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  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 21, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:

Introduction

Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

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Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

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As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Methodology

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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How to write a research proposal

research proposal front page format

  • What is a research proposal?

If you’re in higher education, the term “research proposal” is something you’re likely to be familiar with. But what is it, exactly? You’ll normally come across the need to prepare a research proposal when you’re looking to secure Ph.D. funding.

When you’re trying to find someone to fund your Ph.D. research, a research proposal is essentially your “pitch.”

A research proposal is a concise and coherent summary of your proposed research.

You’ll need to set out the issues that are central to the topic area and how you intend to address them with your research. To do this, you’ll need to give the following:

  • an outline of the general area of study within which your research falls
  • an overview of how much is currently known about the topic
  • a literature review that covers the recent scholarly debate or conversation around the topic

➡️  What is a literature review? Learn more in our guide.

  • What is the purpose of a research proposal? 

Essentially, you are trying to persuade your institution that you and your project are worth investing their time and money into.

It is the opportunity for you to demonstrate that you have the aptitude for this level of research by showing that you can articulate complex ideas:

It also helps you to find the right supervisor to oversee your research. When you’re writing your research proposal, you should always have this in the back of your mind.

This is the document that potential supervisors will use in determining the legitimacy of your research and, consequently, whether they will invest in you or not. It is therefore incredibly important that you spend some time on getting it right.

  • How long should a research proposal be?

Tip: While there may not always be length requirements for research proposals, you should strive to cover everything you need to in a concise way.

If your research proposal is for a bachelor’s or master’s degree, it may only be a few pages long. For a Ph.D., a proposal could be a pretty long document that spans a few dozen pages.

➡️ Research proposals are similar to grant proposals. Learn how to write a grant proposal in our guide.

  • What should be included in a research proposal?

When you’re writing your proposal, keep in mind its purpose and why you’re writing it. It, therefore, needs to clearly explain the relevance of your research and its context with other discussions on the topic. You need to then explain what approach you will take and why it is feasible.

Generally, your structure should look something like this:

  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Research Design
  • Implications

If you follow this structure, you’ll have a comprehensive and coherent proposal that looks and feels professional, without missing out on anything important. We’ll take a deep dive into each of these areas one by one next.

1. The Title page

The title page might vary slightly per your area of study but, as a general point, your title page should contain the following:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • The name of your institution and your particular department

Tip: Keep in mind any departmental or institutional guidelines for a research proposal title page. Also, your supervisor may ask for specific details to be added to the page.

2. Introduction

The introduction is crucial   to your research proposal as it is your first opportunity to hook the reader in. A good introduction section will introduce your project and its relevance to the field of study.

You’ll want to use this space to demonstrate that you have carefully thought about how to present your project as interesting, original, and important research. A good place to start is by introducing the context of your research problem.

Think about answering these questions:

  • What is it you want to research and why?
  • How does this research relate to the respective field?
  • How much is already known about this area?
  • Who might find this research interesting?
  • What are the key questions you aim to answer with your research?
  • What will the findings of this project add to the topic area?

Your introduction aims to set yourself off on a great footing and illustrate to the reader that you are an expert in your field and that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge and theory.

3. Literature Review

The literature review section answers the question who else is talking about your proposed research topic.

You want to demonstrate that your research will contribute to conversations around the topic and that it will sit happily amongst experts in the field.

➡️ Read more about how to write a literature review .

There are lots of ways you can find relevant information for your literature review, including:

  • Research relevant academic sources such as books and journals to find similar conversations around the topic.
  • Read through abstracts and bibliographies of your academic sources to look for relevance and further additional resources without delving too deep into articles that are possibly not relevant to you.
  • Watch out for heavily-cited works . This should help you to identify authoritative work that you need to read and document.
  • Look for any research gaps , trends and patterns, common themes, debates, and contradictions.
  • Consider any seminal studies on the topic area as it is likely anticipated that you will address these in your research proposal.

4. Research Design

This is where you get down to the real meat of your research proposal. It should be a discussion about the overall approach you plan on taking, and the practical steps you’ll follow in answering the research questions you’ve posed.

So what should you discuss here? Some of the key things you will need to discuss at this point are:

  • What form will your research take? Is it qualitative/quantitative/mixed? Will your research be primary or secondary?
  • What sources will you use? Who or what will you be studying as part of your research.
  • Document your research method. How are you practically going to carry out your research? What tools will you need? What procedures will you use?
  • Any practicality issues you foresee. Do you think there will be any obstacles to your anticipated timescale? What resources will you require in carrying out your research?

5. Implications

Your research design should also discuss the potential implications of your research. For example, are you looking to confirm an existing theory or develop a new one?

If you intend to create a basis for further research, you should describe this here.

It is important to explain fully what you want the outcome of your research to look like and what you want to achieve by it. This will help those reading your research proposal to decide if it’s something the field  needs  and  wants,  and ultimately whether they will support you with it.

6. Reference List

When you reach the end of your research proposal, you’ll then have to compile a list of references for everything you’ve cited above. Ideally, you should keep track of everything from the beginning. Otherwise, this could be a mammoth and pretty laborious task to do.

Consider using a fast and accurate reference manager like Paperpile to format and organize your citations. A reference management tool would allow you to save your citations for later use.

Your project may also require you to have a timeline, depending on the budget you are requesting. If you need one, you should include it here and explain both the timeline and the budget you need, documenting what should be done at each stage of the research and how much of the budget this will use.

This is the final step, but not one to be missed. You should make sure that you edit and proofread your document so that you can be sure there are no mistakes.

A good idea is to have another person proofread the document for you so that you get a fresh pair of eyes on it. You can even have a professional proofreader do this for you.

This is an important document and you don’t want spelling or grammatical mistakes to get in the way of you and your reader.

➡️ Working on a research proposal for a thesis? Take a look at our guide on how to come up with a topic for your thesis .

  • Frequently Asked Questions about writing a research proposal

A research proposal is a concise and coherent summary of your proposed research. Generally, your research proposal will have a title page, introduction, literature review section, a section about research design and explaining the implications of your research, and a reference list.

A good research proposal is concise and coherent. It has a clear purpose, clearly explains the relevance of your research and its context with other discussions on the topic. A good research proposal explains what approach you will take and why it is feasible.

You need a research proposal to persuade your institution that you and your project are worth investing their time and money into. It is your opportunity to demonstrate your aptitude for this level or research by showing that you can articulate complex ideas clearly, concisely, and critically.

A research proposal is essentially your "pitch" when you're trying to find someone to fund your PhD. It is a clear and concise summary of your proposed research. It gives an outline of the general area of study within which your research falls, it elaborates how much is currently known about the topic, and it highlights any recent debate or conversation around the topic by other academics.

The general answer is: as long as it needs to be to cover everything. The length of your research proposal depends on the requirements from the institution that you are applying to. Make sure to carefully read all the instructions given, and if this specific information is not provided, you can always ask.

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20+ Research Proposal Template Samples – Word, PDF, Pages

If you are a campus student, you will right be at home here. If you are a businessperson, say a marketing manager, you, too, may find this post useful. This article is about research proposal samples . These are the files used for thesis, and anyone involved in research writing should be using them from time to time. It is important to remember that the thesis proposal templates are available for free download, and they serve different purposes. Here is a list of useful sample research proposal.

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Proposal Template Bundle

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Proposal Outline in Word

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Doctorate Research Proposal in PDF

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> What are the benefits of Research Proposal Templates?

Sample research project proposal form template.

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> Why You Should Use These Templates?

  • The templates are available for free download. You do not have to create any of these from scratch. Also, you can download any of them with just a single click of a mouse.
  • The sample templates are print-ready. That means you do not have to do a lot of editing work. All you have to do is download one template, print it, and then use it to write a sample proposal for reviews.
  • Usually, these sample templates are easy to customize. So, if you feel that you must customize the layout, feel free to edit the files in the recommended editor. You can also see Research Outline Templates .

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Research paper format

Research paper cover page/title page.

Research paper cover page title page

The title page needs to include 4 items:

  • The title of your paper. The title should concisely state the topic of the paper and the variables or theoretical issues that are being explored in relation to that topic. The title should be about 10-12 words long and should be centered in the middle of your page.
  • The author’s name and institutional affiliation. The institutional affiliation is just the name of the place (usually a college or university) where the research was conducted. The author’s name and institutional affiliation should be centered and placed directly below the title.
  • A running head. This is just an abbreviated version of your title, and should include no more than 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation). The running head is what appears at the top of each page next to the page number throughout the paper. The running head designation should be left justified and appear at the top of the page after the page number.
  • A page number. Page numbers should appear on the title page in the upper right hand corner, after the running head. Pages should then be numbered consecutively in the upper right hand corner throughout the paper.

Here is a sample title page in APA format. Note how it includes the running head and page number in the upper right hand corner, defines the running head that will title all manuscript pages, and centers the title and author information in the middle of the page.

Composing A Cover Page For An MLA Research Paper

Modern Language Association style (MLA) is designated for specifying the requirements for academic writing, such as formatting and use of English. Although many research papers are created according to the MLA style, this style usually does not provide for a cover page. All the necessary information is mentioned on the first page instead. Therefore, do not compose a cover page, unless there are some special requirements.

Nevertheless, sometimes instructors may require a separate cover page, as they consider it more professional. Usually instructors specify the requirements for the title page. However, the standardized MLA Format title page includes the following information:

  • University name.
  • Paper title.
  • Your class.
  • Professor’s name.

You should format your cover page as follows:

  • Write the name of your university.
  • Write the title of your paper, skipping about one third of the page. Make sure, that the formatting is correct. The title should be written according to the title capitalization standards. Remember, that the first word of the title is always written in capital letters, despite the fact that it may be an article or a preposition. Keep in mind, that you should use punctuation rules as required. Do not underline, italicize your title and do not use quotation marks. However, punctuate citations as required.
  • Skip a couple of lines and write your name. Remember to write both your first and last names.
  • Skip another couple of lines and write your class, professor’s name, and the due date on separate lines. Make sure, that you write names accurately. When writing your professor’s title, remember to use the title as required. Write all the information about your course or class according to the instructions. According to the MLA format dates are usually written in European style. This means that you should write it in the following order: the day, the month, and the year.
  • Remember to double-space the title page and center all the lines. Use the same format for each line. Do not use any special formatting, such as underlining, highlighting, or italicizing.

If your research requires a cover page, don’t forget that your first page will have special formatting. You are not supposed to mention all the information from the cover page there. However, the first page always contains the title of your work and your name. In addition, remember to write your name and page numbers on each page of the paper.

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COMMENTS

  1. Crafting an Impressive Research Proposal: Tips for Formatting and Organization

    Writing a research proposal is a crucial step in the research process. It serves as a blueprint for your study, outlining the objectives, methods, and expected outcomes. The title page is the first thing your readers will see when they open...

  2. The Ultimate Guide to Formatting an APA Reference Page

    When writing a paper in the American Psychological Association (APA) style, it is important to properly format your reference page. This page should appear at the end of your paper and provide a list of all the sources you used in your rese...

  3. How to Create an APA Reference Page in the Correct Format

    Creating a reference page in the American Psychological Association (APA) format is an important part of any research paper. The reference page provides readers with a list of sources that were used in the research and writing process.

  4. SAMPLE PROPOSAL COVER PAGE

    SAMPLE PROPOSAL COVER PAGE. PROPOSAL. to the. Research Society of America. 1515 Boulevard of the Planet. Washington, DC 22222. Submitted by. University of North

  5. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Title page · The proposed title of your project · Your name · Your supervisor's name · Your institution and department.

  6. I. RESEARCH PROPOSAL FORMAT

    For proposals (spiral bound) the cover page should include the title

  7. Format of the Proposal

    (The. Bibliography is not included in the 12-page count, nor is the title page.) • Line Spacing: The text of the written proposal is to be double-spaced except

  8. THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL TEMPLATE

    WHEN YOUR PROPOSAL IS COMPLETE, DELETE THIS FRONT INSTRUCTION PAGE. Confirmation of candidature. Type the title of your project here. STUDENT NAME: Type your

  9. How to write a research proposal

    Tip: Keep in mind any

  10. Template for the Research Proposal COVER PAGE

    Template for the Research Proposal. COVER PAGE. Name: Surname: Title of the project: Indicate the specific research topic you would like to work on (the list

  11. Standard Research Proposal Format

    a paper with the title page for an article. Quantitative Research Article

  12. 20+ Research Proposal Template Samples

    Here is a list of useful sample research proposal. research proposal template sample. Proposal Template Bundle. proposal template bundle. Details. File Format.

  13. Research Proposal Template

    ... format for the title, or even a title page. Find out before you submit your proposal. If there is no preferred format, keep it simple and clear, and use a

  14. Research paper cover page/title page

    Composing A Cover Page For An MLA Research Paper · Write the name of your university. · Write the title of your paper, skipping about one third of