Do you have any expertise or qualifications that can help convince the audience of the legitimacy of your words?

Subject – Are you covering a controversial topic? How do you think your audience will react to it? Are you going to make some interesting points? Try to predict the audience’s reaction s you can be more prepared for your speech.

Audience – What do you know about your audience? Are they all from a particular age group? Are they qualified in the same area you are? Are they familiar with your work? Has the audience paid to listen to your speech?

Try to take a step back and look at the big picture. You might find some exciting takeaways when doing that.

Type of Speech

Think about the purpose of your speech. Are you there to convince the audience to do something? Or is your goal to inform the audience of some less-known facts? Generally speaking, there are two common categories of speech, and yours most likely falls under one of them:

Informative speech – the primary purpose of the informative speech is to educate the audience on a subject. The goal is to have the audience learn something and leave your speech with a better understanding of a specific subject. We have an in-depth article about informative speech outline with examples here .

Persuasive speech – a persuasive speech aims to convince the audience to do something or change their opinion on a topic. It is similar to a sales pitch and combines credibility, logic, and emotion to help convince the listener. We have in-depth article about persuasive speech outline here .

Before you start outlining your speech, make sure you have chosen your preferred type, as the outlines vary depending on your speech category.

The title is highly underestimated when making a speech outline. Logically we think that we don’t need one. Since we are more or less presenting the speech verbatim, we are not exactly going to stand in front of an audience quoting our speech title. But we might still need one. A title helps summarize your main goal. It holds the central idea behind your speech. You will have no trouble writing a title once you are sure what message you are trying to deliver.

What is the central idea of your speech? Is there e certain question you are aiming to answer? Determine the essential message behind your speech. Try to sum it up in a single sentence. Try to explain your message simply, without overcomplicating it.

Use your central message as a reference point throughout your speech. When you get stuck, write up your main points and supporting arguments, and always ask yourself, do they support the key message? If not, they might be redundant.

In order to make a captivating speech and maintain the audience’s attention, you need to think about the relevance of your message. You should always put the audience first, so now that you have your key message prepared, list the reasons why the audience should care about your message. Is it relevant to them somehow?

Think of at least one reason why the speech should matter to your audience. For example, if you’re writing a persuasive speech about texting and driving, the audience would find it relevant because it concerns their safety. If you can’t think of a relevant reason why the listeners should care about your speech, reconsider your message.

You have probably heard about hooks before when you used this technique to begin your essays. The hook is the attention-getter, and it is paramount to your speech. It’s the first sentence your audience will hear and usually determines whether or not your audience would listen to the rest of your speech. There are many clever ways to start your talk and ensure you’re being heard:

  • Ask the audience a rhetorical question.
  • Start with a joke.
  • Tell a short personal story.
  • Recite a quote.
  • Prompt the audience members to do something.

Speaking of encouraging the audience to do something, this brings us to our next point.

Call To Action

When presenting a persuasive speech, you’ll most likely need a call to action. The most convincing speeches prompt the audience to make some kind of action. You can ask them to raise a hand if they have done something (drink more than 5 cups of coffee a day). Alternatively, you can ask them to scan a QR code to reveal some useful information on the topic at hand. These small steps will move the audience in the right direction.

Speech Outline Structure

Now that you have prepared thoroughly, you can formulate your speech outline. Get familiar with the main points of your speech. You can find examples and references below, explaining each topic. Remember that all the various elements of your speech will make an organizational pattern supporting your central thesis (key message). An organized speech has main points, typically between 2 and 5, and any supporting material is put in your outline as a sub-point.

A Roman numeral numbers every main point, while subpoints are listed with capital letters. The hierarchal order that follows is Arabic numerals and, finally, lowercase letters. For further subordination, speak to your tutor or the person in charge of your public speaking project.

Here is the basic speech outline, including an introduction, body, and conclusion. For planning purposes, each section is explained to understand the textual arrangements best. Examples are given later in the text.

Every basic speech outline includes an introduction. This is your speech opening, and it needs to be robust and captivating. It is critical to prepare a compelling introduction. An introduction has 3-5 parts, depending on the length of your speech.

  • Attention getter – Capture the audience’s attention.
  • Thesis statement – Your key message is introduced here with a couple of short sentences.
  • Motivation – Explain how this speech will be relevant to the audience
  • Qualifications – Explain to the audience why you are qualified to discuss this topic
  • Transition – Smoothly transition the audience to the next part of your speech

The body is an integral part of any basic speech. Here you can develop your thesis in detail. The body holds the bulk of the information you will be presenting in front of an audience. It is important to do plenty of research on your speech topic. Gather content you might need during your talk. are you going to need any visual aids? Perhaps make some charts of your statistics. Or, if you’re going for a humorous approach, some memes on the topic can get the audience laughing and hungry to hear more on the topic. Aim for a sheet full of ideas. It’s worth noting that too much information doesn’t mean better speech. Once you have gathered all your engaging material, subtract some supporting material that you feel isn’t genuinely helping your presentation. You shouldn’t try to talk about everything. Instead, choose what is most important and focus on making it relevant and believable by adding sub-points:

  • First subpoint (Give some support to the reason above)
  • Sufficiently supported statements (Provide more factual arguments to support the above statements)
  • Sufficiently supported statements
  • Second subpoint (Structured like the one above, with its supporting point listed below)
  • Sufficiently supported statements (…)
  • More points, following the above guidelines
  • Transitional statement
  • First subpoint (Supporting the main point)
  • Continue organizing your outline this way.
  • First subpoint (supporting the main point)
  • Continue your outline as shown above.

The grand finale of your speech is where you must tie together all previous elements in a clear and solid point.

  • Summary – Here, all your main ideas and points will connect together and formulate a convincing conclusion. You can provide short examples of why the listeners should agree with your proposed thesis:
  • Call to action – give the audience members a suggestion, something they can do to support what they have learned. Or instead, think of a unique or memorable ending to your speech.
  • Closure – Bring the speech to an end by thanking the audience for their time.
  • Bibliography – in some cases, you might get asked for your bibliography of references. If you’re using many statements, quotes, or statistics from various sources, remember to collect them throughout your research.

Let’s help you visualize these instructions and see how these elements correspond by looking at an example.

Topic: Hypoalergenic Cats

Specific Purpose: To debunk the myth of hypoallergenic cats.

Thesis: Despite there being breeds of cats known as “hypoallergenic”, no cat breed is guaranteed to relieve you of your allergy symptoms.

Preview: I will talk about the misconceptions behind cat allergies and explain how they work.

Here is an example of the structure of a Body:

  • People are allergic to a protein called FEL D1.
  • The protein is contained in the cat’s saliva.
  • The saliva is being transferred to the cat’s fur during their cleaning process.
  • This fur is spread around your house in the form of dander.
  • People are not allergic to a cat’s fur, just the protein.
  • This means you could be allergic to some cats, not all of them.
  • Get a check-up and find out if there are any medications you can take to ease your allergy symptoms.
  • Vacuum regularly around your house to reduce cat hair and dander spreading.
  • Swap your drapes with blinds and carpets with hardwood floors. That way, less fur will stick to your furniture.
  • Buy HEPA air filters for every room.
  • Clean out their litterbox more often.
  • No cat is hypoallergenic.
  • All cats make the protein FEL D1.
  • Some breeds are known to produce less FEL D1, but there is no guarantee you won’t be allergic to them.
  • Even the “naked” cat breeds such as Sphynx, Donskoy, Bambino, etc., produce FEL D1.
  • Buying “hypoallergenic cats” only creates a bigger rehoming problem.
  • Many cat breeders like to use the myth of hypoallergenic cats to sell expensive cat breeds.
  • Once people realize the cat isn’t hypoallergenic, they can no longer keep it.
  • The cat is either thrown out, put in a shelter, or resold, creating tons of stress for the animal or potentially resulting in its death.

Now that you know the structure of a speech, you are almost ready to start writing it. By all means, if this has inspired you, grab a sheet of paper and write down the ideas that come to mind. But before you start putting your outline on paper, double-check you are familiar with the rules of outlining a speech.

Rules in Outlining

Speech outlines follow a specific set of rules. Going by these rules will only help you polish the particular details that make your speech stand out. To double-check that your speech makes sense, go through your outline and give it another read to check for coherence. Here are some characteristics you should pay attention to:


Think of your outline as a staircase – your final draft should have subordinate points diagonally placed beneath your main points. They should all interlink and reference one another.

Looking at the example from the section above, points A. and B. explain what determines a cat allergy and what doesn’t. Points 1-3 give information on why the protein affects people and debunks the myth that people are allergic to cat hair . Points 1-3 are called subordination of point, just like  A., B., and C. are to main point III. Your overall organizational pattern should not only include Roman numerals, points, and thesis statements. It should be cohesive and coordinated. 


Another important part of speech writing is parallelism. It is the concept of beginning sentences similarly whenever possible, using similar grammar. Pay attention to our example once again. Note section II and the subordinate points of main point B. – all points start with a verb: “Get,” “Vacuum”, “Swap,” “Clean.” This type of structure adds clarity to your speaking and shows you have really paid attention to your full-sentence outline. Don’t worry about sounding boring – parallelism helps you sound acute!

Another essential part of your speech outline is division. The concept is simple – when you’re trying to make one point, you should also try to expand it. If your point is convincing enough, it will have plenty of meaningful information that you can lengthen in sections A. and B. Similarly. You can use a supporting point for sub-points A. and B. to help expand them, and so on. Remember you’re doing this only to support your main thesis statement. If your sub-points aren’t doing that, you might be waffling on and confusing your audience.


A clever way to connect your main points is by using transitional statements. In most cases, speakers use these sentences to glue together two distinctive (yet connected) ideas. That way, the audience is prepared that something else is being discussed. You have used transitional sentences in essay writing. Maybe these words will ring a bell: “next”, “also”, “moreover”, “firstly”. These words and phrases will greatly improve your writing skills and, eventually, your entire speech.

There is another way you can integrate a transition into your speech – by using non-verbal transitions. Adding brief pauses or moving around the stage grabs the audience’s attention and helps them understand some other concept is being introduced. Most extemporaneous speakers take it to another level by stepping out of the podium or raising or lowering their voice rate. These can all be signals to your audience that a transition is taking place.

A third way to include transitions into your speech outline is to make internal summaries. To write an internal summary, summarize what has already been said in a brief sentence or two. For example:

So far, we have explored why n cat can be hypoallergenic. But does that mean you can be less allergic to some cats?

We have hinted at the next point in our speech with this question. We could also use  a summary to build on an issue we are currently expanding:

Now that you understand how cat allergies work, let’s see if there is a way to share your life with a cat despite being allergic.

How to Write an Outline for a Persuasive Speech, with Examples

30+ Controversial Opinions That Will Get You Thinking

1 thought on “How to Craft a Masterful Outline of Speech”

just fyi, most of you guys links are no longer vailed

Leave a Comment

I accept the Privacy Policy

Reach out to us for sponsorship opportunities

Vivamus integer non suscipit taciti mus etiam at primis tempor sagittis euismod libero facilisi.

© 2024 My Speech Class

speech outline

Photo by Keystone/Getty Images

By Colin Baker Leaders Staff

Colin Baker

Colin Baker

Leadership and Business Writer

Colin Baker is a business writer for Leaders Media. He has a background in as a television journalism, working as...

Learn about our editorial policy

Updated Aug 15, 2023

Reviewed by Hannah L. Miller

speech have outline

Hannah L. Miller

Senior Editor

Hannah L. Miller, MA, is the senior editor for Leaders Media. Since graduating with her Master of Arts in 2015,...

How a Speech Outline Can Help You Persuade Your Audience

Why use a speech outline, the two outline types, speech outline template, speech outline example, use a speech outline for next time.

Contrary to many politicians, Winston Churchill wrote all of his speeches. From his famous “We shall fight on the beaches” speech addressed to the House of Commons in 1940 to the scores of others, Churchill  wrote and delivered his speeches  in his own way. Despite his contemporaries describing him as “a word-spinner,” and, “a second-rate rhetorician,” people remember Winston Churchill’s words even today. And in his hand during a persuasive speech, you could almost certainly see a piece of parchment that was his speech outline.

The National Social Anxiety Center says that almost  75 percent  of people suffer from public speaking-related anxiety. So how do great speakers ease their pre-stage jitters? One of the most effective ways to ditch your nerves is by creating a speech outline you can follow  while  presenting. Novice presenters skip the outline, which is a big mistake. Veteran orators, like Churchill, understand the role of an outline.

If you feel like you’re not a naturally gifted public speaker, a speech outline can help get your message across to your audience. In this article, you’ll learn how to write a an outline and why one is important. You’ll also see a speech outline example you can follow.

As Stephen Keague writes in  The Little Red Handbook of Public Speaking and Presenting , “Proper Planning and Preparation Prevents Poor Performance.” Using a speech outline goes beyond overcoming any fears or anxieties you may have from giving a speech, although that may be reason enough. With an outline, you can organize your thoughts before fully writing out your speech. This organization helps to put everything you think about into a neatly ordered form. 

An organized speech is also more persuasive. A speech where you show your points in a scattershot manner, even if they’re good points, won’t have the same impact as one where you lay out your main points in a logical, convincing fashion. In other words, writing an outline for a persuasive speech will help your comments stay with your audience for longer.

Lastly, an outline for a speech becomes a handy guide you can use to stay on track during your speech. While some people may prefer to read from a speech they prepared word for word, following an outline helps you sound more natural. That, in turn, helps your audience give you their undivided attention.

If the goal is to persuade your audience toward your point of view, an outline is essential.

An outline doesn’t have to follow a one size fits all template. Different outlines can serve different purposes. For example, an impromptu speech outline will look much different than a keynote address outline. Yet, most outlines fall under two categories: a preparation outline and a speaking outline. Here’s how both of them break down.

Preparation Outline

A preparation outline is also known as a practice or a working outline. As you can probably guess by the name, this outline helps you prepare your persuasive speech. While writing this outline, you can develop a solid thesis and call to action for your speech while also writing down the main and supporting points you need to include. Every point you place in the outline should go in a logical order that builds off each other. Your preparation outline should be an evolving document as you make additions, take away the fluff, and refine your speech into an effective persuasive piece. The result is a full script of every line in your speech, one that you can save in your archives. You can also use it to develop the second outline type.

Speaking Outline

The speaking outline is what many people think of when they hear the term “speech outline.” This is the outline you’ll actually have with you when you deliver your speech. The speaking outline shows all the points you want to hit, including any phrases or quotes you’ll want to say word for word. The points serve as helpful guides, allowing you to navigate your way through the speech without needing to look at your papers constantly. This outline acts as a reference point to make sure you provide all the information you want but still sound natural in your delivery. Many people choose to put this outline on notecards that they carry with them as they give their speeches.

A preparation outline helps you organize your thoughts as you craft your speech. Your speaking outline is what you’ll bring with you to the speech as a reference for when you’re speaking.

With those types in mind, it’s time to dive into speech outlines. By using an outline, you’ll have more confidence as you deliver your prepared remarks. While not all outlines follow the same format, you can use the following template as an excellent starting point for speech writing. Here are some elements to include with your outline.

Every speech should have a title, even if people don’t see it. On a basic level, the title should explain what the speech is about. It should also be catchy, something that people will remember and reference. For example, think about famous speech titles such as “I Have a Dream,” “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death,” and “Blood, Sweat, and Tears.”

Your outline should also include the speech topic you’re speaking about. Make the topic a short phrase. This can help you focus on the most important aspects of your speech.

  • Purpose Statement

Why are you writing this speech? What do you hope the audience gets out of what you say? The answers to these questions will form your purpose statement. Like a  vision statement  affects everything a business does, every part of your speech should speak to its purpose. Keep your purpose statement specific, so your speech remains a tight, persuasive piece. If you ever get stuck while writing a speech, you can refer to the purpose statement to get more ideas.

  • Thesis Statement

Similar to a purpose statement, your speech should also include a thesis statement. The thesis statement acts in much the same way it does for an essay. It provides a brief explanation of what you intend to prove or defend throughout your speech. Unlike the purpose statement, you will likely say the thesis statement aloud at some point in the speech.

  • Introduction

The introduction is what will hook your audience. Once you know how to start a speech, you’ll be able to grab people’s attention so you can begin to persuade them. An introduction also establishes a connection with the audience. It indicates why they should listen to you. Openings can also serve as a preview of what you plan on talking about. Getting the speech introduction right is vital because if you lose the audience initially, it becomes challenging to win their attention back.

The largest portion of your speech will be in the body. This is where you lay out the main ideas of your presentation, explaining what you intend to show the audience. The speech body breaks up further into different sections, each establishing a sub-point that connects directly with your main point. On top of that, each sub-point should have supporting points to provide more meat to your argument.

Like the introduction, the conclusion should be a brief section that wraps up everything you talked about. A conclusion is a good place to summarize your speech, emphasizing your main point and most convincing supporting evidence. At the same time, your conclusion should have a final call to action that the audience can do after the speech concludes.


As part of your preparation outline, you may consider including a bibliography at the end. Like any bibliography, it provides a list of all the sources you use for your speech. If your speech gets published, others can look up the statistics, facts, and quotes you used. This isn’t required for something like a medium-sized conference keynote address, but presenters who regularly have their speeches published understand the importance.


While preparing your speech, you should also prepare transitions between each of the above sections. Whether moving from the intro to the body or the main point to a sub-point, transitions help smooth out a speech and keep people following along with little effort. Make sure your transitions flow seamlessly from one point to the next. Without them, a speech can come across as jarring and difficult to understand.

While there are many speech outline examples to choose from, the following is a basic skeleton you can follow for the next time you have a persuasive speech to give.

  • Supporting Evidence
  • Bibliography (optional)

Dale Carnegie once said, “There are always three speeches, for every one you actually gave. The one you practiced, the one you gave, and the one you wish you gave.” By creating a speech outline, you’ll show your audience the poise of a practiced public speaker, even if you still get nervous. An outline will help you give an effective speech, one you can be proud you gave no matter what the topic is about. 

Want to learn more skills as a leader?  The following articles can help:

Top 18 Conflict Resolution Skills Every Leader Needs

9 Team Leadership Skills That Get Results

Why is Empathy Important as a Business Leader?

Search Leaders.com

speech outline template

How to write a speech outline and up your presentation game

Reading time: about 8 min

One reason people find public speaking daunting is they don’t have a simple method to sort their ideas, which can leave them feeling unprepared for the task ahead. Rather than being excited about what they have put together, they think, “Agh, that’ll have to do. I’m out of time.” This feeling, in turn, can have a negative impact on physical and mental energy levels during your talk. If you don’t feel confident, you won’t sound confident, and you’re not likely to impress your audience. If you go in confidently, the audience will be more willing to accept your ideas.

Whether you’re pitching a business idea or delivering a heartfelt wedding speech, you need to consider the perspective of your audience, identify your key message, and decide on the best way to engage your audience from start to finish.

Let’s take a look at how a speech outline works and how you can use Lucidchart to make your own.

Ready to jump right into a speech outline template?

Register for lucidchart to get started., what is a speech outline.

A persuasive speech outline gives you a map of the key ideas of your speech. First, it should ask you to consider your audience’s perspective and the key message you want them to remember from your talk. Then, it should guide you in creating a clear, organized structure for your presentation.

The Vivid Speech Outline in Lucidchart does both. It’s built on neuroscience, which shows that you can avoid anxiety and improve brain performance dramatically when you do the following:

Get information out of our heads and create a simple framework on the page: Humans have a strict limit to the amount of information that they can hold and consider in their mind at any one time. An outline lets your brain focus on one step at a time rather than becoming overwhelmed.

Prioritize, compare, and think deeply during the outline stage, not when overwhelmed by details: The prefrontal cortex, the clarification part of the brain, requires a lot of energy to function. An outline keeps you focused and avoids you hitting “the wall.”

See the relationship between ideas visually: It’s hard to think of new ideas if they don’t connect to existing ideas in some way.

Lucidchart’s Vivid Speech Outline template

Lucidchart has created a template based on Cam’s Vivid Speech Outline to help demystify and speed up the speech writing process.

The Vivid Speech Outline template demonstrates how to write a speech outline through the refinement of two parts: your overall message statement, which is the main point of your presentation, and your chunk structure, which acts as the body and building blocks of your speech. Clarifying your message statement first helps to focus your thinking when you structure your ideas.

Vivid Speech Outline message statement

Step 1: Message statement

The first page of the speech outline is where you define your transferable message. The message statement page asks three important questions:

  • Who are you speaking to? You need to look into the mind of your listeners. What’s their job role, their biases, and their wants and concerns? If you don’t understand your audience’s perspective, you won’t be able to get through to them, no matter how important your ideas may be.  
  • What do you want them to think or do? Do you want them to think something, e.g., “This project will succeed” or “Learning this method will make you better at your job”? Or do you want them to do something, like sign the contract or try the product?  
  • Why would they think or do what you suggest?  Why should your audience sign the contract, try out the product, or believe that the project will succeed? List the reasons, arguments, examples, evidence, etc. (focused on what you know about your audience).

By combining the answers to questions two and three, you will have a draft of your message statement, which you will then transfer to the second page and use as your speech’s conclusion.

Pro tip: The best way to know if this message statement truly encapsulates your point is to test it. Imagine you are finishing your presentation. Think of your imaginary audience and say your message statement out loud. Does it bring your idea to life? Is this the one key message you want your listeners to recall? If not, repeat the process until your message statement feels complete.

Vivid Speech Outline chunk structure

Step 2: Chunk structure

The second page of the template gives you a one-page summary of your entire speech or presentation in brief, narrow pieces called chunks. This allows you to separate the world’s overwhelming details into categories, sections, paragraphs, segments, etc., and think more clearly.

The foundation of your one-page chunk structure is as follows:

1. Presentation title

Create a simple yet captivating title to capture attention and set expectations.

2. Two to four chunks

Make your speech easily digestible by segmenting it into chunks. Depending on what the situation calls for, you can choose two to four chunks or main ideas. You could choose as many segments as you like, but if you include more than four, your talk will start to seem complicated. When announcing the overview of your speech, every audience will be pleased to hear that your talk requires only two, three, or four main ideas to follow.

Inside each main idea or chunk, be sure to include:

A chunk heading: This heading simply states the issue to be discussed.

Details: List the examples, evidence, stories, charts or whatever details that help bring a key point to life beneath the chunk headings.

The key point: People forget most of what they hear, which is why you should state the key point at the end of each chunk. Even if your listeners won’t remember all the details, you hope they will remember the main point for each particular chunk.

For the conclusion, simply transfer over your message statement from the first page. Although you may want to re-test the message statement (from the first page) to see how it flows with the new details you’ve added to your speech outline, you’ve already written your big finish.

Pro tip: Now that you have a completed chunk structure, you can practice your speech from start to finish in less than a minute. Because you have a one-page map of all your important points for this talk in the chunk structure, you can test your message and structure––the yellow shapes (the title, optional introduction, chunk headings, key points, and message statement)––out loud. Most of the time, you won’t need to learn every word of your speech by heart. You just need to make sure you’re clear on the message and structure.

Benefits of the Vivid Speech Outline

The Vivid Speech Outline creates an environment for natural confidence and impact. By creating a persuasive speech outline, you can:

  • Save time and effort by identifying your message and key points as the first step in the writing process.
  • Be more efficient and minimize the mental load by splitting up the outlining and structuring of your speech.
  • Reduce uncertainty and anxiety early in your preparation by considering the tough questions your audience might ask, sticking to the process, and testing the flow your talk.

Use the Vivid Speech Outline to take advantage of these benefits and get a competitive edge.

Using Lucidchart’s Vivid Speech Outline template to create your own presentation

Lucidchart’s template shows you how to write a speech outline that eloquently communicates your innovative message and engages your audience.

Use the Vivid Speech Outline custom shapes to quickly build your message statement and chunk structure pages. Simply drag and drop the custom shapes from the shape repository (or any shape in the toolbox) on the canvas, and fill in the details, chunk headings, or message statement. As you line up your points and supporting details, you’re more likely to notice if some of your ideas don’t quite fit. To make a change, drag and rearrange the shapes any way you want without losing any of the work you’ve already done. As mentioned above, key shapes for the Vivid Speech Outline are also colored to make it easier for you to practice your main ideas.

Lucidchart’s integration with Google Slides makes it easy to export your chunk structure to a slideshow presentation. Preview, edit, and rearrange the already created slides by clicking on the “Slides” icon in the dock to the right of the canvas, and then, with one click, send your finalized chunk structure to Google Slides. You can also select the “Present” option for a quick slide presentation within Lucidchart.

Creating your speech outline in Lucidchart means you also have access to all its sharing and collaboration features. Whether you want to have someone review your speech or you need to work on a presentation as a team, you can email access links to others, invite them to view, comment on, or edit the document, or chat with those with whom you’ve shared the document. Once given access to your document, your whole team can work on it and see each other’s changes in real time.

The beauty of this speech outline is in its simplicity and flexibility. With the help of Lucidchart, you can quickly structure a persuasive speech outline that works for any situation.

Lucidchart, a cloud-based intelligent diagramming application, is a core component of Lucid Software's Visual Collaboration Suite. This intuitive, cloud-based solution empowers teams to collaborate in real-time to build flowcharts, mockups, UML diagrams, customer journey maps, and more. Lucidchart propels teams forward to build the future faster. Lucid is proud to serve top businesses around the world, including customers such as Google, GE, and NBC Universal, and 99% of the Fortune 500. Lucid partners with industry leaders, including Google, Atlassian, and Microsoft. Since its founding, Lucid has received numerous awards for its products, business, and workplace culture. For more information, visit lucidchart.com.

Related articles

speech have outline

No matter what schedule or settings works best for you, these tried-and-true writing process steps keep any writing project moving

speech have outline

If you’re a student, there’s no way around it: You’re going to have to write essays. But there is an easier way to brainstorm, structure, and write the perfect essay. Learn how graphic organizers can help and get started with templates from Lucidchart.

Bring your bright ideas to life.

or continue with

Module 6: Organizing and Outlining Your Speech

The speech outline, learning objectives.

Explain the purpose of the speech outline.

A manatee puzzle with pieces missing

A well-organized outline will give you a much clearer sense of which pieces are still missing from your speech.

A speech outline is a valuable tool in your speech preparation and delivery. Putting together an outline will enable you to do the following:

  • Organize your materials following the pattern you’ve selected for your speech. The outline structure will give you a clear picture of the path and distribution of your topic.
  • Since each main point should have a similar length and number of supporting materials, an outline allows you to visually identify any imbalances in the length or depth of your main points.
  • An outline will show gaps in material or support. For example, you might notice you’ve got strong examples and testimony for your second main point, but that some research findings or statistics are still needed.
  • Assessing your outline will enable you to double-check the flow or order of your speech. For instance, when you see your main points in an outline format, you might decide to rearrange them to have the most unexpected main point be the last one.
  • A speech outline will empower you to give your best delivery. With a logical structure and flow that is easier for you to remember, you’ll be able to deliver your message with confidence and clarity.
  • Overall, assembling your outline requires you to critically evaluate every piece of content along with its organization so that your speech is well edited and logical.
  • Puzzle. Authored by : Dean Thompson. Located at : https://flic.kr/p/Ka6P8 . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • The Speech Outline. Authored by : Susan Bagley-Koyle with Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • The Speech Outline. Authored by : Misti Wills with Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution

Footer Logo Lumen Waymaker

ivy tech logo

COMM 101: Fundamentals of Public Speaking - Valparaiso

  • Delivery Skills
  • Stage Fright
  • Body Language / Non-Verbal Communication
  • Listening Skills
  • Quotation Resources
  • Speech Outline Examples
  • Speech Examples
  • More Speech Examples
  • Presentation Options
  • Citation Resources This link opens in a new window

A basic speech outline should include three main sections:

  • The Introduction --  This is where you tell them what you're going to tell them.
  • The Body -- This is where you tell them.
  • The Conclusion -- This is where you tell them what you've told them.
  • Speech Outline Formatting Guide The outline for a public speech, according to COMM 101 online textbook  The Public Speaking Project , p.p. 8-9.

Use these samples to help prepare your speech outlines and bibliographies:

  • Sample Speech Preparation Outline This type of outline is very detailed with all the main points and subpoints written in complete sentences. Your bibliography should be included with this outline.
  • Sample Speech Speaking Outline This type of outline is very brief and uses phrases or key words for the main points and subpoints. This outline is used by the speaker during the speech.
  • << Previous: Quotation Resources
  • Next: Informative Speeches >>
  • Last Updated: Sep 22, 2023 4:37 PM
  • URL: https://library.ivytech.edu/Valpo_COMM101
  • Ask-a-Librarian
  • [email protected]
  • (219) 464-8514 x 3021
  • Library staff | Find people
  • Library Guides
  • Student Life & Activities
  • Testing Services
  • B&N Bookstore
  • Speech Crafting →

How to Write an Informative Speech Outline: A Step-by-Step Guide

speech have outline

It’s the moment of truth — the anxiety-inducing moment when you realize writing the outline for your informative speech is due soon. Whether you’re looking to deliver a report on the migratory patterns of the great white stork or give a lecture on the proper techniques of candle making, knowing how to write an effective outline is essential.

That’s why we’ve put together this complete, step-by-step guide on how to write an informative speech outline. From selecting a topic to transitioning during your speech, this guide will have you well on your way to writing a compelling informative speech outline . So grab your pen and paper, put on your thinking cap, and let’s get started!

What is an Informative Speech Outline?

An informative speech outline is a document used to plan the structure and core content of a public speech. It’s used by speakers to ensure their talk covers all the important points, stays on-topic and flows logically from one point to another. By breaking down complex topics into smaller, concise sections, an effective outline can help keep a speaker organized, set objectives for their talk, support key points with evidence and promote audience engagement. A well-structured outline can also make a presentation easier to remember and act as an invaluable reminder if nerves ever get the better of the speaker. On one hand, an informative speech outline enables speakers to cover multiple ideas in an efficient manner while avoiding digressions. On the other hand, it’s important that speakers remain flexible to adjust and adapt content to meet audience needs. While there are some tried-and-tested strategies for creating outlines that work, many successful speakers prefer to tweak and modify existing outlines according to their personal preferences. In conclusion, preparing an informative speech outline can boost confidence and create an effective structure for presentations. With this in mind, let’s now look at how to structure an informative speech outline

How to Structure an Informative Speech Outline

The structure of your informative speech outline should be based on the points you need to cover during your presentation. It should list out all of the main points in an organized and logical manner, along with supporting details for each point. The main structure for an informative speech should consist of three parts: the introduction, body and conclusion.


When starting to craft your structure, begin by introducing the topic and giving a brief synopsis of what the audience can expect to learn from your speech. By setting up what they will gain from your presentation, it will help keep them engaged throughout the rest of your talk. Additionally, include any objectives that you want to achieve by the end of your speech.

The body of an informative speech outline typically consists of three parts: main points, sub-points, and supporting details. Main points are the core topics that the speaker wishes to cover throughout the speech. These can be further broken down into sub-points, that explore the main ideas in greater detail. Supporting details provide evidence or facts about each point and can include statistics, research studies, quotes from experts, anecdotes and personal stories . When presenting an informative speech, it is important to consider each side of the topic for an even-handed discussion. If there is an argumentative element to the speech, consider incorporating both sides of the debate . It is also important to be objective when presenting facts and leave value judgments out. Once you have determined your main points and all of their supporting details, you can start ordering them in a logical fashion. The presentation should have a clear flow and move between points smoothly. Each point should be covered thoroughly without getting overly verbose; you want to make sure you are giving enough information to your audience while still being concise with your delivery.

Writing an informative speech outline can be a daunting yet rewarding process. Through the steps outlined above, speakers will have created a strong foundation for their speech and can now confidently start to research their topics . The outline serves as a guiding map for speakers to follow during their research and when writing their eventual speech drafts . Having the process of developing an informative speech broken down into easy and manageable steps helps to reduce stress and anxiety associated with preparing speeches .

  • The introduction should be around 10-20% of the total speech duration and is designed to capture the audience’s attention and introduce the topic.
  • The main points should make up 40-60% of the speech and provide further detail into the topic. The body should begin with a transition, include evidence or examples and have supporting details. Concluding with a recap or takeaway should take around 10-20% of the speech duration.

While crafting an informative speech outline is a necessary step in order for your presentation to run smoothly, there are many different styles and approaches you can use when creating one. Ultimately though, the goal is always to ensure that the information presented is factual and relevant to both you and your audience. By carefully designing and structuring an effective outline, both you and your audience will be sure to benefit greatly from it when it comes time for delivering a successful presentation .

Now that speakers know how to create an effective outline, it’s time to begin researching the content they plan to include in their speeches. In the next section we’ll discuss how to conduct research for an informative speech so speakers are armed with all the facts necessary to deliver an interesting and engaging presentation .

How to Research for an Informative Speech

When researching an informative speech, it’s important to find valid and reliable sources of information. There are many ways that one can seek out research for an informative speech, and no single method will guarantee a thorough reliable research. Depending on the complexity of the topic and the depth of knowledge required, a variety of methods should be utilized. The first step when researching for an informative speech should be to evaluate your present knowledge of the subject. This will help to determine what specific areas require additional research, and give clues as to where you might start looking for evidence. It is important to know the basic perspectives and arguments surrounding your chosen topic in order to select good sources and avoid biased materials. Textbooks, academic journals, newspaper articles, broadcasts, or credible websites are good starting points for informational speeches. As you search for information and evidence, be sure to use trustworthy authors who cite their sources. These sources refer to experts in the field whose opinions add credibility and can bolster your argument with facts and data. Evaluating these sources is particularly important as they form the foundation of your speech content and structure. Analyze each source critically by looking into who wrote it and evaluating how recent or relevant it is to the current conversation on your chosen topic. As with any research paper, one must strive for accuracy when gathering evidence while also surveying alternative positions on a topic. Considering both sides of a debate allows your speech to provide accurate information while remaining objective. This will also encourage audience members to draw their conclusions instead of taking your word for it. Furthermore, verifying sources from multiple angles (multiple avenues) ensures that information is fact-checked versus opinionated or biased pieces which might distort accuracy or mislead an audience member seeking truth about a controversial issue. At this stage in preparing for an informative speech, research should have been carried out thoroughly enough to allow confidently delivering evidence-based statements about a chosen topic. With all of this necessary groundwork completed, it’s time to move onto the next stage: sourcing different types of evidence which will allow you to illustrate your point in an even more helpful way. It is now time to transition into discussing “Sources & Evidence”.

Sources and Evidence

When crafting an informative speech outline, it is important to include accurate sources and valid evidence. Your audience needs to be sure that the content you are presenting not only reflects a clear understanding of the topic but is also backed up with reliable sources. For example, if you are speaking about climate change, include research studies, statistics, surveys and other forms of data that provide concrete evidence that supports your argument or position. Additionally, be sure to cite any sources used in the speech so that your audience can double-check the accuracy. In some cases, particularly when discussing sensitive topics, each side of the issue should be addressed. Not only does this make for a more balanced discussion, it also allows you to show respect for different points of view without compromising your own opinion or position. Presenting both sides briefly will demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter and show your ability to present a well-rounded argument. Knowing how to source accurately and objectively is key to creating an informative speech outline which will be compelling and engaging for an audience. With the right sources and evidence utilized correctly, you can ensure that your argument is both authoritative and convincing. With these fundamentals in place, you can move on to developing tips for crafting an informative speech for maximum impact and engagement with the listeners.

Tips for Crafting an Informative Speech

When crafting an informative speech, there are certain tips and tricks that you can use to make sure your outline is the best it can be. Firstly, if you are speaking about a controversial issue, make sure you present both sides of the argument in an unbiased manner. Rely on researching credible sources, and discuss different points of views objectively. Additionally, organize and prioritize your points so that they are easy to follow and follow a logical progression. Begin with introducing a succinct thesis statement that briefly summarizes the main points of your speech. This will give the audience a clear idea of what topics you will be discussing and help retain their attention throughout your speech. Furthermore, be mindful to weave in personal anecdotes or relevant stories so that the audience can better relate to your ideas. Make sure the anecdotes have a purpose and demonstrate the key themes effectively. Acquiring creative ways to present data or statistics is also important; avoid inundating the audience with too many facts and figures all at once. Finally, ensure that all visual aids such as props, charts or slides remain relevant to the subject matter being discussed. Visual aids not only keep listeners engaged but also make difficult concepts easier to understand. With these handy tips in mind, you should be well on your way to constructing an effective informative speech outline! Now let’s move onto exploring some examples of effective informative speech outlines so that we can get a better idea of how it’s done.

Examples of Effective Informative Speech Outlines

Informative speeches must be compelling and provide relevant details, making them effective and impactful. In order to create an effective outline, speakers must first conduct extensive research on the chosen topic. An effective informative speech outline will clearly provide the audience with enough information to keep them engaged while also adhering to a specific timeframe. The following are examples of how to effectively organize an informative speech: I. Introduction: A. Stimulate their interest – pose a question, present intriguing facts or establish a humorous story B. Clearly state the main focus of the speech C. Establish your credibility– explain your experience/research conducted for the speech II. Supporting Points: A. Each point should contain facts and statistics related to your main idea B. Each point should have its own solid evidence that supports it III. Conclusion: A. Summarize supporting points B. Revisit your introduction point and explain how it’s been updated/changed through the course of the discussion C. Offer a final statement or call to action IV. Bibliography: A. Cite all sources used in creating the speech (provide an alphabetical list) Debate both sides of argument if applicable: N/A

Commonly Asked Questions

What techniques can i use to ensure my informative speech outline is organized and cohesive.

When crafting an informative speech outline, there are several techniques you can use to ensure your speech is organized and cohesive. First of all, make sure your speech follows a logical flow by using signposting , outlining the main ideas at the beginning of the speech and then bulleting out your supporting points. Additionally, you can use transitions throughout the speech to create a smooth order for your thoughts, such as ‘next’ and ‘finally’. Furthermore, it is important that each point in your outline has a specific purpose or goal, to avoid rambling and confusion. Finally, use visual aids such as charts and diagrams to emphasise key ideas and add clarity and structure to your speech. By following these techniques , you can ensure your informative speech outline is well organized and easy to follow.

How should I structure the order of the information in an informative speech outline?

The structure of an informative speech outline should be simple and organized, following a linear step-by-step process. First, you should introduce the topic to your audience and provide an overview of the main points. Next, give an explanation of each point, offer evidence or examples to support it, and explain how it relates to the overall subject matter. Finally, you should conclude with a summary of the main points and a call for action. When structuring the order of information in an informative speech outline, it is important to keep topics distinct from one another and stick to the logical progression that you have established in your introduction. Additionally, pay attention to chronology if appropriate; when discussing historical events, for example, make sure that they are presented in the correct order. Moreover, use transition phrases throughout your outline to help move ideas along smoothly. Finally, utilize both verbal and visual aids such as diagrams or graphics to illustrate complex knowledge effectively and engage your audience throughout your presentation.

What are the essential components of an informative speech outline?

The essential components of an informative speech outline are the introduction, body, and conclusion. Introduction: The introduction should establish the topic of your speech, provide background information, and lead into the main purpose of your speech. It’s also important to include a strong attention-grabbing hook in order to grab the audience’s attention. Body: The body is where you expand on the main points that were outlined in the introduction. It should provide evidence and arguments to support these points, as well as explain any counterarguments that might be relevant. Additionally, it should answer any questions or objections your audience may have about the topic. Conclusion: The conclusion should restate the purpose of your speech and summarize the main points from the body of your speech. It should also leave your audience feeling inspired and motivated to take some kind of action after hearing your speech. In short, an effective informative speech outline should strongly focus on bringing all of these elements together in a cohesive structure to ensure that you deliver an engaging presentation that educates and informs your audience.

Rice Speechwriting

Mastering speech outlines: tips & examples, crafting a speech outline: tips & examples.

Crafting a speech can be daunting, but it doesn’t have to be. A well-crafted speech outline can make all the difference in helping you deliver your message effectively. In this blog, we’ll go over why a speech outline is so important and how to prepare for creating one. We’ll also provide a step-by-step guide on how to craft a compelling speech outline. From choosing a topic that resonates with your audience to constructing a strong thesis statement and developing engaging hooks, we’ve got you covered. Additionally, we’ll share tips on perfecting your speech outline and enhancing your delivery with visual aids. Whether you’re preparing for a business presentation or giving a keynote address , this blog will provide you with all the tools you need to deliver an impactful speech that leaves a lasting impression on your audience.

Understanding the Importance of a Speech Outline

Crafting a speech outline is crucial for effective public speaking. It ensures a clear, logical flow of ideas and helps in organizing the content of your public speech. By providing a roadmap for the entire speech, a preparation outline ensures that the main points are communicated clearly, helping you to stay focused and on track during your public speaking engagement. The part of your speech outline also serves as a visual aid, further enhancing the structuring of your thoughts and ideas, making it an essential part of your public speaking preparation.

Benefits of a Well-Crafted Speech Outline

Crafting a well-structured speech outline is essential for delivering a compelling public speech. It ensures a clear organizational pattern, aiding in capturing and maintaining the audience’s attention throughout the speech. By logically ordering the content, a well-crafted speech outline facilitates smooth transitions between key points, supporting subpoints, and transitional statements, thus enhancing the overall coherence of the speech. Moreover, it serves as a valuable organization tool, assisting in preparing a structured and impactful public speaking presentation. Therefore, dedicating time to the preparation outline is an integral part of any successful public speech, providing a roadmap for the seamless delivery of the content.

Structuring Thoughts and Ideas

Crafting a speech outline contributes to the seamless delivery of key points in public speaking. It aids in the preparation of the body of your speech, ensuring a coherent flow of ideas and serves as a preparation outline for each part of your speech. By effectively structuring the speech topic, the public speech outline ensures the logical organization of the main points and supports the overall organization and preparation of the speech’s content. The outline facilitates a well-structured and engaging presentation to the audience, enhancing the overall impact of your public speech.

Preparing to Craft a Speech Outline

Researching the topic thoroughly is paramount for preparing a comprehensive speech outline, enabling a well-structured and informative public speech. Determining the length of the speech is essential in deciding the depth and breadth of the preparation outline, ensuring that all key points are effectively covered. Recognizing the different types of speech outlines is integral to cater to the specific requirements and expectations of the audience. Considering the instructor’s guidelines is crucial in crafting a preparation outline that aligns with the given parameters. The process of preparing a speech outline involves strategically deciding on the overall organizational pattern of the speech, ensuring a logical flow and coherence throughout the presentation.

Researching Your Topic

Thoroughly researching the topic is crucial for crafting a well-structured speech outline. It enables the identification of key points and ensures the inclusion of accurate and credible information. Familiarity with the topic is essential for preparing a comprehensive outline, part of your speech preparation. Conducting extensive research is an integral part of gathering relevant information to form the foundation of a well-crafted public speech. By understanding the significance of in-depth research, you can ensure that your public speaking content is well-prepared and effectively delivered.

Deciding on the Length of Your Speech

When crafting a speech outline, one must consider the length of the speech as a crucial factor. The chosen length not only determines the overall organization of the outline but also influences its depth and structure. It plays a significant role in decision-making regarding the content to be included. Additionally, considering the attention span of the audience members is essential in determining the ideal length of the speech. The preparation outline needs to align with the selected length to ensure that the content is tailored appropriately for the intended duration.

Recognizing Different Types of Speech Outlines

Understanding the various options in organizing a public speech is crucial for delivering an impactful presentation. Identifying the most suitable outline for your topic is key, as it influences the entire preparation process and organization of the content. Becoming familiar with different types of public speaking outlines, such as a preparation outline or a speaking outline, enables you to structure your thoughts effectively. Selecting the right type of outline, such as preparation outline or speaking outline, ensures that each part of your speech, from the introduction to the conclusion, is well-organized and cohesive. This thoughtful consideration of different types of outlines ultimately enhances the overall delivery and reception of your public speech.

Step-by-Step Guide to Crafting a Speech Outline

Crafting a speech outline begins with selecting a captivating topic, followed by formulating a strong thesis statement. Integrating the speech topic’s keywords is essential, and the initial outline draft should encompass the main talking points. Moreover, organizing supporting points and subpoints is crucial in the preparation outline. Each of these steps contributes to the coherent structuring of thoughts and ideas for the public speech. Embracing this process as part of your speech preparation ensures that each segment becomes a seamless part of your speech. Through this careful planning, you can align your speech with your audience, whether it’s a presentation, a social media post, or a public speaking event.

Choosing a Compelling Topic

Selecting an engaging subject ensures sustained audience interest and involvement during the public speech. The preparation outline process commences with the choice of a captivating speech topic that resonates with the audience. A compelling topic facilitates the overall structure of the public speaking outline, ensuring coherence and relevance. The topic’s significance to the audience directly influences the preparation of the public speech outline, guiding the inclusion of impactful content. Crafting a well-organized public speech outline initiates with the deliberate selection of a topic that appeals to the audience

Constructing a Strong Thesis Statement

Constructing a strong thesis statement is essential for providing clear direction to the preparation outline of a speech. It forms the foundation of logical organization, encompassing the main point and guiding the arrangement of the speech outline. A well-constructed thesis statement ensures that the speech outline effectively captures the main ideas and supporting points, making it an integral part of any public speaking engagement. This process involves careful consideration of the audience’s interests and the overall relevance of the topic to ensure a comprehensive and engaging public speech. Incorporating the NLP terms “public speaking” and “preparation outline” enhances the development of a captivating thesis statement, making it a crucial part of constructing an effective speech outline.

Developing Engaging Hooks

Crafting a captivating speech outline begins with capturing the audience’s attention using engaging hooks. Anecdotes or props can be effectively utilized to create a compelling speech introduction that instantly grabs the audience’s interest. Moreover, incorporating key words and phrases strategically within the introduction can further pique the audience’s curiosity. It’s crucial that the first thing the audience hears is attention-grabbing, setting the tone for the entire speech. These engaging hooks are essential in ensuring the audience’s undivided attention right from the start, creating a strong foundation for the rest of the speech.

Building the Body of Your Speech

To keep the audience engaged, ensure the body of your speech is well-organized in a logical order. Smoothly transition between supporting points using transitional statements. Structuring main points effectively can be done by including subpoints and bullet points. Remember, the speaker’s body language is vital for maintaining the audience’s attention. Convey the topic effectively by including main points, supporting points, and subpoints in the body of your speech. Public speaking requires a well-structured body to effectively deliver the part of your speech that contains key information and ideas. At the end of the speech, it is important to summarize and wrap up the main points to leave a lasting impression on the audience. Successful public speeches on platforms like Facebook stem from thorough preparation outlines and a well-organized body.

Perfecting Your Speech Outline

Crafting a preparation outline is a crucial part of your speech writing process. The first outline you will write is called the preparation outline, also known as a working, practice, or rough outline. The preparation outline is used to work through the various components of your speech in an inventive format. When constructing a speaking outline, it’s important to adhere to the instructor’s requirements and include a thesis statement as the main point. Start with a rough outline to establish the overall organizational pattern before refining it. Your speech writing template should consist of full sentences that guide seamless delivery during public speaking. This preparation outline will serve as a roadmap for every part of your speech, making it easier to deliver a compelling and well-structured public speech.

Reviewing and Refining Your Outline

After completing the speechwriting process, it is crucial to meticulously review and refine the outline to ensure coherence and effectiveness. The entire outline should be crafted in a way that best conveys the speech topic to the audience. This involves refining the rough outline to capture and maintain the audience’s attention throughout. During the review, special attention should be given to the thesis statement, supporting points, and subpoints to effectively refine the speech outline. It is vital to ensure that the chosen type of outline optimally organizes the key points of the speech for seamless delivery and maximum impact. Embracing this reviewing and refining stage ensures that the speech outline is primed for successful public speaking engagements.

Practicing Your Speech

Practicing your speech is essential for perfecting the delivery, including eye contact and body language, during public speaking engagements. It reinforces the main point of the preparation outline and helps emphasize key points effectively to the audience. The conclusion should also be practiced to ensure a strong and impactful end to your public speech. By practicing the speech delivery, you can maintain the audience’s attention and ensure that your message is effectively conveyed. This step is crucial in ensuring that your public speech is engaging and leaves a lasting impression on the audience.

Tips to Enhance Your Speech Delivery

Incorporating visual aids and props during public speaking can effectively enhance the delivery of your public speech, making it more engaging for the audience. Anecdotes are an impactful way to illustrate key points, capturing the audience’s attention and enhancing the overall delivery of your speech. Establishing consistent eye contact with the audience members is crucial as it helps in creating a strong connection during the delivery of your public speech. The second aspect of your speech outline should primarily focus on the best ways to deliver your speech to the audience members, ensuring that it resonates effectively. By integrating anecdotes, props, and visual aids, you can significantly enhance the delivery of your public speech, making it more compelling and impactful.

How Can Visual Aids Improve Your Speech?

Incorporating visual aids in your speech can greatly enhance its impact. Visual aids reinforce key points, clarify complex information, and capture the audience’s attention. They create a visual impact and contribute to a memorable delivery. Utilizing visual aids effectively can take your speech to the next level.

In conclusion, crafting a well-structured speech outline is crucial for delivering a successful and impactful speech. It helps you organize your thoughts, develop a strong thesis statement, and engage your audience with compelling hooks. By structuring your speech into an introduction, body, and conclusion, you can effectively convey your message and maintain a flow of ideas. Additionally, reviewing and refining your outline, as well as practicing your speech, will contribute to your confidence and delivery on the day of the speech. Don’t forget to utilize visual aids to enhance your presentation and make it more memorable for your audience. With these tips and examples, you’ll be well-equipped to create an effective speech outline and deliver a memorable speech.

Master the Art of How to Start a Speech

Wedding toast from groom’s father: spreading happiness.

speech have outline

Popular Posts

How to write a retirement speech that wows: essential guide.

June 4, 2022

The Best Op Ed Format and Op Ed Examples: Hook, Teach, Ask (Part 2)

June 2, 2022

Mastering the Art of How to Give a Toast

Inspiring awards ceremony speech examples.

November 21, 2023

Short Award Acceptance Speech Examples: Inspiring Examples

Best giving an award speech examples.

November 22, 2023

Sentence Sense Newsletter

  • Games, topic printables & more
  • The 4 main speech types
  • Example speeches
  • Commemorative
  • Declamation
  • Demonstration
  • Informative
  • Introduction
  • Student Council
  • Speech topics
  • Poems to read aloud
  • How to write a speech
  • Using props/visual aids
  • Acute anxiety help
  • Breathing exercises
  • Letting go - free e-course
  • Using self-hypnosis
  • Delivery overview
  • 4 modes of delivery
  • How to make cue cards
  • How to read a speech
  • 9 vocal aspects
  • Vocal variety
  • Diction/articulation
  • Pronunciation
  • Speaking rate
  • How to use pauses
  • Eye contact
  • Body language
  • Voice image
  • Voice health
  • Public speaking activities and games
  • About me/contact
  • How to plan a speech

Planning your speech

- a complete, unabridged guide with multiple examples to help plan a successful speech ☺.

By:  Susan Dugdale  | Last modified: 06-05-2023

Planning your speech is where your success begins. I do not jest! 

In your imagination you may hear yourself being stunning, the audience clapping wildly  as they rise to their feet to give you a standing ovation.

You may see yourself being deluged in red roses and offered several speaking contracts. Obviously, they are all lucrative but you choose the one with optional extras: an extended holiday in the South of France …

But first you have to begin at the beginning: planning your speech. Without a plan you are whistling in the wind, dreaming.

Vintage red rose wallpaper, happy woman with thought bubble. Text: Oh my goodness! They love my speech. They're throwing roses. I am absolutely fabulous. I wish.

What's on this page:

How to plan a speech step by step:

  • gathering the information to write your speech
  • brainstorming : what is a brainstorm, examples of brainstorms, getting started, with full step by step explanations and examples
  • how to shape material to fit an audience, the speech setting, and time allocation
  • an example speech outline
  • how and why to research
  • how to meet varying learning style needs: visual, auditory, and  kinesthetic
  • links to other useful pages: how to rehearse, make cue-cards...

Planning your speech from the start

A note about these notes.

These notes are general guidelines for ALL types of speeches. I know they are long.

(Actually that's an understatement! They are very long.)

I also know if you take the time to go through them they'll give you a solid introduction to thorough speech preparation.

They cover the basics of good presentation planning, research, writing and rehearsal: aspects you’ll want to consider regardless of the type of speech you’re giving.

Gathering your information

Once you have information about:

  • WHY you are going to speak (the purpose of your speech),
  • WHO you are going to speak to (your audience),
  • WHAT your general or specific subject matter is,
  • HOW long the speech is to be,
  • and WHERE it is...,

you are ready to make a rough or draft outline.

This will be your guide for writing.

You may alter the outline as you go along, as better or different ideas occur to you and that’s OK. It shows you’re flexible and thinking but before we can change anything we have to have something to start with.

To get to the outline stage in the speech planning process we first need to collect up all the "why", "who", "what", "when", "how", and "where" information needed. And that begins with a brainstorm * .

* What is a brainstorm?

A brainstorm is the name given to a commonly used, and effective, technique for generating lots of ideas on a topic, or theme, fast.

Using a heading as a prompt to get you thinking, you quickly note everything you can think of relating to it. You do not edit yourself.  You simply let the ideas flow until you can think of no more, making no judgements about whether it's a good idea, a silly idea, or a right or wrong one.

Ultimately, some will be more useful than others. You will sort through and order them later. However, the first step in the brainstorming process, is to accept everything you think of without hesitation. Stopping to decide what's OK and what's not breaks the flow.

If you'd like to see what a completed brainstorm looks like I have examples of them on my site. You'll see they provided the ideas that were then used to write the example speeches.

  • one for a maid of honor speech
  • one for a 50th wedding anniversary speech
  • and another for a farewell speech for a colleague

Return to Top

Brainstorm to begin planning your speech

The brainstorm you are going to do is about making sure you thoroughly understand everything you possibly can about the speech you intend to give.

On a large piece of paper or in a word document write these headings with enough space between them for notes.   

WHY are you giving this speech?

What is the purpose of the speech? Do you intend to inspire? To motivate? To entertain? To inform? Or perhaps you want to combine several, like to inform, motivate and inspire?

Knowing what you want your audience to think, feel and do as a result of listening to your speech is the WHY underpinning your presentation. It will help guide what content you use and how you structure it.

WHO is your audience?

Write down as much as you know about the audience.

This will give you ideas about what they will want to hear and be interested in. It will also be your guide when it comes to shaping your material. (More about this later!)

For now, make notes covering:

  • the number of people expected to be in your audience,
  • their age group,
  • ethnicity, if appropriate,
  • and the common, or uniting factors they share,
  • and specific interests they may have.

Why is knowing who you're talking to vital?

Image - a row of stylized persons of varying colors, each with a glowing red heart. Text superimposed over image: Harmony

Find out more about why being in harmony with your audience is so important. Check out building rapport.

Examples of WHY, WHO, WHAT...brainstorm notes 

Image: Cartoon drawing of a smiling young woman. Text: Meet Martha Brown, entrepreneur, mother and wife.

Meet Martha Brown. She's fictional. I've made her, and the presentation she's preparing for up, to show you how the brainstorming part of the planning process works.

Martha's been asked to give a motivational speech to a group of women whose background is similar to her own. She, too, came from a family who struggled financially.

Today she is one of the few amongst her relatives who has maintained a marriage, raised children and has a successful business. Her small catering firm specializes in delivering beautifully presented gourmet meals and finger food on demand.

The organizer of the event wants her to share her life story as a guide or inspiration.

Martha is conscious of her good fortune but also knows the starting point, or the seed, lay within her. She desired the change of circumstances so much she enabled them to happen.

WHY is Martha giving this presentation?

What's the principal purpose behind Martha's speech? What does she want her audience to think, feel or do as a result of listening to her? 

Let's put ourselves in her shoes.

She wants to:

  • motivate and inspire her audience
  • give them hope 
  • show them there is a way out of the circumstances they find themselves in

WHO is Martha's audience?

These are Martha's notes covering the key points about her audience.

  • Approximately 25 people ( number )
  • Mostly mid to late 30s (age)
  • All women (gender)
  • Mixed ethnic background but all speak English (ethnicity)
  • City dwellers (uniting factor)
  • Mostly work inside the home (uniting factor)
  • Many have children (uniting factor)
  • Interested in achieving work/life balance for themselves and their families and in particular a better financial situation (interest/uniting factor)
  • All belong to the same church group (uniting factor)

WHAT are you going to talk about?

Write down the title and/or type of speech you have been asked to prepare. Now using your notes from the WHO section of your brainstorm, begin another set.

This time you are looking to see how WHAT you're going to talk about can be specifically shaped to meet and serve the interests of your audience.

Let's look at an example of WHAT

How does martha shape her life story to fit her audience.

She doesn't want to overwhelm them with information so they can’t think straight or digest it. That will turn them off.

They will think it’s too difficult and beyond them. They may listen, be interested, but they won’t  identify  with it.

She wants them to feel they can take from her experience and use it to enrich their own lives.

Her notes for WHAT may look like this:

  • S peech Title How to win a future for your family when the kids need feeding and the bills want paying.
  • Content - main points
  • I am like you – I get too busy to plan ahead, I have a tendency to deal with what or whoever squeals loudest, I get tired …
  • Before and after – life before I made the decision to start my own business – life after I made the decision. Comparisons – several examples.
  • The hardest part of making the decision and acting on it was … Examples.
  • The best part of making the decision … Examples. People who inspired me to act.
  • What I’ve learned in the process about my family, others and myself … Examples.
  • How I keep myself inspired … goal setting, listening and learning from others
  • The future – a possible way forward for you, the women in the audience listening.

It’s not a speech yet but you can see the beginnings of its shape and how she’s used her knowledge of the audience to ensure giving them something they’ll enjoy listening to and identify with.

How? (How long will I speak for? How will I deliver my speech?)

There are two important 'hows' to consider.

1. How long have I got to speak?

The first is HOW long have I got to speak.

The time allocation you have been given will determine what you put into your speech and what you will leave out.

If you have a relatively short time, 3-5 minutes, you will need to either focus on one major topic with examples to illustrate or settle for covering a maximum of three lightly.

The purpose of your speech and your audience will help you make the most relevant choice. A longer time gives you more freedom to develop several ideas/themes fully.

2. How will I deliver my presentation?

The second 'how' relates to the method of presentation. HOW will you deliver this speech?

For example:

  • Will this be a speech told with humor?
  • Will you have a 'show and tell'? (This is when you take objects relevant to your speech to illustrate your points. It could be photographs or other items if they are suitable to transport.)
  • Could you give a demonstration?

Shaping delivery to meet different learning styles

When you consider this 'how' bear in mind the different needs of your audience. Most people have a preferred mode for receiving information. That is their learning style.

Some people understand well through listening. They are called 'auditory'.

Some people get most of their understanding through looking. They are called 'visual'.

Others receive and understand information best when they can touch, feel or do what is being explained to them. These are the 'kinesthetics'.

Most of us have a preference for one or two modes. For instance, I am 'auditory' and 'visual'. I want to hear and see.  

A considerate speaker tries to include all three modes (learning styles) in their speech.

(For more on catering for learning styles with examples see the foot of the page.)

Delivery and time are yoked together

How you to choose to deliver your presentation is governed by the time you have available. If it is short, you may have to leave out a 'show and tell' or a demonstration but you will always be able to include something to meet all three modes satisfactorily.

'HOW' example from Martha's brainstorm notes 

Let’s return to Martha’s Notes to see what she does with the 'how' segment of her brainstorm.

How long? Time available = 10 minutes. (Maybe a little more but that depends on the rest of the agenda of the meeting and how well it flows. Could be some space for questions from the audience and answer.)

How to present? Definitely with humor! Also take some fliers, business cards and samples of finger food along. These can be available for people to pick up at the end of the presentation.

WHEN will this speech be given?

WHEN has two aspects you'll want to take into consideration.

The first is the actual date you have to have it ready for delivery. That lets you know how much time you have for preparation. Is it three weeks, six weeks, or two days?

You'll use that information to plan your workflow. For example, allocating yourself one week to get your preliminary outline and any research required, completed.   

The second aspect is the actual time of day and season you deliver a speech. This can have an impact on what you do and say.

For example: You can use an early bird start in the middle of winter on a wet Monday morning effectively by acknowledging the efforts people have made to be there, and by making sure the heaters are on and there's hot coffee available.

Finding ways of tying in what is happening in the 'here and now' is a good way to connect with your audience.

A word of warning : Be conscious about presenting difficult or challenging material when people are either both tired and hungry (just before lunch or dinner) or when they’ve just eaten! Concentration spans are not at their best in either situation. If possible save this type of content for a mid-morning or afternoon slot.

Martha’s Notes, WHEN:  2.45pm, Wednesday, 2nd August – Summer heat

WHERE will this presentation take place?

The environment/room/space you are to speak can play a big role in shaping the final presentation of your speech.

Points to consider are:

  • Where will I be in relation to the audience?
  • Will they see me easily?
  • Will they hear me easily?
  • Do I need a microphone?
  • Is there a place to put notes if I’m using them?
  • Where can I set up my samples for people to take them easily?
  • Are there power points if I want to use any electronic devices?
  • Do I have to provide everything I want to use (e.g.: computer, screen, leads…)?

Many fully prepared, beautifully rehearsed speeches fail because insufficient thought has gone into where they are to take place.

It’s no fun when people can neither see nor hear you or the carefully thought through demonstration is stymied through lack of an electric socket in the right place!

Martha’s Notes, WHERE: Church meeting room. It can seat everybody comfortably and there’s room for a table to put out a display of fliers and trays of food, paper napkins etc. Arrange the chairs in a horseshoe or semi-circle so everybody can see clearly.

Pulling the brainstorm notes together in an outline

Once you've worked your way through making notes under your WHY, WHO, WHAT, HOW, WHEN, and WHERE headings, you're ready for the next step.

That's picking and choosing, then re-ordering and re-writing the material you've taken from the WHAT and HOW segments of your brainstorm until you're satisfied it flows well and meets your speech purpose.

After you’ve completed outlining your speech, you’ll be ready to do any extra research required, and then you’re on to the task of writing your speech.

Martha's completed outline

Here's Martha’s Finished Outline as an example. 

Speech length : 15 minutes with extra time for a 'Question and Answer' session at the end of the presentation.

Speech title : How to win a future for your family when the kids need feeding, and the bills want paying

Introduction (2.5 minutes): Thanks for coming today … Summer heat, we’d all rather be at beach reading a book under a sun umbrella….etc. But I hope I’ve got something for you that’ll more than make up for it. I look around the hall and I see a lot of women just like me: women, who work hard, love their families, etc., … want the best for them.

(Insert anecdotal humor, perhaps a small personal story about credit cards. For instance, the only way I could manage them was to banish them the bottom drawer of the filing cabinet. Or use them to test how sharp my scissors were.)

Main Idea 1 (3 minutes): Introduce business and what it is.

Explain how it functions on a daily basis. Briefly outline long-term goals.

(Quick show-and-tell with flyers and food. Invite people to sample at end and ask questions.)

Main idea 2 (3.5 minutes): My life before the business (tie to women in audience). My life after business started. What I have achieved. The hardest part about starting, staying in business. The best part about starting, staying in business. People who have inspired me.

Main idea 3 (3.5 minutes): What I’ve learned in the process about my family, others and myself … Examples. How I keep myself inspired … goal setting, listening and learning from others

Summary : (2.5 minutes): Very quick round up of principal points. The future – the way forward for you, the women in the audience listening. Invite questions if time. Remind them about the fliers and the food! Thank organizers.

Summary - Core speech planning questions

That’s it! Very short, sweet and simple.

There’s nothing magical about planning your speech. It's just methodical: one-step-after-another. If you find yourself flustered go back to the core brainstorm headings and ask yourself the key questions once more.

  • WHY am I giving this presentation? What is my purpose?What do I want my audience to do, think, or feel as a result of having heard me speak?
  • WHO is this speech for?
  • WHAT am I going to tell them that’s relevant and interesting?
  • HOW long is the speech expected to be?
  • HOW am I going to present it?
  • WHEN is the speech for? (Date, day, time, season)
  • WHERE is the speech going to happen? (Hall, outdoors, stadium…)

Write your answers down and let them be your guide.

Remember this is not your finished speech.

It’s your outline * : a map of what you’re going to cover.

Don’t spend too much time trying to get it perfect. You’ll want that energy for researching, writing and rehearsing!

And guess what is coming up next?

* If you'd like more about outlining a speech, including a printable outline template to use, go to sample speech outline .

Getting from planning to delivery

Here are links to articles on:

  • how to research your speech . The reasons for research are discussed under the heading below -"When and What to Research"
  • how to write your speech
  • how to prepare and use cue cards. The benefits of using cue cards over reading from a word-for-word script are enormous. Because you are freed from having to focus on your notes you can interact with your audience directly. Your speech becomes more spontaneous and "in-the-moment".
  • how to use story telling to enrich your speech . Do consider weaving your personal stories into your speech. They add tremendous audience appeal. 
  • how to use props. If you're planning a "show and tell" type speech, this page is essential reading.
  • how to rehearse. Rehearsal will lift your speech from ordinary to extraordinary. You'll find out privately where the glitches are, rather than publicly. It gives you an opportunity to refine your delivery.  I think it's absolutely essential!  

When and what to research

If you already know your subject thoroughly, inside out, back to front and sideways, there will be no need to research and you can skip this part of planning your speech.

BUT if you don’t, the outline should point up the gaps needing to be filled with specific information.

In our example it there seems little need for Martha to do any further research, as this speech is her personal story.

However, there are a number of ways she could strengthen her speech and add real benefits for her audience.

For example: she could bring along fliers from local training institutions providing courses especially geared for women setting up business on their own or she could provide a list of business women in the community willing to mentor and advise women in start-ups. A reading list would be helpful, as would a resource list.

All of these ideas need researching before presenting.

Careful research adds authority to your work. It shows care, thought and dedication to getting it right. Your audience will appreciate and respect you for it.

NB. If you are presenting material as fact rather than as opinion, check it! Make sure you know rather than think you know. If you can’t find out, then say so.

PS. Remember those modes or preferred learning styles?

Did you pick how Martha planned to meet each of them in her outline?

For the 'auditory' learners she would tell her story using her voice in a lively, interesting-to-listen-to way! Nothing turns an auditory focused person's ears off faster than a monotone drawl.

For the 'visual' people, she would provide fliers and food to see. Plus her appearance and body language would 'say' to them, this is a vibrant, purpose-filled person who loves what she does.

And lastly, she would use 'word pictures' to illustrate the points she made in her speech. The 'visual' would literally 'see' where she was coming from by using their imagination to recreate her images in their own minds!

For the 'kinesthetics', Martha planned to actively tell her story. She would use vivid 'action' words describing how she did things.

Example: ' I started a business.'  is bland. It doesn't communicate any of the effort or feelings involved.

By contrast: ' I started my own business. What a journey! I know you've watched your children learning to walk. Well, that was me! I fell. I skinned my knees and bruised myself. I got up, took two steps and crashed again...'

You get the idea. This is action, living and real.

The 'kinesthetic' folk will appreciate and know what she is talking about.

Additionally, Martha's fliers and food will appeal too. They can hold them, actively read the fliers and taste the food.

Lastly, they will be aware of what Martha does while she's talking to them. Is she conveying energy, excitement and action in her body language? If so, she'll have them with her!

  • Return to the top of planning your speech page  

speaking out loud 

Subscribe for  FREE weekly alerts about what's new For more see  speaking out loud  

Susan Dugdale - write-out-loud.com - Contact

Top 10 popular pages

  • Welcome speech
  • Demonstration speech topics
  • Impromptu speech topic cards
  • Thank you quotes
  • Impromptu public speaking topics
  • Farewell speeches
  • Phrases for welcome speeches
  • Student council speeches
  • Free sample eulogies

From fear to fun in 28 ways

A complete one stop resource to scuttle fear in the best of all possible ways - with laughter.

Public speaking games ebook cover - write-out-loud.com

Useful pages

  • Search this site
  • About me & Contact
  • Blogging Aloud
  • Free e-course
  • Privacy policy

©Copyright 2006-24 www.write-out-loud.com

Designed and built by Clickstream Designs

speech have outline

Logo for OPEN SLCC

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

Chapter 14: Outlining

This chapter is adapted from  Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking ,  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 .

Why is outlining important for a speech?

speech have outline

Why Outlining Is Important for a Speech

For your presented speech to be as effective as possible, organize your information into logical patterns that your audience can understand. This especially applies if you already know much about your topic. Take careful steps to include pertinent information that your audience might not know and to explain relationships that might not be evident to them. Using a standard outline format helps you to make decisions about your main points, about choosing information to support those points, and about crafting the appropriate language to use. Without an outline, your message is liable to lose logical integrity. It might even deteriorate into a bullet-point list with no apparent cohesiveness,—except for the topic—leaving your audience relieved when your speech is finally over.

In this chapter, we discuss three outline types: a working outline, a full-sentence outline, and a speaking outline. For working outlines and full-sentence outlines, write in complete sentences; for speaking outlines, write in phrases We’ll give detailed outline examples later in the chapter, but for this first section, we’ll discuss general outlining principles.

An Outline Tests Your Specific Purpose’s Clarity

A full-sentence outline lays a strong foundation. It compels you to have one clear and specific purpose and helps to frame a clear, concrete thesis statement. An outline helps you to exclude irrelevant information that does not directly focus on your thesis, and it reduces the research you must do because you will clearly identify the supporting evidence you need. And when presenting, an outline helps you remember your speech’s central message.

Also, a solid full-sentence outline helps your audience understand and remember your message because they will be able to follow your reasoning. Creating an outline is a task too often perceived as busywork, unnecessary, time consuming, and restrictive. However, students who carefully write a full-sentence outline characteristically give powerful presentations with excellent messages.

An Outline Tests Your Content’s Scope

A clear, concrete thesis statement acts as your outline’s compass. Explicate each main point, then, test your content’s scope by comparing each main point to the thesis statement. If you find a poor match, you will know you’ve wandered outside your thesis statement’s scope, as you will see in the example below.

Specific Purpose: To inform property owners about the economics of wind farms generating electrical energy.

  • Your first main point: modern windmills require a very small land base, making real estate cost’s low. This is directly related to the economics thesis. Now, supply information to support your claim that only a small land base is needed.
  • Your second main point: you might be tempted to claim that windmills don’t pollute in the ways other sources do. However, you will quickly note that this claim is unrelated to the economics thesis, so stay within this scope. A better second main point: once windmills are in place, they require virtually no maintenance. This claim is related to the economics thesis. Now, supply information to support this claim.
  • Your third point: windmill-generated electrical energy is more profitable compared to other sources—many audience members will want to know this. This point is clearly related to the economics thesis, and you will easily find information from authoritative sources to support this claim.

When you write in outline form, it is much easier to test your content’s scope because you can visually locate specific information very easily and then check it against your thesis statement.

An Outline Tests Your Main Points’ Logical Patterns

You have many topic choices, therefore, there are many ways to logically organize your content. In the example above, we simply list three main points that are important economics to consider about wind farms. You can also arrange a speech’s main points into a logical pattern. We discuss these patterns in the Organizing the Speech Body section. Whatever logical pattern you use, if you examine your thesis statement and then look at your outline’s three main points, you will see the logical way in which they relate.

An Outline Tests Your Supporting Ideas’ Relevance

When you create an outline, you clearly see that you need supporting evidence for each main point. For instance, your first main point claims that windmills require less land than other utilities. Therefore, provide supporting evidence about the acreage windmills require and the acreage other energy-generating sites require, such as nuclear power plants or hydroelectric generators. Use expert sources in economics, economic development, or engineering to support your claims. You can even include an expert’s opinion, but not an ordinary person’s opinion. The expert opinion provides stronger support for your point.

Similarly, the second point claims that once a windmill is in place, there is virtually no maintenance cost. To support this claim, provide annual windmill-maintenance costs and compare these to the alternative energy-generating sites’ annual maintenance costs. If you compare nuclear power plants to support your first main point, compare nuclear power plants again to be consistent. It becomes very clear, then, that the third main point about windmill-generated energy’s profitability needs authoritative references to compare it to nuclear power-generated energy’s profitability. In this third main point, use just a few well-selected statistics from authoritative sources to support you claims, and compare them to the other energy sources you’ve cited.

An Outline Tests Your Speech’s Balance and Proportion

Writing a full-sentence outline is visually valuable. You immediately see whether each main point’s importance is approximately equal. Does each main point have the same number of supporting points? If you find that your first main point has eight supporting points while the others only have three each, you have two choices: either choose the best three from the eight supporting points or strengthen the authoritative support for your other two main points. Remember, use the best supporting evidence you can find even if it means conducting more research.

An Outline Serves as Your Speaking Notes

In addition to writing a full-sentence outline to prepare your speech, create a shortened outline to use as speaking notes to ensure a strong delivery. If you were to use the full-sentence outline when delivering your speech, you would be reading too much, which limits your ability to give eye contact and use gestures, and it hurts your audience connection. For this reason, write a short-phrase outline on 4 × 6 notecards to use when you deliver your speech.

speech have outline

Within the speech-writing process, there exists commonly agreed upon principles for creating an outline. The following are important factors to consider when creating a logical and coherent outline:


For clarity, make sure your thesis statement expresses one single idea. Use this single idea optimally as a guide to build your outline. The same holds true for your three main points: each must express one clear single idea. If many different ideas are required to build a complete message, present them in separate sentences using transitions such as “at the same time,” “alternately,” “in response to that event,” or some other transition that clarifies the relationship between two separate ideas. As a reminder, for your audience’s sake, maintain clarity.

A full-sentence outline readily shows whether you are giving equal time to each three main points. For example, are you providing each three main points with corresponding supporting evidence? Also, are you showing each main point’s direct relationship to the thesis statement?


Framing a thesis statement with one clear single idea will help you maintain consistency throughout your speech. Beyond the usual grammatical subject-verb agreement requirements, maintain a consistent approach. For instance, unless your speech has a chronological structure that begins in the past and ends in the future, choose a consistent tense, past or present, to use throughout the speech. Similarly, choose a language and use it consistently, for example, use humanity instead of mankind or humans, and use that term throughout.

To ensure your audience understands your speech, do not assume that what is obvious to you is also obvious to your audience. Pay attention to using adequate language in two ways: how you define terms and how you support your main points. And use concrete language as much as you can. For instance, if you use the word community, you’re using an abstract term that can mean many things. So, define for your audience what you mean by community. And when you use evidence to support your main points, use the right kind and the right weight. For instance, if you make a substantial claim, such as all printed news sources will be obsolete within ten years, you must use expert sources to support that claim.


Parallelism refers to the idea that the three main points follow the same structure or use the same language. Parallelism also allows you to check for inconsistencies and self-contradictory statements. For instance, does anything within your second main point contradict anything in your first main point? Examining your content’s parallelism strengthens your message’s clarity.

Hand holding an index card.

What are the three types of outlines?

Outlines are designed to evolve throughout your speech-preparation process, so in this section, we discuss the three types—a working outline, a full-sentence outline, and a speaking outline—and how you progress from each. Also, we discuss how using speaking-outline notecards help you as a speaker.

Working Outline

Use a working outline to develop your speech. This is the outline you use to lay out your speech’s basic structure, so it changes many times before it is complete. A great strategy to begin your working outline is to type out labels for each element. Later, fill in the content. The following are the outline labels that you must have:

Working Outline Labels

General Purpose

Specific Purpose


Thesis Statement

Main Point I

  • supporting point

Main Point II

Main Point III

Also, a working outline allows you to work out your message’s kinks. For instance, let’s say you’ve made the claim that coal mining is a hazardous occupation, but you cannot find authoritative supporting evidence. Now, you must re-examine that main point to assess its validity. You might have to change that main point to be able to support it. If you do so, however, you must make sure that the new main point is a logical part of the thesis statement, the three main points, and the conclusion sequence. Don’t think of your working outline as a rough copy, but as a careful step in developing your message. It will take time to develop, but is well worth it as it lays your speech’s entire foundation. Here is a working outline example:

Name: Anomaly May McGillicuddy

Topic: Smart dust

General Purpose: To inform

Specific Purpose: To inform college science students about smart dust’s potential.

Main Ideas:

  • Smart dust is an assembly of microcomputers.
  • Smart dust can be used by the military—no. No—smart dust could be an enormous asset in covert military operations. (That’s better because it is clearer and precise).
  • Smart dust could also have daily life applications.

Introduction: (Grabber) (fill in later)

Thesis Statement: Thus far, researchers hypothesize that smart dust could be used for everything from tracking hospital patients, to early natural-disaster warnings, to defending against bioterrorism.

Preview: Today, I’m going to explain what smart dust is and the various near-future smart dust applications. To help us understand the small of it all, I will first examine what smart dust is and how it works. I will then examine some smart-dust military applications. And I’ll end by discussing some smart dust-nonmilitary applications.

Transition: (fill in later)

Main Point I: Dr. Kris Pister, a robotics lab professor at the University of California, Berkeley, originally conceived the smart-dust idea in 1998 as part of a project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

  • (supporting point)

Main Point II: Because smart dust was originally conceptualized under a grant from DARPA, smart-dust military uses have been widely theorized and examined.

Main Point III: According to the smart-dust project website, smart dust could quickly become a common part of our daily lives.

Conclusion: (Bring your message full circle and create a psychologically satisfying closure.)

This working outline stage turns out to be a good place to go back and examine whether all the main points are directly related to the thesis statement and to each other. If so, your message has a strong potential for a unified focus. But if one main-point relationship is weak, this is the time to strengthen it. It will be more difficult to strengthen it later, for two reasons: first, the sheer amount of text on your pages will make the visual task more difficult, and second, it becomes increasingly difficult to change things in which you have invested much time and thought.

You can see that this working outline lays a strong foundation for the rest of your message. Its organization is visually apparent. Once you are confident in your basic message’s internal unity, begin filling in the supporting points in descending detail—that is, from the general main points, to the particular supporting points, and then to greater detail. The outline makes it visually apparent where information fits and allows you to assess your supporting points to be sure they’re authoritative and directly relevant to the main points they must support.

Now, let’s discuss transitions. Sometimes, and not surprisingly, transitions seem troublesome to write because we often omit them in informal conversations. Our conversation partners understand what we mean because of our gestures and vocal strategies. And even when we do include transitions, we don’t generally identify them as transitions. But in a speech, we must use effective transitions as a gateway from one main point to the next. The listener needs to know when a speaker is moving from one main point to the next.

In the next outline type—the full-sentence outline, take a look at the transitions and see how they make the listener aware of when you shift focus to the next main point.

Full-Sentence Outline

Write a full-sentence outline in full sentences only. There are several reasons why a full-sentence outline is important. First, this outline type includes a full plan of everything you intend to say to your audience so that you will not have to struggle with wordings or examples. Second, this outline type provides a clear idea of how much time it will take to present your speech. Third, a full-sentence outline showcases your ethical responsibility to your audience by detailing how fundamentally well-prepared you are. This is how a full-sentence outline looks:

Specific Purpose: To inform college science students about smart-dust’s potential.

  • Smart dust could be an enormous asset in covert military operations.

Introduction/Grabber: In 2002, famed science-fiction writer Michael Crichton released his book Prey, which was about a swarm of nanomachines that were feeding off living tissue. The nanomachines were solar powered, self-sufficient, and intelligent. Most disturbingly, the nanomachines could work together as a swarm as it took over and killed its prey in its need for new resources. This nanotechnology-sophistication level is surprisingly more science fact than science fiction. In 2000, Kahn, Katz, and Pister, three electrical engineering and computer science professors at the University of California, Berkeley, hypothesized in the Journal of Communications and Networks that wireless networks of tiny microelectromechanical sensors, or MEMS; robots; or devices could detect phenomena including light, temperature, or vibration. By 2004, Fortune Magazine listed “smart dust” as the first in their “Top 10 Tech Trends to Bet On.”

Thesis Statement: Thus far, researchers hypothesized that smart dust could be used for everything from tracking hospital patients, to early natural-disaster warnings, to bioterrorism defense.

Preview: Today, I’m going to explain what smart dust is and the various near-future smart dust applications. To help us understand the small of it all, I’ll first discuss what smart dust is and how it works. I’ll then discuss some smart-dust military applications. And I’ll end by discussing some smart-dust nonmilitary applications.

Transition: To help us understand smart dust, I’ll begin by first examining what smart dust is.

  • According to a 2001 article by Bret Warneke, Matt Last, Brian Liebowitz, and Kris Pister titled “Smart Dust: Communicating with a Cubic-Millimeter Computer” published in Computer , Pister’s goal was to build a device that contained a built-in sensor, a communication device, and a small computer that could be integrated into a one-cubic-millimeter package.
  • Each individual dust piece, called a mote, would then have the ability to interact with other motes and supercomputers.
  • As Steve Lohr wrote in the January 30, 2010, edition of the New York Times in an article titled “Smart Dust? Not Quite, But We’re Getting There,” smart dust could eventually consist of “Tiny digital sensors, strewn around the globe, gathering all sorts of information and communicating with powerful computer networks to monitor, measure, and understand the physical world in new ways.”

Transition: Now that we know what smart dust is, let’s switch gears and talk about some the smart-dust military applications.

  • Major Scott Dickson, in a Blue Horizons paper written for the US Air Force Center for Strategy and Technology’s Air War College, sees smart dust as helping the military in battlespace awareness, homeland security, and identifying weapons of mass destruction.
  • Furthermore, Major Dickson also believes it may be possible to create smart dust that has the ability to defeat communications-jamming equipment created by foreign governments, which could help the US military not only communicate among itself, but could also increase communications with civilians in military combat zones.
  • According to a 2010 article written by Jessica Griggs in New Scientist , one of the first smart-dust benefits could be an early defense warning for space storms and other debris that could be catastrophic.

Transition: Now that we’ve explored some of smart-dust’s military benefits, let’s switch gears and see how smart dust may be able to impact our daily lives.

  • Steve Lohr, in his 2010 New York Times article, wrote, “The applications for sensor-based computing, experts say, include buildings that manage their own energy use, bridges that sense motion and metal fatigue to tell engineers they need repairs, cars that track traffic patterns and report potholes, and fruit and vegetable shipments that tell grocers when they ripen and begin to spoil.”
  • Theoretically, we could all be injected with smart dust, which detects adverse body changes instantly and relays information to our physicians.
  • Smart dust could detect microscopic center-cell formations or alert us when we’ve been infected by a bacterium or virus, which could speed up treatment and prolong all our lives.

Transition: Today, we’ve explored what smart dust is, how the US military could use smart dust, and how smart dust could impact all our lives in the near future.

Conclusion: While smart dust is quickly transferring from science fiction to science fact, experts agree that smart dust’s full potential will probably not occur until 2025. Smart dust is definitely in our near future, but swarms of smart-dust eating people as was depicted in Michael Crichton’s 2002 novel, Prey, isn’t reality. However, as with any technological advance, there are definite ethical considerations and worries related to smart dust. Even Dr. Kris Pister’s smart-dust project website admits that as smart dust becomes more readily available, one of the trade-offs will be privacy. Pister responds to these critiques by saying, “As an engineer, or a scientist, or a hair stylist, everyone needs to evaluate what they do in terms of its positive and negative effect. If I thought that the negatives of working on this project were greater than or even comparable to the positives, I wouldn’t be working on it. As it turns out, I think that the potential benefits of this technology far outweigh the risks to personal privacy.”

References Crichton, M. (2002). Prey. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Dickson, S. (2007, April). Enabling battlespace persistent surveillance: the firm, function, and future of smart dust (Blue Horizons Paper, Center for Strategy and Technology, USAF Air War College). Retrieved from USAF Air War College website: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cst/bh_dickson.pdf

Griggs, J. (2010, February 6). Smart dust to provide solar early warning defense. New Scientist, 205(2746), 22.

Kahn, J. M., Katz, R. H., & Pister, K. S. J. (2000). Emerging challenges: Mobile networking for “smart dust.” Journal of Communications and Networks , 2, 188–196.

Lohr, S. (2010, January 30). Smart dust? Not quite, but we’re getting there. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Pister, K., Kahn, J., & Boser, B. (n.d.). Smart dust: Autonomous sensing and communication at the cubic millimeter. Retrieved from http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust

Steel, D. (2005, March). Smart dust: UH ISRC technology briefing. Retrieved from http://www.uhisrc.com

Vogelstein, F., Boyle, M., Lewis, P., Kirkpatrick, D., Lashinsky, A.,…Chen, C. (2004, February 23). 10 tech trends to bet on. Fortune, 149(4), 74–88.

Warneke, B., Last, M., Liebowitz, B., & Pister, K. S. J. (2001). Smart dust: Communicating with a cubic millimeter computer. Computer , 31, 44–51.

When you prepare your full-sentence outline carefully, it may take as much as one- and one-half hours to complete the outline’s first part from your name at the top through the introduction. When you’ve completed that part, take a break and do something else. When you return to the outline, complete your draft in another one- and one-half hours. After that, you only need to do a detailed check for completeness, accuracy, relevance, balance, omitted words, and consistency. If you find errors, instead of being frustrated, be glad you can catch these errors before you stand up in front of your audience.

You will notice that the various speech parts, for instance, the transitions and main points, are labeled. There are compelling reasons for these labels. First, as you develop your message, you will sometimes find it necessary to go back and look at your wording in another part of the outline. Your labels help you find particular passages easily. Second, the labels work as a checklist so that you can make sure you’ve included everything you intended. Third, the labels helps you prepare your speaking outline.

You’ll also notice the full references at the outline’s end. They match the citations within the outline. Sometimes, while preparing a speech, a speaker finds it important to go back to an original source to be sure the message will be accurate. If you type in your references as you develop your speech rather than afterward, they will be a convenience to you if they are complete and accurate.

Don’t think of the references as busywork or drudgery. Although they’re more time consuming than text, they are good practice for the more advanced academic work you will do in the immediate future.

Speaking Outline and The Advantages of Using Presentation Notes

Your full-sentence outline prepares you to present a clear and well-organized message, but your speaking outline will include far less detail. Resist the temptation to use your full-sentence outline as your speaking outline. The temptation is real for at least two reasons. First, once you feel that you’ve carefully crafted every word sequence in your speech, you might not want to sacrifice quality when you shift to vocal presentation. Second, if you feel anxious about how well you will do in front of an audience, you may want to use your full-sentence outline as a safety net. In our experience, however, if you have your full-sentence outline with you, you will end up reading rather than speaking to your audience. Remember, do not read, instead, use carefully prepared notecards.

Your speech will probably have five main components: introduction, main point one, main point two, main point three, and the conclusion. Therefore, we recommend using five notecards—one for each component.

How will five notecards suffice in helping you produce a complete, rich delivery? Why can’t you use the full-sentence outline you labored so hard to write? First, your full-sentence outline will make it appear that you don’t know your speech’s content. Second, the temptation to read the speech directly from the full-sentence outline is nearly overwhelming; even if you resist this temptation, you will find yourself struggling to remember the words on the page rather than speaking extemporaneously. Third, paper is noisier and more awkward than cards. Fourth, it’s easier to lose your place using the full outline. Finally, cards just look better. Carefully prepared cards, together with practice, will help you more than you might think.

Use 4 × 6 cards. The smaller 3 × 5 cards are too small to provide space for visually organized notes. Number your cards, and write on one side only. Numbering is helpful if you happen to drop your cards, and writing on one side only means that while you are speaking, the audience is not distracted by your handwritten notes and reminders to yourself. Make sure that each card contains only key words and key phrases, but not full sentences.

Some speeches will include direct or extended quotations from expert sources. These quotations might be highly technical or difficult to memorize, but they must be presented correctly. This is a circumstance in which you include a sixth card in your notecard sequence. This is the one time you may read fully from a card. If your quotation is important, and the exact wording is crucial, your audience will understand that.

How are notecards sufficient? When they are carefully written and then you practice your speech using them, they will reveal that they work. If, during practice, you find that one card doesn’t work well enough, you can rewrite that card. Using carefully prepared, sparingly worded cards help you resist the temptation to rely on overhead transparencies or PowerPoint slides to get you through the presentation as well. Although they will never provide your exact full-sentence outline word sequence, they’ll keep you organized during your speech. The trick to selecting your cards’ phrases and quotations is to identify the labels that will trigger a recall sequence. For instance, if the phrase “more science fact” triggers connections between Crichton’s science fiction events in the novel Prey versus real science developments, that card phrase will support you through a fairly extended part of your introduction.

Ultimately, you must discover what works for you and then select those words that best jog your recall. Having identified what works, make a preliminary five-card set written on one side only, and practice with them. Revise and refine them as you would an outline.

The following is a hypothetical card set for the smart-dust speech:

Notecards Transcript

speech have outline

Creating and using a card set similar to the examples will help you condense and deliver an impressive set of specialized information. But, what if you lose your place during a speech? With a card set, it will take less time to find your place than with a full-sentence outline. You will not be rustling paper, and because your cards are written on one side only, you can keep them in order without flipping them back and forth to check both sides. What if you go blank? Take a few seconds to recall what you’ve said and how it leads to your next points. There may be several seconds of silence in the middle of your speech, and it may seem like minutes to you, but you can regain your footing most easily with a small well-prepared card set. Under no circumstances should you ever attempt to put your entire speech on cards in little tiny writing. You will end up reading word sequences to your audience instead of delivering a memorable message!

University of Minnesota. (2011). Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking . University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing. https://open.lib.umn.edu/publicspeaking/ . CC BY-SA 4.0.

Media References

Imageegaml. (2009, April 29). Hand Holding Blank Index Card stock photo [Image]. iStock Photo. https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/hand-holding-blank-index-card-gm115027533-9233893?utm_source=pixabay&utm_medium=affiliate&utm_campaign=SRP_image_sponsored&referrer_url=http%3A//pixabay.com/images/search/index%2520card/&utm_term=index%20card

Powell, B. (2021, July). Notecard 1 [Image]. Instructional Media Services, Salt Lake Community College.

Powell, B. (2021, July). Notecard 2 [Image]. Instructional Media Services, Salt Lake Community College.

Powell, B. (2021, July). Notecard 3 [Image]. Instructional Media Services, Salt Lake Community College.

Powell, B. (2021, July). Notecard 4 [Image]. Instructional Media Services, Salt Lake Community College.

Powell, B. (2021, July). Notecard 5 [Image]. Instructional Media Services, Salt Lake Community College.

Strategicgains. (2011, November 3). Using Outlines to Create a Presentation [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_DeQRARzwmI

Tom706. (2007, April 4). parallelism [Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/quelqu/446195756/

to develop the implications of : analyze logically

Public Speaking Copyright © 2022 by Sarah Billington and Shirene McKay is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book


Improve your practice.

Enhance your soft skills with a range of award-winning courses.

Persuasive Speech Outline, with Examples

March 17, 2021 - Gini Beqiri

A persuasive speech is a speech that is given with the intention of convincing the audience to believe or do something. This could be virtually anything – voting, organ donation, recycling, and so on.

A successful persuasive speech effectively convinces the audience to your point of view, providing you come across as trustworthy and knowledgeable about the topic you’re discussing.

So, how do you start convincing a group of strangers to share your opinion? And how do you connect with them enough to earn their trust?

Topics for your persuasive speech

We’ve made a list of persuasive speech topics you could use next time you’re asked to give one. The topics are thought-provoking and things which many people have an opinion on.

When using any of our persuasive speech ideas, make sure you have a solid knowledge about the topic you’re speaking about – and make sure you discuss counter arguments too.

Here are a few ideas to get you started:

  • All school children should wear a uniform
  • Facebook is making people more socially anxious
  • It should be illegal to drive over the age of 80
  • Lying isn’t always wrong
  • The case for organ donation

Read our full list of  75 persuasive speech topics and ideas .

Ideas for a persuasive speech

Preparation: Consider your audience

As with any speech, preparation is crucial. Before you put pen to paper, think about what you want to achieve with your speech. This will help organise your thoughts as you realistically can only cover 2-4 main points before your  audience get bored .

It’s also useful to think about who your audience are at this point. If they are unlikely to know much about your topic then you’ll need to factor in context of your topic when planning the structure and length of your speech. You should also consider their:

  • Cultural or religious backgrounds
  • Shared concerns, attitudes and problems
  • Shared interests, beliefs and hopes
  • Baseline attitude – are they hostile, neutral, or open to change?

The factors above will all determine the approach you take to writing your speech. For example, if your topic is about childhood obesity, you could begin with a story about your own children or a shared concern every parent has. This would suit an audience who are more likely to be parents than young professionals who have only just left college.

Remember the 3 main approaches to persuade others

There are three main approaches used to persuade others:

The ethos approach appeals to the audience’s ethics and morals, such as what is the ‘right thing’ to do for humanity, saving the environment, etc.

Pathos persuasion is when you appeal to the audience’s emotions, such as when you  tell a story  that makes them the main character in a difficult situation.

The logos approach to giving a persuasive speech is when you appeal to the audience’s logic – ie. your speech is essentially more driven by facts and logic. The benefit of this technique is that your point of view becomes virtually indisputable because you make the audience feel that only your view is the logical one.

  • Ethos, Pathos, Logos: 3 Pillars of Public Speaking and Persuasion

Ideas for your persuasive speech outline

1. structure of your persuasive speech.

The opening and closing of speech are the most important. Consider these carefully when thinking about your persuasive speech outline. A  strong opening  ensures you have the audience’s attention from the start and gives them a positive first impression of you.

You’ll want to  start with a strong opening  such as an attention grabbing statement, statistic of fact. These are usually dramatic or shocking, such as:

Sadly, in the next 18 minutes when I do our chat, four Americans that are alive will be dead from the food that they eat – Jamie Oliver

Another good way of starting a persuasive speech is to include your audience in the picture you’re trying to paint. By making them part of the story, you’re embedding an emotional connection between them and your speech.

You could do this in a more toned-down way by talking about something you know that your audience has in common with you. It’s also helpful at this point to include your credentials in a persuasive speech to gain your audience’s trust.

Speech structure and speech argument for a persuasive speech outline.

Obama would spend hours with his team working on the opening and closing statements of his speech.

2. Stating your argument

You should  pick between 2 and 4 themes  to discuss during your speech so that you have enough time to explain your viewpoint and convince your audience to the same way of thinking.

It’s important that each of your points transitions seamlessly into the next one so that your speech has a logical flow. Work on your  connecting sentences  between each of your themes so that your speech is easy to listen to.

Your argument should be backed up by objective research and not purely your subjective opinion. Use examples, analogies, and stories so that the audience can relate more easily to your topic, and therefore are more likely to be persuaded to your point of view.

3. Addressing counter-arguments

Any balanced theory or thought  addresses and disputes counter-arguments  made against it. By addressing these, you’ll strengthen your persuasive speech by refuting your audience’s objections and you’ll show that you are knowledgeable to other thoughts on the topic.

When describing an opposing point of view, don’t explain it in a bias way – explain it in the same way someone who holds that view would describe it. That way, you won’t irritate members of your audience who disagree with you and you’ll show that you’ve reached your point of view through reasoned judgement. Simply identify any counter-argument and pose explanations against them.

  • Complete Guide to Debating

4. Closing your speech

Your closing line of your speech is your last chance to convince your audience about what you’re saying. It’s also most likely to be the sentence they remember most about your entire speech so make sure it’s a good one!

The most effective persuasive speeches end  with a  call to action . For example, if you’ve been speaking about organ donation, your call to action might be asking the audience to register as donors.

Practice answering AI questions on your speech and get  feedback on your performance .

If audience members ask you questions, make sure you listen carefully and respectfully to the full question. Don’t interject in the middle of a question or become defensive.

You should show that you have carefully considered their viewpoint and refute it in an objective way (if you have opposing opinions). Ensure you remain patient, friendly and polite at all times.

Example 1: Persuasive speech outline

This example is from the Kentucky Community and Technical College.

Specific purpose

To persuade my audience to start walking in order to improve their health.

Central idea

Regular walking can improve both your mental and physical health.


Let’s be honest, we lead an easy life: automatic dishwashers, riding lawnmowers, T.V. remote controls, automatic garage door openers, power screwdrivers, bread machines, electric pencil sharpeners, etc., etc. etc. We live in a time-saving, energy-saving, convenient society. It’s a wonderful life. Or is it?

Continue reading

Example 2: Persuasive speech

Tips for delivering your persuasive speech

  • Practice, practice, and practice some more . Record yourself speaking and listen for any nervous habits you have such as a nervous laugh, excessive use of filler words, or speaking too quickly.
  • Show confident body language . Stand with your legs hip width apart with your shoulders centrally aligned. Ground your feet to the floor and place your hands beside your body so that hand gestures come freely. Your audience won’t be convinced about your argument if you don’t sound confident in it. Find out more about  confident body language here .
  • Don’t memorise your speech word-for-word  or read off a script. If you memorise your persuasive speech, you’ll sound less authentic and panic if you lose your place. Similarly, if you read off a script you won’t sound genuine and you won’t be able to connect with the audience by  making eye contact . In turn, you’ll come across as less trustworthy and knowledgeable. You could simply remember your key points instead, or learn your opening and closing sentences.
  • Remember to use facial expressions when storytelling  – they make you more relatable. By sharing a personal story you’ll more likely be speaking your truth which will help you build a connection with the audience too. Facial expressions help bring your story to life and transport the audience into your situation.
  • Keep your speech as concise as possible . When practicing the delivery, see if you can edit it to have the same meaning but in a more succinct way. This will keep the audience engaged.

The best persuasive speech ideas are those that spark a level of controversy. However, a public speech is not the time to express an opinion that is considered outside the norm. If in doubt, play it safe and stick to topics that divide opinions about 50-50.

Bear in mind who your audience are and plan your persuasive speech outline accordingly, with researched evidence to support your argument. It’s important to consider counter-arguments to show that you are knowledgeable about the topic as a whole and not bias towards your own line of thought.

  • AI Content Shield
  • AI KW Research
  • AI Assistant
  • SEO Optimizer
  • AI KW Clustering
  • Customer reviews
  • The NLO Revolution
  • Press Center
  • Help Center
  • Content Resources
  • Facebook Group

How to Write an Outline for Speech: Basic Guide

Table of Contents

An outline is a crucial component of the speech-writing process. It ensures that your speech is well-organized and captures your audience’s attention.

This article will explain the necessity of an outline and how to write a outline for speech to deliver a flawless presentation. Let’s dive in!

Importance of an Outline for a Speech

Without an outline, your speech could be confusing or unpolished. But with a written outline, you can deliver a complete and impressive speech.

Here are other important reasons why you should draft an outline for your speech before you start writing it.

1. Sharpen Your Concentration

By outlining your speech, you may ensure that your thesis statement and primary concept receive the attention they deserve.

Remember that every detail of your speech should support the core idea you’re trying to convey. Also, by outlining your work, you can ensure that each section strengthens your overall argument.

2. Maintain a Semblance of Order

Your speech must follow a general structure for your audience to follow what you are saying.

If you want your speech to make sense to an audience and flow smoothly, it’s a good idea to draft an outline beforehand. It allows you to see all of your essential points and rearrange them in a way that makes sense to you.

3. Make the Transitions Easier to Follow

Your speech’s transitions will be more seamless if you use an outline. Knowing the context of what comes before and after a given part can help you deliver smooth transitions between them. Instead of sounding like a collection of unrelated thoughts, your words will flow seamlessly from one to the next.

4. Prevents Time Wastage

You can save yourself a lot of time and stress when you write your speech’s final draft by first creating an outline. Writing a draft with an outline can help you avoid “blank page syndrome.”

The speech’s main themes and subpoints are written for you, making it much simpler to complete.

How to Write a Outline for Speech: Structure & Tips

We have discussed the many speech outlines you might use as a guide while writing your speech. Now, let’s dive into structuring your outline.

man speaking in front of crowd

1. Select a Topic of Interest

You must have a firm grasp on your topic before you can even begin sketching out your talk’s structure. Think about who you’re speaking to and what they can learn from your presentation.

Naturally, you want your subject matter and messaging to be very pertinent to them. Not knowing your audience well enough to select an appropriate topic is problematic.

To whom you’re speaking is of paramount importance. However, it helps if you can write about something that interests you. What is it that you enjoy learning about or doing?

Writing a speech on a topic you’re interested in will be less of a chore than writing one on something you’re not. Finding that sweet spot between what interests you and your audience is the first step in creating a memorable speech.

2. Create a Statement of Thesis

Is there a particular message you want people to walk away with after hearing your speech? How will you get this primary point across?

The thesis statement is the main idea of your speech. It is the crux of your argument, the essence of what you’re trying to convey.

During your speech, you will almost certainly repeat your thesis statement verbatim. It’s best to include it just after you introduce yourself. The remainder of your discussion will build upon this point and provide evidence to show that it is correct.

Before you go into your research or outline for your speech, sit down and write your thesis statement. It will be much simpler to ensure consistency throughout your address if you can refer back to this statement as you start to work.

The aim is to have your details and evidence back up and strengthen that central argument. Your speech’s conclusion should leave listeners feeling inspired, informed, or convinced of the veracity of your thesis.

Your speech should begin with an engaging opening to pique the listeners’ interest. The possibilities for developing this hook are virtually limitless. Be bold and think beyond the box. You could try the following:

  • Shocking Statistics or an alluring quote
  • Exemplifying with anecdotes
  • Posing a query (rhetorical or otherwise)

These are a few kinds of hooks that can get people to pay attention to what you have to say.

The remainder of your introduction should be concise; your introduction should only go on for at most ten percent of your total speech time.

Convey to the audience quickly who you are and why they should listen to you by providing a brief introduction. Provide some context for your speech. Include your thesis statement and a brief explanation that you will be discussing X essential issues. Continually connect your introduction to the meat of your address.

After that, compose the meat of your presentation. This is where you’ll spend most of your talk. As such, it will feature both your primary arguments and any supporting details you care to provide.

Use examples, visuals, or research to support the claims you make. Make sure they are exciting and memorable. Nobody cares to hear you deliver a boring list of information.

You don’t have to jot down every last example or nuance. Do not worry about composing complete sentences.

5. Conclusion

Your speech’s conclusion should offer a brief, memorable summary of its key ideas. It’s preferable to end on a thought-provoking or conversation-starting note with the audience. Consider asking them a follow-up question that gives them something to think about after you’ve finished talking.

You can also leave them with a tale or statement that will stay with them. Extra points if you can refer back to your opening statement or hook in your final paragraph.

In other situations, a call to action could be the best way to wrap things up. Is there a product you’re trying to sell? Specify what it is, how it will help your target audience, and where they can get it. As a call-to-action, you might simply provide your handle and encourage others to follow you. In the end, be sure to express gratitude to everyone who listened to you.

Wrapping Up

Knowing how to write a outline for speech is essential to succeed in public speaking. The more natural your address is, the better your audience will be able to comprehend your message and pay attention to your significant points.

How to Write an Outline for Speech: Basic Guide

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

Explore All Write A Speech Articles

How to write a great welcome speech.

Writing an effective welcome speech is a form of art. It requires a delicate balance of knowledge, wit, charm, and…

  • Write A Speech

Effective Guide: How to Write a Salutatorian Speech

Writing an effective salutatorian speech is a challenging yet rewarding experience. It takes creativity, dedication, and plenty of practice to…

Key Guide: How to Write a Great Memorial Speech

Writing a memorable memorial speech that captures the life and legacy of your loved one can be an incredibly daunting…

Better Guide: How to Write a Funny Valedictorian Speech

Writing a funny valedictorian speech can be both challenging and rewarding. For those who have the knowledge, experience, and wit…

Writing A Unique & Memorable Wedding Ceremony Speech

People around you, whether family, friends, or acquaintances, will get married someday. And you might be tasked with delivering the…

Unleashing Success: Motivational Speech to Inspire Students

Success is a journey, not a destination. It is a continuous process of striving, learning, and growing–something every student should…

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Types of Outlines and Samples

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This resource is enhanced by a PowerPoint file. If you have a Microsoft Account, you can view this file with   PowerPoint Online .

Alphanumeric Outlines

This is the most common type of outline and usually instantly recognizable to most people. The formatting follows these characters, in this order:

  • Roman Numerals
  • Capitalized Letters
  • Arabic Numerals
  • Lowercase Letters

If the outline needs to subdivide beyond these divisions, use Arabic numerals inside parentheses and then lowercase letters inside parentheses. Select the "Sample Outlines" PDF in the Media Box above to download the sample of this outline.

The sample PDF in the Media Box above is an example of an outline that a student might create before writing an essay. In order to organize her thoughts and make sure that she has not forgotten any key points that she wants to address, she creates the outline as a framework for her essay.

What is the assignment?

Your instructor asks the class to write an expository (explanatory) essay on the typical steps a high school student would follow in order to apply to college.

What is the purpose of this essay?

To explain the process for applying to college

Who is the intended audience for this essay?

High school students intending to apply to college and their parents

What is the essay's thesis statement?

When applying to college, a student follows a certain process which includes choosing the right schools and preparing the application materials.

Full Sentence Outlines

The full sentence outline format is essentially the same as the Alphanumeric outline. The main difference (as the title suggests) is that full sentences are required at each level of the outline. This outline is most often used when preparing a traditional essay. Select the "Sample Outlines" PDF in the Media Box above to download the sample of this outline.

Decimal Outlines

The decimal outline is similar in format to the alphanumeric outline. The added benefit is a system of decimal notation that clearly shows how every level of the outline relates to the larger whole. Select the "Sample Outlines" PDF in the Media Box above to download the sample of this outline.

Frantically Speaking

3-minute speeches: Complete guide on writing, preparing and delivering (with examples)

Hrideep barot.

  • Body Language & Delivery , Presentation , Public Speaking , Speech Topics , Speech Writing

speech have outline

Although 3-minute speeches may seem brief, a lot of words and ideas may be said at that time. Despite the time constraint, if you are conversant with the subject matter, you may prepare for your three-minute speech swiftly. The secret is to create a strong outline that allows you to add or remove details based on how much time you have left.

Words in a 3-minute speech

An average speech of three minutes in length would have roughly 390 words at a regular speech rate of 130 words per minute (wpm) .

Daphne Gray-Grant, a speech and writing coach, discovered that the typical speaking tempo is 125 to 150 words per minute or 375 to 450 words for a three-minute speech .

Read this article for more information: How long should a speech be?

Writing 3-minute speeches

An engaging speech may capture the attention of the crowd and properly capture the spirit of the event. On the other side, if it is poorly written or disorganised, a dozing audience will miss your point. There is no one ideal structure for a speech. You should instead choose what will resonate with your audience the most.

1. Importance of Stories

Beginning with a story engages the audience, and using stories to break up your speech illustrates the concepts you’re talking about using instances from real life. You might also choose to tell snippets of a single story throughout your speech to illustrate your point. If you’re speaking to a group of professional women with kids, for instance, a story about work-life balance is appropriate. Pick a story that is relevant to your audience. Infrequently, if ever, are overtly political or religious statements appropriate.

2. Simply the Facts

It could be advisable to stick to only the facts while presenting a subject while looking for methods to make them applicable to your audience. But no matter what you talk about, keep your speech’s goal in mind at all times. You run the risk of losing the attention of your audience, and making a point with a long, winding speech isn’t particularly effective.

3. Ordered Chronologically

Your tale or the information you’re conveying must make sense in the order you present it, which typically entails using chronological order. If you’re discussing company law, for instance, you should start with earlier laws and tell a tale about how those rules have been modified or updated. It is feasible to deliver a speech in reverse chronological sequence, but you must make sure your audience understands this to avoid misunderstanding. Give the audience frequent dates or other points of reference to serve as the context for the timing of your speech.

4. Organizing Advice

By outlining your speech, you can make sure that you follow the proper flow and concentrate on the most important points rather than getting lost in the weeds of details. Make a rough draught of your speech, then practise it so that it flows naturally before you give it. Take a list of the key points you want to discuss in your speech and consult a subject-matter expert for any information that is either missing or superfluous to ensure that you cover what you need to.

5. Use of Diction

We select our words based on the circumstances we find ourselves in and the audience we are speaking to. The language you would use with your friends might not be appropriate for your boss. Pick the appropriate words for your audience in order to deliver a speech that is effective. The language you use must be clear to them. It is preferable to stay away from using slang because your language must also be acceptable for the topic. You do not need to poke fun at the audience or try to be amusing. Since audiences are able to tell when a speaker isn’t being sincere, speak from the heart and don’t just say what you think the audience wants to hear. You’ll be able to express yourself more strongly and with more emotion as a result.

use of diction in 3 minute speeches

6. Speech Patterns

Different speeches are needed for different circumstances. A three-minute presentation in class about your ideal job has a different format than a speech to your graduating class. Learning the appropriate format for various speech kinds is simple. There are various varieties of speeches, all of them ranging in form and length. Impromptu, demonstration, educational, persuading, or tribute speeches are a few examples. Each speech is appropriate for a particular situation in life. Select the speech structure that best fits your circumstance, then formats your speech in line with it. Be mindful of your introduction. Strong opening approaches, sometimes known as “hooks,” come in a variety of forms, including tales, rhetorical questions, shocking claims, striking facts, or simply acting in an unexpected or out-of-the-ordinary manner.

Preparing 3-minute speeches

One of the best strategies to make sure you deliver a compelling presentation is to practise your speech beforehand. Consider using these hints to aid in your preparation:

  • Your speech should be organised logically with an introduction, body, and conclusion.
  • Before giving a speech, frequently practise and rehearse it. Try practising in front of a mirror or with friends acting as your audience. Use a timer to help you pace your speech, and be careful to do so.
  • Learn about the podium or other location where the speech will be delivered. Find out the size of the stage, the location of any steps or impediments, and the best places to enter and exit.
  • Always keep a professional impression while dressing comfortably .
  • Regardless of whether a speech is humorous, serious, or technical, visual aids should fit it. The primary function of visual aids is to facilitate audience comprehension and reinforce key ideas of a speech in distinctive and engaging ways.

practice 3 minute speeches

Practising 3-minute speeches

It’s common for jittery, distracting body language and a lack of preparation to ruin otherwise effective speeches. Practice your speech after you’ve planned and written it.  You have not practised enough if you need to read your speech word-for-word from your notes. You will feel more assured as you practise more. The best way to get rid of tense body language is to have a buddy videotape you speaking so you can see it repeatedly. While speaking, pay attention to how your hands are moving; they should be at ease.

Pay attention to how you stand; you should be tall and straight. Be mindful of your eye contact. Keep your eyes off of your notes, the floor, or the ceiling. Change your jewellery if it is noisy. Don’t touch your face or hair. Do not clasp your hands behind or in front of your back, and refrain from putting your hands in your pockets. Before giving your speech, repeat this procedure multiple times to make sure you have broken these undesirable habits.

The Big Day

Arrive early at the location on the day of your presentation. Wear clean, acceptable apparel, and go for the look that gets you the most compliments. Make sure your cell phone is off and remove any large objects from your pockets. Check your loudness in the room before you start to make sure you are loud enough. Make sure you can make eye contact with those seated at the audience’s margins by paying attention to where they are seated. Check the location in advance to make sure there are no obstacles like wires or cables that could cause you to trip if you wish to move while speaking. All of these actions will support your confidence grows.

Don’t try to improvise during your speech; instead, speak as you did when you were practising. Keep in mind that feeling anxious before, during, and especially after your speech is natural. This is neither a flaw nor a weakness. Use your anxious energy to make your speech lively and engaging if you have done your preparation and practising well.

Delivering 3-minute speeches

Public speaking that is effective and confident should appear natural. In truth, it takes most people a lot of time and practice before they feel comfortable speaking in front of an audience. To overcome stage anxiety, present yourself with confidence, and keep your audience interested, you can employ a variety of tactics.

1. Avoid showing any nervousness while speaking.

Imagine yourself as someone who is imparting knowledge to others who are willing to listen. Don’t worry too much about how you’ll come across while nervous: When a speaker claims to be really frightened, audiences can not help but notice their anxiety. You perceive it as far worse than your listeners do. It doesn’t really matter whether you’re anxious as long as you act calm.

2. Create positive body language

The grin is the most significant facial expression. This forges an immediate connection with your audience and will win them over. Use your facial expressions to emphasise important points: Your speech will look more believable as a result.

It’s important to stand up straight, space your feet slightly apart, and keep your arms at your sides. Do not sway or place your hands on your hips when speaking. You’ll come across as more assured and credible if you appear grounded. Avoid making “closed” motions like crossing your arms or knees or posing for a picture with your arms behind your back. A mental barrier is put up between you and your audience as a result.

3. Use gestures for achievement

To make your message easier for the audience to follow, use your arms and hands. Effective, self-assured body language captures listeners’ attention. Together, your body and words can convey a potent statement. Make sure to vary your gestures to avoid coming out as a robot.

To effectively emphasise ideas, adjust your body language to the size of the area you are working in. Make powerful motions when giving a speech! Tentative, hesitant acts might give you a doubtful, unconvincing appearance.

4. Make eye contact to captivate others.

Make as much eye contact with your audience as you can to engage them (and appear interested in them). Don’t only focus on one welcoming face. Make sure you engage the entire audience by looking at the folks at the rear and on the sides in addition to the front. Observe the crowd more intently than your notes. Not something you read from, notes should be prompt.

make eye contact in 3 minute speeches

How to make a 3-minute speech interesting?

People worry that they will have to “dumb down” their important research due to time constraints, however, this is not the case!

A punchy message and an engaging brief speech can shed light on the breadth of your research and make the worth of your thoughts clear.

If you make the most of your three minutes and plan your speech effectively, you will have plenty of time to accomplish this.

  • Deliver a message that is quite obvious.
  • Present a “top and tail” component.
  • To clarify a complex concept, use metaphors and other verbal illustrations.
  • Instead of “making a formal speech,” speak as if you are having a conversation with your listeners.

General topics for 3-minute speeches

3-minute speeches for students.

Everyone has interests, and everyone enjoys discussing them. You know, hobbies could also be passions. Simple inquiries to pose include:

  • What interests you?
  • Why are your activities so appealing to you?
  • When do you engage in these pastimes?
  • What are your hobbies, how long have you been doing them, and how did you start?
  • What pastimes did you once enjoy but no longer do?
  • Is it necessary to engage in hobbies? Why or why not?

Everyone enjoys music, and the majority of people have extremely strong feelings about it, especially when it comes to the music they enjoy (or detest) the most. Simple inquiries to make include the following:

  • What genres of music do you enjoy or find boring?
  • What emotions do various musical genres evoke in you?
  • What genres of music are produced in your nation?
  • What song, artist, or album is your favourite?
  • What music is now in vogue in your nation?

3. Motivation

Whether or whether the pupils are motivated, it is a good idea to talk about motivation in order to motivate them. Examples of questions are:

  • In general, how motivated are you?
  • What spurs you on to action?
  • What inspires people to accomplish the most?
  • What actions do you do when you lack motivation?
  • How can one effectively inspire others?

Everybody has objectives, and discussing them really makes us more motivated to take action. Goal-setting can be aided by sharing them with others. An excellent set of inquiries are:

  • What are your present life objectives?
  • How are your goals going to be attained?
  • How frequently do you set yourself goals?
  • What objectives have you previously set and attained?
  • How do you feel after achieving your objectives?

Everyone has dreams, sometimes on a nightly basis, and discussing them in class is a terrific activity since it encourages pupils to be imaginative and even whimsical. Excellent inquiries on this subject include:

  • How would you characterise your dreams?
  • What do dreams represent to you?
  • What percentage of your dreams can you recall? Why?
  • What are your thoughts about prophecies? Are they genuine?
  • What are some instances of your most cherished dreams?

Go through this article for more valuable insights: Speech titles and topics: Everything you need to know

Examples of 3-minute speeches

  • A 3-minute speech on the topic “Life”.
Good morning to everyone in this room. I’m here today to speak about life and share my opinions with all of you. Life is a never-ending process that must come to an end eventually. Life is all about creating and adoring oneself. a quotation for you: “Life can only be comprehended by living it backwards.” The potential to live a meaningful life and help others do the same is presented by life itself. It makes no difference how long you live. However, how well you lead a good life matter. Death is a constant menace to our life. Everyone will eventually die, but that doesn’t mean we should stop trying to live life to the fullest or pursue our ambitions. A person is only intelligent when they are prepared to face their destiny when it calls, but in the meantime, they should cherish every moment. There is an air of preparation. Every person goes through a journey in life where they must cross the bridge of death in order to awaken to eternal life. Life itself is a genuinely priceless gift. Every moment we have in our life gives us the chance to do something to grow and display our virtues. Every instant unlocks the path for us to accept blessings. The reality is that both good and bad things happen to us in life. What matters most is how we respond. God has given us life as a gift in the hope that we will do our best to make it meaningful. Each of us is a special individual. Respect your uniqueness since no one was born exactly like you and no one ever will be. I frequently come across people who accuse God of something they themselves do not possess. They constantly curse their lives. But do they understand how priceless this life is in and of itself? If we make life worthwhile and strive diligently for positivity. Finally, I’ll say that we ought to make life valuable. Life should be made beautiful by the affection of our family and friends. By carrying out our responsibilities in our families, our workplaces, society, and the larger globe, life can be more beautiful and meaningful.

2. A 3-minute speech by Aaron Beverly who was the 2 nd place winner of the 2016 World Championship of Public Speaking

3. A 3-minute speech by Emma Watson on Gender Equality

Final words

Speaking for three minutes is undoubtedly difficult to master. You must unquestionably conduct an adequate study and choose crucial issues to include in your speech. It is crucial to realise that you must deliver the most essential information first while speaking in a restricted amount of time, such as a 3-minute speech.

A three-minute speech is undoubtedly a wonderful starting point for public speaking. This is because you need to communicate with your audience more effectively when you just have a short amount of time. The speech ought to be concise, pertinent, and clear. Be more relatable to the audience and speak for them. To be the best, you must improve your communication abilities.

Read this article for more useful information: Writing and delivering spectacular short speeches: A-Z guide

Hrideep Barot

Enroll in our transformative 1:1 Coaching Program

Schedule a call with our expert communication coach to know if this program would be the right fit for you

speech have outline

10 Professional Communication Skills Of The World’s Big Shots  

win a speech contest

A Blueprint to Win a Speech Contest: Good-Better-Best

hybrid meeting

8 Strategies for Productive Hybrid Meetings: Best of Both Worlds

speech have outline

Get our latest tips and tricks in your inbox always

Copyright © 2023 Frantically Speaking All rights reserved

Kindly drop your contact details so that we can arrange call back

Select Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria AmericanSamoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Rwanda Samoa San Marino Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe land Islands Antarctica Bolivia, Plurinational State of Brunei Darussalam Cocos (Keeling) Islands Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Cote d'Ivoire Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Guernsey Holy See (Vatican City State) Hong Kong Iran, Islamic Republic of Isle of Man Jersey Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Lao People's Democratic Republic Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Macao Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Micronesia, Federated States of Moldova, Republic of Mozambique Palestinian Territory, Occupied Pitcairn Réunion Russia Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan Da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sao Tome and Principe Somalia Svalbard and Jan Mayen Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan, Province of China Tanzania, United Republic of Timor-Leste Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Viet Nam Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, U.S.

  • Share full article


Supported by

What to Know About the Supreme Court Arguments on Social Media Laws

Both Florida and Texas passed laws regulating how social media companies moderate speech online. The laws, if upheld, could fundamentally alter how the platforms police their sites.

A view of the Supreme Court building.

By David McCabe

McCabe reported from Washington.

Social media companies are bracing for Supreme Court arguments on Monday that could fundamentally alter the way they police their sites.

After Facebook, Twitter and YouTube barred President Donald J. Trump in the wake of the Jan. 6, 2021, riots at the Capitol, Florida made it illegal for technology companies to ban from their sites a candidate for office in the state. Texas later passed its own law prohibiting platforms from taking down political content.

Two tech industry groups, NetChoice and the Computer & Communications Industry Association, sued to block the laws from taking effect. They argued that the companies have the right to make decisions about their own platforms under the First Amendment, much as a newspaper gets to decide what runs in its pages.

So what’s at stake?

The Supreme Court’s decision in those cases — Moody v. NetChoice and NetChoice v. Paxton — is a big test of the power of social media companies, potentially reshaping millions of social media feeds by giving the government influence over how and what stays online.

“What’s at stake is whether they can be forced to carry content they don’t want to,” said Daphne Keller, a lecturer at Stanford Law School who filed a brief with the Supreme Court supporting the tech groups’ challenge to the Texas and Florida laws. “And, maybe more to the point, whether the government can force them to carry content they don’t want to.”

If the Supreme Court says the Texas and Florida laws are constitutional and they take effect, some legal experts speculate that the companies could create versions of their feeds specifically for those states. Still, such a ruling could usher in similar laws in other states, and it is technically complicated to accurately restrict access to a website based on location.

Critics of the laws say the feeds to the two states could include extremist content — from neo-Nazis, for example — that the platforms previously would have taken down for violating their standards. Or, the critics say, the platforms could ban discussion of anything remotely political by barring posts about many contentious issues.

What are the Florida and Texas social media laws?

The Texas law prohibits social media platforms from taking down content based on the “viewpoint” of the user or expressed in the post. The law gives individuals and the state’s attorney general the right to file lawsuits against the platforms for violations.

The Florida law fines platforms if they permanently ban from their sites a candidate for office in the state. It also forbids the platforms from taking down content from a “journalistic enterprise” and requires the companies to be upfront about their rules for moderating content.

Proponents of the Texas and Florida laws, which were passed in 2021, say that they will protect conservatives from the liberal bias that they say pervades the platforms, which are based in California.

“People the world over use Facebook, YouTube, and X (the social-media platform formerly known as Twitter) to communicate with friends, family, politicians, reporters, and the broader public,” Ken Paxton, the Texas attorney general, said in one legal brief. “And like the telegraph companies of yore, the social media giants of today use their control over the mechanics of this ‘modern public square’ to direct — and often stifle — public discourse.”

Chase Sizemore, a spokesman for the Florida attorney general, said the state looked “forward to defending our social media law that protects Floridians.” A spokeswoman for the Texas attorney general did not provide a comment.

What are the current rights of social media platforms?

They now decide what does and doesn’t stay online.

Companies including Meta’s Facebook and Instagram, TikTok, Snap, YouTube and X have long policed themselves, setting their own rules for what users are allowed to say while the government has taken a hands-off approach.

In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that a law regulating indecent speech online was unconstitutional, differentiating the internet from mediums where the government regulates content. The government, for instance, enforces decency standards on broadcast television and radio.

For years, bad actors have flooded social media with misleading information , hate speech and harassment, prompting the companies to come up with new rules over the last decade that include forbidding false information about elections and the pandemic. Platforms have banned figures like the influencer Andrew Tate for violating their rules, including against hate speech.

But there has been a right-wing backlash to these measures, with some conservatives accusing the platforms of censoring their views — and even prompting Elon Musk to say he wanted to buy Twitter in 2022 to help ensure users’ freedom of speech.

What are the social media platforms arguing?

The tech groups say that the First Amendment gives the companies the right to take down content as they see fit, because it protects their ability to make editorial choices about the content of their products.

In their lawsuit against the Texas law, the groups said that just like a magazine’s publishing decision, “a platform’s decision about what content to host and what to exclude is intended to convey a message about the type of community that the platform hopes to foster.”

Still, some legal scholars are worried about the implications of allowing the social media companies unlimited power under the First Amendment, which is intended to protect the freedom of speech as well as the freedom of the press.

“I do worry about a world in which these companies invoke the First Amendment to protect what many of us believe are commercial activities and conduct that is not expressive,” said Olivier Sylvain, a professor at Fordham Law School who until recently was a senior adviser to the Federal Trade Commission chair, Lina Khan.

How does this affect Big Tech’s liability for content?

A federal law known as Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act shields the platforms from lawsuits over most user content. It also protects them from legal liability for how they choose to moderate that content.

That law has been criticized in recent years for making it impossible to hold the platforms accountable for real-world harm that flows from posts they carry, including online drug sales and terrorist videos.

The cases being argued on Monday do not challenge that law head-on. But the Section 230 protections could play a role in the broader arguments over whether the court should uphold the Texas and Florida laws. And the state laws would indeed create new legal liability for the platforms if they take down certain content or ban certain accounts.

Last year, the Supreme Court considered two cases, directed at Google’s YouTube and Twitter, that sought to limit the reach of the Section 230 protections. The justices declined to hold the tech platforms legally liable for the content in question.

What comes next?

The court will hear arguments from both sides on Monday. A decision is expected by June.

Legal experts say the court may rule that the laws are unconstitutional, but provide a road map on how to fix them. Or it may uphold the companies’ First Amendment rights completely.

Carl Szabo, the general counsel of NetChoice, which represents companies including Google and Meta and lobbies against tech regulations, said that if the group’s challenge to the laws fails, “Americans across the country would be required to see lawful but awful content” that could be construed as political and therefore covered by the laws.

“There’s a lot of stuff that gets couched as political content,” he said. “Terrorist recruitment is arguably political content.”

But if the Supreme Court rules that the laws violate the Constitution, it will entrench the status quo: Platforms, not anybody else, will determine what speech gets to stay online.

Adam Liptak contributed reporting.

David McCabe covers tech policy. He joined The Times from Axios in 2019. More about David McCabe

Russia-Ukraine war updates: Putin warns of ‘real’ nuclear war risk

These were the updates on the Russia-Ukraine war for Thursday, February 29, 2024.

Vladimir Putin

This live page is now closed.

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has warned of “tragic consequences” for any country that sends troops to Ukraine.
  • Putin gave an annual state of the nation address, two weeks before an election that he is all but certain to win.
  • The 71-year-old leader addressed the war in Ukraine and outlined his economic, social and foreign policy goals.
  • Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskyy has tried to drum up Balkan support and promoted the idea of joint arms production at a two-day summit of southeast European countries.
  • The funeral of Russian opposition leader Alexey Navalny, who  died this month in a remote Arctic penal colony, will be held in Moscow on Friday . Hundreds of people were arrested across Russia at events commemorating the Kremlin critic.

Thank you for joining us

This live page is now closed. Thanks for following our coverage of Russia’s war on Ukraine.

You can read our full coverage of the war here .

The latest analysis of fighting is available here .

Here is what happened today

We will be closing the live page soon. Here’s a recap of the day’s main events:

  • Russia’s Defence Ministry has claimed that its troops killed 1,325 Ukrainian soldiers in the past 24 hours.
  • Ukraine’s military said it shot down three more Russian Su-34 fighter-bombers, the latest successes it has reported against Moscow’s air force.
  • The European Parliament says Russian President Vladimir Putin bears the “criminal and political responsibility” for opposition leader Alexey Navalny’s death  and should be held to account.
  • Putin’s  warning to the West that it risks nuclear war if it sends soldiers to Ukraine should be taken seriously, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk was cited by Poland’s Onet publication as saying.
  • The European Parliament has approved a resolution calling for the transfer to Ukraine of “everything necessary for victory”, including long-range missiles and frozen Russian assets, according to its press service.

Poland buys $2.5bn US battle command system

Poland has signed a deal with the US to buy a $2.5bn integrated battle command system, its defence minister says.

The NATO and EU member has made important military purchases in recent years – mainly from the US and South Korea – amid security concerns over the war in neighbouring Ukraine.

Warsaw currently spends more than 4 percent of its gross domestic product on defence, the highest rate among NATO members.

“The Polish army is acquiring an operational brain for air and missile defence systems,” Polish Defence Minister Wladyslaw Kosiniak-Kamysz said alongside the US ambassador to Warsaw.

“Poland will be the second country, after the United States, to have the world’s most modern integrated command system,” he added.

North Korean missiles used by Russia contained parts from EU, Japan, China: Report

The North Korean KN-23/24 ballistic missiles that Russia used to strike Ukraine earlier this month contained electronic components from European, Japanese and Chinese companies, according to Ukrainian law enforcement agencies cited by Ukrainska Pravda.

The newspaper’s sources said the missiles that previously fell in the Obolonskyi district of Kyiv contained Western microcontrollers, flash memory drives, converters, power supplies, amplifiers, and satellite signal patch antennas.

In the production of missiles, which were subsequently purchased by Russia, North Korea used components from companies such as Germany’s Siemens; the US’s Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc and Analog Devices, Inc; Japan’s NSK Ltd/NSK Automation; China’s Zhongkewei; and others.

Some parts and fragments of the missiles contain tags with handwritten Korean characters. The publication published photographs of the wreckage provided by the source.

Previously, the British research organisation Conflict Armament Research (CAR) reported that North Korean missiles contain foreign components, the report said.

Russian troops inch ahead as war in Ukraine barrels into third year

John Psaropoulos

Ukrainian forces in the east have struggled to find stable new defences over the past week as Russian troops continue to advance after capturing Avdiivka – suggesting artillery and other shortages are affecting Ukraine’s ability to hold the 1,000km (620-mile) front line.

Ukrainian forces  withdrew from Avdiivka on February 17 after a four-month Russian onslaught to take the town.

On Saturday, Ukrainian defenders also withdrew from the village of Lastochkyne, 3km (1.9 miles) west of Avdiivka, never having had a chance to build proper defences under fire.

“There were no defences built there, and the fighters had to withdraw from the battles in Avdiivka and gain a foothold in the very process of hostilities,” one Ukrainian military reporter known as DeepStateUA wrote on Telegram to his 700,000 followers, predicting that the same would occur at other points in the retreat.

Read our full story here .

A local resident prepares a damaged car to be towed, near a residential building damaged during a Russian drone strike, amid Russia's attack on Ukraine, in Dnipro, Ukraine February 26, 2024. REUTERS/Mykola Synelnykov

Russia attacks residential area of Ukraine’s Mykolaivka

The Russian army has attacked a residential area of Mykolaivka in the Kramatorsk district of the Donetsk region with a KAB-500 aerial bomb.

Eight private houses, a hospital, a garage and two civilian cars – as well as a gas pipeline and electrical networks – were damaged in the city, according to Ukraine’s national police force.

There were no reports of casualties, it said on Telegram.

Russia to ban petrol exports

The Russian government has introduced a ban on petrol exports from tomorrow to August 31.

A statement published on Telegram said “the government has taken measures to maintain a stable situation in the fuel market during the spring field work”.

It is clarified that the export ban does not apply to fuel exported to provide international humanitarian assistance and for the personal use of citizens.

The restriction also does not apply to supplies within the framework of intergovernmental agreements, including the countries of the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union.

Editor’s Choice: What to read and watch

Here are some must-read pieces that we have published on the conflict over the past 24 hours:

In-depth : Russian troops inch ahead as war in Ukraine barrels into third year

Explainer : Why has the EU sanctioned Indian, Chinese companies for Russia links?

Watch : Is the West’s military support enough for Kyiv?

Listen : Is the West’s existing support enough for Ukraine?

You can find more of our coverage of the Russia-Ukraine war here .

Putin’s speech should be looked at in upcoming election context: European Commission

Putin’s message to the Federal Assembly continues “a well-known lie”, according to European Commission spokesperson Peter Stano said at a briefing in Brussels.

He was cited by European Pravda as saying that Putin’s speech “should be looked at in the context of the upcoming presidential elections in Russia. This is part of Putin’s efforts for re-election”.

“This is another opportunity for him to spread well-known lies. He continues to deceive his own nation and mislead the public abroad, because there are those who still continue to listen to him,” Stano added.

He also called all of Putin’s threats against Europe and the rest of the world, including nuclear ones, absolutely unacceptable and inappropriate.

“Putin is deceiving the nation, the nation lives under an iron fist and Stalin-style repression, the army is in a catastrophic state, the economy is collapsing, the country’s credibility is completely destroyed and his efforts to destroy Ukraine have failed,” Stano said.

Attempts to hire a hearse for Navalny funeral blocked: Spokesperson

Allies of deceased Russian opposition politician Alexey Navalny say that attempts to hire a hearse to take his body to a funeral service the following day had been blocked by unknown individuals.

Kira Yarmysh, a spokesperson for Navalny, said on X that unknown individuals had been threatening hearse providers by phone and that nobody had agreed to transport his body as a result.

Alexey Navalny

Europe must take Putin’s statements seriously: Poland’s PM

Putin’s warning to the West that it risks nuclear war if it sends soldiers to Ukraine should be taken seriously, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk is cited by Poland’s Onet publication as saying.

“Not only the aggressive rhetoric but also the decisions that Putin announced – to increase Russia’s self-sufficiency, transfer the economy to a military footing, modernise the army – all this should be taken absolutely seriously,” Tusk said of Putin’s state of the nation speech.

Europe must understand that the “arms race” that Russia is imposing on the world obliges the West to wake up and prepare from a military point of view for potential threats, he added.

“The European Union must make decisions that balance Russia’s military capabilities and make Europe better prepared for bad scenarios,” Tusk added.

Putin bears ‘criminal’ blame for Navalny death: EU parliament

The European Parliament says Putin bears the “criminal and political responsibility” for opposition leader Alexey Navalny’s death and should be held to account.

“The Russian government and Vladimir Putin personally bear criminal and political responsibility for the death of their most prominent opponent, Alexey Navalny,” the parliament said in a resolution passed with 506 votes in the 705-seat assembly.

Putin “should be held accountable”, it said. Only nine lawmakers voted against the resolution.

The lawmakers also called for an “independent and transparent international investigation” into the circumstances of Navalny’s death.

Ukraine removes five children from Russian-held Kherson region

Ukraine has removed five Ukrainian children – two girls and three boys – from the occupied territory of the Kherson region, according to the head of Ukraine’s Kherson military administration, Alexander Prokudin.

“Among them is one orphan. The children’s ages range from 4 to 16 years,” he said on Telegram.

“We are returning children to free Ukrainian lands,” he said, adding that it was made possible with the help of the Save Ukraine organisation.

He added that since the beginning of the year, 25 children have already been returned from Kherson.

Sides battle for control of Ivanivske, Bohdanivka in Donetsk region

Russian troops are trying to capture the villages of Ivanivske and Bohdanivka in the Bakhmut district of Ukraine’s Donetsk region.

Ilya Yevlash, the spokesperson of Ukraine’s Khortytsia forces, said that the Russian army was actively using assault groups, special forces and raising reserves.

EU parliament calls for transfer to Ukraine of ‘everything necessary for victory’

The European Parliament has approved a resolution, calling for the transfer to Ukraine “everything necessary for victory,” including long-range missiles and frozen Russian assets, according to its press service.

This document was supported by 451 parliamentarians. Another 46 deputies opposed it, and 49 abstained.

The text of the adopted resolution notes that the main goal of supporting Ukraine is that it must win the war, thereby preventing serious consequences for the whole world.

According to the authors of the document, all leaders of authoritarian countries are watching the war and assessing their capabilities for pursuing an aggressive foreign policy.

Russian shelling kills two people in Ukraine’s Bakhmut

One person was killed in the town of Siversk and another in the town of Pereizny of Donetsk region’s Bakhmut district, according to the head of the regional military administration, Vadym Filashkin.

He wrote on Telegram that Russians shelled the populated areas of the Donetsk region 26 times in the past 24 hours.

Ukraine claims it killed 54 Russian soldiers on Dnipro’s left bank

The Russian army continues to attack Ukrainian units on the left bank of the Dnipro River, with Ukraine managing to repel four attacks in the past day, according to the Defence Forces of Southern Ukraine.

“During the day, we received confirmation that the enemy on the left bank has lost 54 occupiers; 8 guns; 1 Murom-M video surveillance complex; 1 set of antenna system; 10 units of armoured vehicles; 2 boats. The enemy’s field ammunition depot has been destroyed,” the forces said on Telegram.

Civilian killed in Russia’s air attack on Ukraine’s Zaporizhia region

At least one civilian has been killed after Russian troops attacked the village of Yurivka, in Ukraine’s Zaporozhia region, according to the head of the regional administration, Ivan Fedorov.

He said on Telegram that the Russian military had used guided bombs at about 13:10 local time (11:10 GMT).

Ukraine uncovers $4.9m corruption scheme in its defence ministry

Auditors of Ukraine’s defence ministry have found that military units groundlessly paid additional monetary compensation to military personnel who did not participate in hostilities, the ministry’s press service has said in a statement on Facebook.

“In fact, a number of military personnel were in permanent deployment points and performed duties not related to combat operations, but received combat supplements,” it added.

The department reported that similar incidents were recorded in military units of the Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Khmelnytsky and Poltava regions.

The total amount of unjustified payments amounted to 186.6 million hryvnia ($4.9m). The ministry handed over all audit materials to law enforcement agencies, the statement said.

Russia seeks to destroy ‘right of Ukrainians to exist’: Eurojust chief

Ladislav Hamran, the head of the European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation, also known as Eurojust, made the remarks at the United for Justice international conference in Kyiv.

“When the invasion began, President Putin made no secret of the fact that his goal was to destroy the identity and culture of the Ukrainian nation,” he said.

Hamran added that judging by the crimes committed against the cultural heritage of Ukraine, Russia “is trying not only to destroy Ukrainian traditions and culture, but also the right of Ukrainians to exist”.

Watch: Missing in action in Ukraine

Indians and Nepalis have appealed for the safe return of family members.

Ukraine claims shooting down three Russian SU-34 fighter jets

Mykola Oleshchuk, the commander of Ukraine’s air force, made the announcement on Telegram.

“It seems they don’t get it! Russian pilots do not draw any conclusions. Today, at about 9am, two more SU-34s were destroyed in the Avdiivka and Mariupol directions,” he wrote.

Earlier today, he said that the Ukrainian military had shot down another SU-34.

Russia claims it killed more than 1,300 Ukrainian troops in past 24 hours

Russia’s Defence Ministry has claimed that its troops killed 50 Ukrainian soldiers in the Synkivka areas of the Kharkiv region and Ternov, Donetsk region.

In the areas of Andriivka, Klishchiivka, Kurdyumivka and Berestove in ​​the Donetsk region, Ukraine lost up to 600 military personnel, the ministry said.

In the settlements of Berdychi, Severnoe, Orlivka and Pervomaiske in the Donetsk region, the Russian troops killed at least 495 Ukrainian soldiers.

At least 105 more Ukrainian troops were killed in the Urozhaine, Rivnopil and Staromaiorske areas of the Donetsk region.

In the areas of Rabotino, Stepovoy, Mali Shcherbaky of the Zaporozhia region and Tokarivka of the Kherson region, there were 50 Ukrainians killed.

At least 25 others were killed in the Tendrivska Spit area, the ministry said.

Why has the EU sanctioned Indian, Chinese companies for Russia links?

Last week, the European Union released an  exhaustive new list  of companies, entities or people in countries including Russia, India, Iran, China and Syria, that it said it was sanctioning over allegations that they were connected to Russia’s defence and security sector.

The new sanctions added 27 new entities to a list of more than 600 that were already facing EU bans and restrictions.

The additions also included companies in mainland China and India for the first time, targeting entities in the countries that have been the biggest buyers of Russian fossil fuels since the Kremlin launched its full-fledged war on Ukraine in February 2022.

Find out more about the new sanctions, who they target, how China, India and Russia have responded – and why all of this matters here .

Here are the key foreign policy points made by Putin

Putin has finished his annual State of the Nation address. Here are some key takeaways from his speech:

Warning to the West

  • “They have announced the possibility of sending Western military contingents to Ukraine … The consequences for possible interventionists will be much more tragic.”
  • “They should eventually realise that we also have weapons that can hit targets on their territory. Everything that the West comes up with creates the real threat of a conflict with the use of nuclear weapons, and thus the destruction of civilisation.”
  • Western countries do not just want to restrain the development of the Russian Federation: “Instead of Russia, they need a dependent, fading, dying space where they can do whatever they want.”
  • Russia will need to strengthen its western military district now that Sweden and Finland  have joined NATO. Finland has a long land border with northwest Russia.
  • Anyone considering invading Russia should remember the fate of those who previously attempted it. “But now the consequences for possible interventionists will be much more tragic.”

Russia’s war on Ukraine

  • “Our units firmly hold the initiative. They are confidently advancing in a number of operational directions and liberating more and more new territories.”
  • “Our armed forces have gained enormous combat experience … The combat capabilities of the armed forces have increased many times over.”

On dialogue with the US

  • The United States is offering Russia a dialogue on strategic stability while attempting to inflict “strategic defeat on the battlefield”; this is hypocritical.
  • Allegations that Moscow plans to place nuclear weapons in space are unfounded: This “is a ploy only to drag us into negotiations on its own terms, which are beneficial exclusively to the United States”.

The arms race

  • Western countries are trying to drag Russia into an arms race – “to repeat the trick that they succeeded in the 1980s with the Soviet Union”.
  • Therefore, it is important to “allocate resources as rationally as possible and build an effective economy for the armed forces”.


  1. sample introduction speech outline

    speech have outline

  2. Speech Outline Template For Kids

    speech have outline

  3. FREE 8+ Sample Speech Outline Templates in PDF

    speech have outline

  4. Sample Introduction Speech Outline

    speech have outline

  5. Esse for You: Demonstrative speech outline

    speech have outline

  6. 6+ Persuasive Speech Outline Template

    speech have outline


  1. Introduction Speech Outline/Essay

  2. Outline: Informative Speech

  3. Argumentative Speech Outline BLLW3162 EPI KHAW JIN YIN 3BTMMS2

  4. How to have outline shadow in app capcut#vietnamese#gacha#capcut#edit


  6. Demonstrative Speech Outline (GROUP 8)


  1. Sample speech outline: examples with a printable template☺

    how to outline a speech: the 4 essentials steps involved in writing an outline - detailed sequential help, with examples, covering: 1. choosing a topic, 2. audience analysis, 3. choosing the best organizational pattern to fit your speech purpose, 4. what to put in each part of your speech: introduction, body and conclusion. a printable speech ...

  2. How To Write A Speech Outline

    To create a working outline, you will need: A speech topic. An idea for the "hook" in your introduction. A thesis statement. 3-5 main points (each one should make a primary claim that you support with references) A conclusion. Each of your main points will also have sub-points, but we'll get to those in a later step.

  3. How to Write a Speech Outline (with Pictures)

    1. State your first point. The outline of the body of your speech will begin with the first point you intend to make in your speech. Write out a smooth transition from your introduction into the body of your speech. Your first point will be a top-level entry on your outline, typically noted by a Roman numeral.

  4. 7.4 Outlining Your Speech

    Speaking Outline. A speaking outline is the outline you will prepare for use when delivering the speech. The speaking outline is much more succinct than the preparation outline and includes brief phrases or words that remind the speakers of the points they need to make, plus supporting material and signposts (Beebe & Beebe, 2003).

  5. Outlining Your Speech

    A speaking outline is the outline you will prepare for use when delivering the speech. The speaking outline is much more succinct than the preparation outline and includes brief phrases or words that remind the speakers of the points they need to make, plus supporting material and signposts. [2] The words or phrases used on the speaking outline ...

  6. Preparation: How to write a Speech Outline (with Examples)

    Before you begin writing your outline, you should take a step back and think about your speech as a whole. First, think about the 3 keystones for your presentation or speech, i.e. the audience, your subject matter and of course, you, as the speaker. Then, write a few notes down about each keystone and how they relate with each other.

  7. Outline of Speech

    The speech outline is one of the most critical elements to have. Simply put, it has two main functions: it's a point of reference and an organizational tool. Our guide will help you understand how an outline is used, the structure of an outline, and the different types, so you can create the most helpful outline for you. ...

  8. Here's How to Write a Perfect Speech

    Step 3: Edit and polish what you've written until you have a cohesive first draft of your speech. Step 4: Practice, practice, practice. The more you practice your speech the more you'll discover which sections need reworked, which transitions should be improved, and which sentences are hard to say. You'll also find out how you're doing ...

  9. How a Speech Outline Can Help You Persuade Your Audience

    An outline doesn't have to follow a one size fits all template. Different outlines can serve different purposes. For example, an impromptu speech outline will look much different than a keynote address outline. Yet, most outlines fall under two categories: a preparation outline and a speaking outline.

  10. How to Write a Speech Outline

    1. Presentation title. Create a simple yet captivating title to capture attention and set expectations. 2. Two to four chunks. Make your speech easily digestible by segmenting it into chunks. Depending on what the situation calls for, you can choose two to four chunks or main ideas.

  11. The Speech Outline

    A speech outline is a valuable tool in your speech preparation and delivery. Putting together an outline will enable you to do the following: Organize your materials following the pattern you've selected for your speech. The outline structure will give you a clear picture of the path and distribution of your topic.

  12. Speech Outline Examples

    The outline for a public speech, according to COMM 101 online textbook The Public Speaking Project, p.p. 8-9. Use these samples to help prepare your speech outlines and bibliographies: Sample Speech Preparation Outline. This type of outline is very detailed with all the main points and subpoints written in complete sentences. Your bibliography ...

  13. How to Write an Informative Speech Outline: A Step-by-Step Guide

    First of all, make sure your speech follows a logical flow by using signposting, outlining the main ideas at the beginning of the speech and then bulleting out your supporting points. Additionally, you can use transitions throughout the speech to create a smooth order for your thoughts, such as 'next' and 'finally'.

  14. Speech Outline: What is it & Why is it Useful?

    Public Speaking. A speech outline is exactly what it sounds like. There is nothing complex about it, which is probably the reason why most people tend to skip this part of the speech writing process when it comes to public speaking. A speech outline is an outline that is used while delivering a speech. It includes brief phrases that remind the ...

  15. Mastering Speech Outlines: Tips & Examples

    Step-by-Step Guide to Crafting a Speech Outline. Crafting a speech outline begins with selecting a captivating topic, followed by formulating a strong thesis statement. Integrating the speech topic's keywords is essential, and the initial outline draft should encompass the main talking points. Moreover, organizing supporting points and ...

  16. Planning your speech: how to prepare a great speech outline

    Here's Martha's Finished Outline as an example. Speech length: 15 minutes with extra time for a 'Question and Answer' session at the end of the presentation. Speech title: How to win a future for your family when the kids need feeding, and the bills want paying. Introduction (2.5 minutes): Thanks for coming today … Summer heat, we'd all ...

  17. Chapter 14: Outlining

    This is the outline you use to lay out your speech's basic structure, so it changes many times before it is complete. A great strategy to begin your working outline is to type out labels for each element. Later, fill in the content. The following are the outline labels that you must have: Working Outline Labels.

  18. Persuasive Speech Outline, with Examples

    Ideas for your persuasive speech outline 1. Structure of your persuasive speech. The opening and closing of speech are the most important. Consider these carefully when thinking about your persuasive speech outline. A strong opening ensures you have the audience's attention from the start and gives them a positive first impression of you.

  19. How to Write an Outline for Speech: Basic Guide

    Importance of an Outline for a Speech. Without an outline, your speech could be confusing or unpolished. But with a written outline, you can deliver a complete and impressive speech. Here are other important reasons why you should draft an outline for your speech before you start writing it. 1. Sharpen Your Concentration

  20. 43 Informative Speech Outline Templates & Examples

    An informative speech is a type of speech mostly based on facts and figure. The facts are presented in front of the audience to teach them about a specific topic. It is necessary for an informative speech to have reliable sources to support claims. At times, presenters think to add some life to their speeches by putting in visual aids, images ...

  21. Types of Outlines

    Select the "Sample Outlines" PDF in the Media Box above to download the sample of this outline. Decimal Outlines. The decimal outline is similar in format to the alphanumeric outline. The added benefit is a system of decimal notation that clearly shows how every level of the outline relates to the larger whole.

  22. 3-minute speeches: Complete guide on writing, preparing and delivering

    Words in a 3-minute speech. An average speech of three minutes in length would have roughly 390 words at a regular speech rate of 130 words per minute (wpm). Daphne Gray-Grant, a speech and writing coach, discovered that the typical speaking tempo is 125 to 150 words per minute or 375 to 450 words for a three-minute speech.

  23. How to Write an Outline in 5 Steps, with Examples

    1. explain basic structure of outline. 2. reiterate how outlines help with paragraph order. B. Alphanumeric system. 1. introduce the alphanumeric system. a. bullet list of each line in alphanumeric system. C. Content written in blurbs. 1. exceptions for sharing with teams. D. Outline indentation.

  24. In Speech at CPAC, Trump Will Outline a Thriving U.S. Amid a Second

    In Speech at CPAC, Trump Will Outline a Thriving U.S. Amid a Second Term. Former President Donald J. Trump has so far largely campaigned on a dark vision of the United States under President Biden.

  25. What to Know About the Supreme Court Case on Free Speech on Social

    Both Florida and Texas passed laws regulating how social media companies moderate speech online. The laws, if upheld, could fundamentally alter how the platforms police their sites.

  26. Outline of a critical sociology of free speech in everyday life: Beyond

    While critical sociologists have contributed to theoretical debates on ethics, justice and human rights and their application to everyday life (for example, see McCarthy, 2017; Nash, 2015; Woodiwiss, 1998), there has been little by way of a critical sociological contribution towards developing a theory of free speech.For example, the wide-ranging Wiley Blackwell Companion to Political ...

  27. District of Columbia primary election results: Republicans

    View full results for the District of Columbia primary election as Republicans cast their votes in support of a presidential candidate for the 2024 election.

  28. Canada unveils law to force tech firms to remove 'harmful' content

    Canada unveils law to force tech firms to remove 'harmful' content online. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau introduced the Online Harms Act and said web giants have failed to keep kids safe online.

  29. Russia-Ukraine war updates: Putin warns of 'real' nuclear war risk

    Russian President Vladimir Putin delivers his annual address to the Federal Assembly in Moscow [Sputnik/Gavriil Grigorov/Kremlin via Reuters]