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Hiring CS Graduates: What We Learned from Employers

Computer science ( CS ) majors are in high demand and account for a large part of national computer and information technology job market applicants. Employment in this sector is projected to grow 12% between 2018 and 2028, which is faster than the average of all other occupations. Published data are available on traditional non-computer science-specific hiring processes. However, the hiring process for CS majors may be different. It is critical to have up-to-date information on questions such as “what positions are in high demand for CS majors?,” “what is a typical hiring process?,” and “what do employers say they look for when hiring CS graduates?” This article discusses the analysis of a survey of 218 recruiters hiring CS graduates in the United States. We used Atlas.ti to analyze qualitative survey data and report the results on what positions are in the highest demand, the hiring process, and the resume review process. Our study revealed that a software developer was the most common job the recruiters were looking to fill. We found that the hiring process steps for CS graduates are generally aligned with traditional hiring steps, with an additional emphasis on technical and coding tests. Recruiters reported that their hiring choices were based on reviewing resume’s experience, GPA, and projects sections. The results provide insights into the hiring process, decision making, resume analysis, and some discrepancies between current undergraduate CS program outcomes and employers’ expectations.

A Systematic Literature Review of Empiricism and Norms of Reporting in Computing Education Research Literature

Context. Computing Education Research (CER) is critical to help the computing education community and policy makers support the increasing population of students who need to learn computing skills for future careers. For a community to systematically advance knowledge about a topic, the members must be able to understand published work thoroughly enough to perform replications, conduct meta-analyses, and build theories. There is a need to understand whether published research allows the CER community to systematically advance knowledge and build theories. Objectives. The goal of this study is to characterize the reporting of empiricism in Computing Education Research literature by identifying whether publications include content necessary for researchers to perform replications, meta-analyses, and theory building. We answer three research questions related to this goal: (RQ1) What percentage of papers in CER venues have some form of empirical evaluation? (RQ2) Of the papers that have empirical evaluation, what are the characteristics of the empirical evaluation? (RQ3) Of the papers that have empirical evaluation, do they follow norms (both for inclusion and for labeling of information needed for replication, meta-analysis, and, eventually, theory-building) for reporting empirical work? Methods. We conducted a systematic literature review of the 2014 and 2015 proceedings or issues of five CER venues: Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE TS), International Symposium on Computing Education Research (ICER), Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE), ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), and Computer Science Education (CSE). We developed and applied the CER Empiricism Assessment Rubric to the 427 papers accepted and published at these venues over 2014 and 2015. Two people evaluated each paper using the Base Rubric for characterizing the paper. An individual person applied the other rubrics to characterize the norms of reporting, as appropriate for the paper type. Any discrepancies or questions were discussed between multiple reviewers to resolve. Results. We found that over 80% of papers accepted across all five venues had some form of empirical evaluation. Quantitative evaluation methods were the most frequently reported. Papers most frequently reported results on interventions around pedagogical techniques, curriculum, community, or tools. There was a split in papers that had some type of comparison between an intervention and some other dataset or baseline. Most papers reported related work, following the expectations for doing so in the SIGCSE and CER community. However, many papers were lacking properly reported research objectives, goals, research questions, or hypotheses; description of participants; study design; data collection; and threats to validity. These results align with prior surveys of the CER literature. Conclusions. CER authors are contributing empirical results to the literature; however, not all norms for reporting are met. We encourage authors to provide clear, labeled details about their work so readers can use the study methodologies and results for replications and meta-analyses. As our community grows, our reporting of CER should mature to help establish computing education theory to support the next generation of computing learners.

Light Diacritic Restoration to Disambiguate Homographs in Modern Arabic Texts

Diacritic restoration (also known as diacritization or vowelization) is the process of inserting the correct diacritical markings into a text. Modern Arabic is typically written without diacritics, e.g., newspapers. This lack of diacritical markings often causes ambiguity, and though natives are adept at resolving, there are times they may fail. Diacritic restoration is a classical problem in computer science. Still, as most of the works tackle the full (heavy) diacritization of text, we, however, are interested in diacritizing the text using a fewer number of diacritics. Studies have shown that a fully diacritized text is visually displeasing and slows down the reading. This article proposes a system to diacritize homographs using the least number of diacritics, thus the name “light.” There is a large class of words that fall under the homograph category, and we will be dealing with the class of words that share the spelling but not the meaning. With fewer diacritics, we do not expect any effect on reading speed, while eye strain is reduced. The system contains morphological analyzer and context similarities. The morphological analyzer is used to generate all word candidates for diacritics. Then, through a statistical approach and context similarities, we resolve the homographs. Experimentally, the system shows very promising results, and our best accuracy is 85.6%.

A genre-based analysis of questions and comments in Q&A sessions after conference paper presentations in computer science

Gender diversity in computer science at a large public r1 research university: reporting on a self-study.

With the number of jobs in computer occupations on the rise, there is a greater need for computer science (CS) graduates than ever. At the same time, most CS departments across the country are only seeing 25–30% of women students in their classes, meaning that we are failing to draw interest from a large portion of the population. In this work, we explore the gender gap in CS at Rutgers University–New Brunswick, a large public R1 research university, using three data sets that span thousands of students across six academic years. Specifically, we combine these data sets to study the gender gaps in four core CS courses and explore the correlation of several factors with retention and the impact of these factors on changes to the gender gap as students proceed through the CS courses toward completing the CS major. For example, we find that a significant percentage of women students taking the introductory CS1 course for majors do not intend to major in CS, which may be a contributing factor to a large increase in the gender gap immediately after CS1. This finding implies that part of the retention task is attracting these women students to further explore the major. Results from our study include both novel findings and findings that are consistent with known challenges for increasing gender diversity in CS. In both cases, we provide extensive quantitative data in support of the findings.

Designing for Student-Directedness: How K–12 Teachers Utilize Peers to Support Projects

Student-directed projects—projects in which students have individual control over what they create and how to create it—are a promising practice for supporting the development of conceptual understanding and personal interest in K–12 computer science classrooms. In this article, we explore a central (and perhaps counterintuitive) design principle identified by a group of K–12 computer science teachers who support student-directed projects in their classrooms: in order for students to develop their own ideas and determine how to pursue them, students must have opportunities to engage with other students’ work. In this qualitative study, we investigated the instructional practices of 25 K–12 teachers using a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews to develop understandings of how they used peer work to support student-directed projects in their classrooms. Teachers described supporting their students in navigating three stages of project development: generating ideas, pursuing ideas, and presenting ideas. For each of these three stages, teachers considered multiple factors to encourage engagement with peer work in their classrooms, including the quality and completeness of shared work and the modes of interaction with the work. We discuss how this pedagogical approach offers students new relationships to their own learning, to their peers, and to their teachers and communicates important messages to students about their own competence and agency, potentially contributing to aims within computer science for broadening participation.

Creativity in CS1: A Literature Review

Computer science is a fast-growing field in today’s digitized age, and working in this industry often requires creativity and innovative thought. An issue within computer science education, however, is that large introductory programming courses often involve little opportunity for creative thinking within coursework. The undergraduate introductory programming course (CS1) is notorious for its poor student performance and retention rates across multiple institutions. Integrating opportunities for creative thinking may help combat this issue by adding a personal touch to course content, which could allow beginner CS students to better relate to the abstract world of programming. Research on the role of creativity in computer science education (CSE) is an interesting area with a lot of room for exploration due to the complexity of the phenomenon of creativity as well as the CSE research field being fairly new compared to some other education fields where this topic has been more closely explored. To contribute to this area of research, this article provides a literature review exploring the concept of creativity as relevant to computer science education and CS1 in particular. Based on the review of the literature, we conclude creativity is an essential component to computer science, and the type of creativity that computer science requires is in fact, a teachable skill through the use of various tools and strategies. These strategies include the integration of open-ended assignments, large collaborative projects, learning by teaching, multimedia projects, small creative computational exercises, game development projects, digitally produced art, robotics, digital story-telling, music manipulation, and project-based learning. Research on each of these strategies and their effects on student experiences within CS1 is discussed in this review. Last, six main components of creativity-enhancing activities are identified based on the studies about incorporating creativity into CS1. These components are as follows: Collaboration, Relevance, Autonomy, Ownership, Hands-On Learning, and Visual Feedback. The purpose of this article is to contribute to computer science educators’ understanding of how creativity is best understood in the context of computer science education and explore practical applications of creativity theory in CS1 classrooms. This is an important collection of information for restructuring aspects of future introductory programming courses in creative, innovative ways that benefit student learning.

CATS: Customizable Abstractive Topic-based Summarization

Neural sequence-to-sequence models are the state-of-the-art approach used in abstractive summarization of textual documents, useful for producing condensed versions of source text narratives without being restricted to using only words from the original text. Despite the advances in abstractive summarization, custom generation of summaries (e.g., towards a user’s preference) remains unexplored. In this article, we present CATS, an abstractive neural summarization model that summarizes content in a sequence-to-sequence fashion while also introducing a new mechanism to control the underlying latent topic distribution of the produced summaries. We empirically illustrate the efficacy of our model in producing customized summaries and present findings that facilitate the design of such systems. We use the well-known CNN/DailyMail dataset to evaluate our model. Furthermore, we present a transfer-learning method and demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in a low resource setting, i.e., abstractive summarization of meetings minutes, where combining the main available meetings’ transcripts datasets, AMI and International Computer Science Institute(ICSI) , results in merely a few hundred training documents.

Exploring students’ and lecturers’ views on collaboration and cooperation in computer science courses - a qualitative analysis

Factors affecting student educational choices regarding oer material in computer science, export citation format, share document.

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Computer science is the study and development of the protocols required for automated processing and manipulation of data. This includes, for example, creating algorithms for efficiently searching large volumes of information or encrypting data so that it can be stored and transmitted securely.

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A knowledge gap persists between machine learning developers and clinicians. Here, the authors show that the Advanced Data Analysis extension of ChatGPT could bridge this gap and simplify complex data analyses, making them more accessible to clinicians.

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Computer science deals with the theory and practice of algorithms, from idealized mathematical procedures to the computer systems deployed by major tech companies to answer billions of user requests per day.

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Title: an interactive agent foundation model.

Abstract: The development of artificial intelligence systems is transitioning from creating static, task-specific models to dynamic, agent-based systems capable of performing well in a wide range of applications. We propose an Interactive Agent Foundation Model that uses a novel multi-task agent training paradigm for training AI agents across a wide range of domains, datasets, and tasks. Our training paradigm unifies diverse pre-training strategies, including visual masked auto-encoders, language modeling, and next-action prediction, enabling a versatile and adaptable AI framework. We demonstrate the performance of our framework across three separate domains -- Robotics, Gaming AI, and Healthcare. Our model demonstrates its ability to generate meaningful and contextually relevant outputs in each area. The strength of our approach lies in its generality, leveraging a variety of data sources such as robotics sequences, gameplay data, large-scale video datasets, and textual information for effective multimodal and multi-task learning. Our approach provides a promising avenue for developing generalist, action-taking, multimodal systems.

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WorldCIST 2021: Trends and Applications in Information Systems and Technologies pp 13–22 Cite as

Five Hundred Most-Cited Papers in the Computer Sciences: Trends, Relationships and Common Factors

  • Phoey Lee Teh   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7787-1299 19 &
  • Peter Heard   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-5135-7822 20  
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Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC,volume 1366)

This study reveals common factors among highly cited papers in the computer sciences. The 500 most cited papers in the computer sciences published between January 2013 and December 2017 were downloaded from the Web of Science (WoS). Data on the number of citations, number of authors, article length and subject sub-discipline were extracted and analyzed in order to identify trends, relationships and common features. Correlations between common factors were analyzed. The 500 papers were cited a total of 10,926 times: the average number of citations per paper was 21.82 citations. A correlation was found between author credibility (defined in terms of the QS University Ranking of the first named author’s affiliation) and the number of citations. Authors from universities ranked 350 or higher were more cited than those from lower ranked universities. Relationships were also found between journal ranking and both the number of authors and the article length. Higher ranked journals tend to have a greater number of authors, but were of shorter length. The article length was also found to be correlated with the number of authors and the QS Subject Ranking of the first author’s affiliation. The proportion of articles in higher ranked journals (journal quartile), the length of articles and the number of citations per page were all found to correlate to the sub-discipline area (Information Systems; Software Engineering; Artificial Intelligence; Interdisciplinary Applications; and Theory and Methods).

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Al-Hidabi, M.D., The, P.L.: Multiple publications: the main reason for the retraction of papers in computer science. In: Arai, K., Kapoor, S., Bhatia, R. (eds.) Advances in Information and Communication Networks. FICC 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 886, pp. 551–526. Springer, Cham (2019)

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Teh, P.L., Heard, P. (2021). Five Hundred Most-Cited Papers in the Computer Sciences: Trends, Relationships and Common Factors. In: Rocha, Á., Adeli, H., Dzemyda, G., Moreira, F., Ramalho Correia, A.M. (eds) Trends and Applications in Information Systems and Technologies . WorldCIST 2021. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1366. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72651-5_2

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13 Research Papers Accepted to ICML 2021

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Papers from CS researchers have been accepted to the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2021). 

Associate Professor Daniel Hsu was one of the publication chairs of the conference and Assistant Professor Elham Azizi helped organize the 2021 ICML Workshop on Computational Biology . The workshop highlighted how machine learning approaches can be tailored to making both translational and basic scientific discoveries with biological data.

Below are the abstracts and links to the accepted papers.

A Proxy Variable View of Shared Confounding Yixin Wang Columbia University , David Blei Columbia University

Causal inference from observational data can be biased by unobserved confounders. Confounders—the variables that affect both the treatments and the outcome—induce spurious non-causal correlations between the two. Without additional conditions, unobserved confounders generally make causal quantities hard to identify. In this paper, we focus on the setting where there are many treatments with shared confounding, and we study under what conditions is causal identification possible. The key observation is that we can view subsets of treatments as proxies of the unobserved confounder and identify the intervention distributions of the rest. Moreover, while existing identification formulas for proxy variables involve solving integral equations, we show that one can circumvent the need for such solutions by directly modeling the data. Finally, we extend these results to an expanded class of causal graphs, those with other confounders and selection variables.

Unsupervised Representation Learning via Neural Activation Coding Yookoon Park Columbia University , Sangho Lee Seoul National University , Gunhee Kim Seoul National University , David Blei Columbia University

We present neural activation coding (NAC) as a novel approach for learning deep representations from unlabeled data for downstream applications. We argue that the deep encoder should maximize its nonlinear expressivity on the data for downstream predictors to take full advantage of its representation power. To this end, NAC maximizes the mutual information between activation patterns of the encoder and the data over a noisy communication channel. We show that learning for a noise-robust activation code increases the number of distinct linear regions of ReLU encoders, hence the maximum nonlinear expressivity. More interestingly, NAC learns both continuous and discrete representations of data, which we respectively evaluate on two downstream tasks: (i) linear classification on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet-1K and (ii) nearest neighbor retrieval on CIFAR-10 and FLICKR-25K. Empirical results show that NAC attains better or comparable performance on both tasks over recent baselines including SimCLR and DistillHash. In addition, NAC pretraining provides significant benefits to the training of deep generative models. Our code is available at https://github.com/yookoon/nac.

The Logical Options Framework Brandon Araki MIT , Xiao Li MIT , Kiran Vodrahalli Columbia University , Jonathan DeCastro Toyota Research Institute , Micah Fry MIT Lincoln Laboratory , Daniela Rus MIT CSAIL

Learning composable policies for environments with complex rules and tasks is a challenging problem. We introduce a hierarchical reinforcement learning framework called the Logical Options Framework (LOF) that learns policies that are satisfying, optimal, and composable. LOF efficiently learns policies that satisfy tasks by representing the task as an automaton and integrating it into learning and planning. We provide and prove conditions under which LOF will learn satisfying, optimal policies. And lastly, we show how LOF’s learned policies can be composed to satisfy unseen tasks with only 10-50 retraining steps on our benchmarks. We evaluate LOF on four tasks in discrete and continuous domains, including a 3D pick-and-place environment.

Estimating Identifiable Causal Effects on Markov Equivalence Class through Double Machine Learning Yonghan Jung Columbia University , Jin Tian Columbia University , Elias Bareinboim Columbia University

General methods have been developed for estimating causal effects from observational data under causal assumptions encoded in the form of a causal graph. Most of this literature assumes that the underlying causal graph is completely specified. However, only observational data is available in most practical settings, which means that one can learn at most a Markov equivalence class (MEC) of the underlying causal graph. In this paper, we study the problem of causal estimation from a MEC represented by a partial ancestral graph (PAG), which is learnable from observational data. We develop a general estimator for any identifiable causal effects in a PAG. The result fills a gap for an end-to-end solution to causal inference from observational data to effects estimation. Specifically, we develop a complete identification algorithm that derives an influence function for any identifiable causal effects from PAGs. We then construct a double/debiased machine learning (DML) estimator that is robust to model misspecification and biases in nuisance function estimation, permitting the use of modern machine learning techniques. Simulation results corroborate with the theory.

Environment Inference for Invariant Learning  Elliot Creager University of Toronto , Joern Jacobsen Apple Inc. , Richard Zemel Columbia University

Learning models that gracefully handle distribution shifts is central to research on domain generalization, robust optimization, and fairness. A promising formulation is domain-invariant learning, which identifies the key issue of learning which features are domain-specific versus domain-invariant. An important assumption in this area is that the training examples are partitioned into  domains'' or environments”. Our focus is on the more common setting where such partitions are not provided. We propose EIIL, a general framework for domain-invariant learning that incorporates Environment Inference to directly infer partitions that are maximally informative for downstream Invariant Learning. We show that EIIL outperforms invariant learning methods on the CMNIST benchmark without using environment labels, and significantly outperforms ERM on worst-group performance in the Waterbirds dataset. Finally, we establish connections between EIIL and algorithmic fairness, which enables EIIL to improve accuracy and calibration in a fair prediction problem.

SketchEmbedNet: Learning Novel Concepts by Imitating Drawings Alex Wang University of Toronto , Mengye Ren University of Toronto , Richard Zemel Columbia University

Sketch drawings capture the salient information of visual concepts. Previous work has shown that neural networks are capable of producing sketches of natural objects drawn from a small number of classes. While earlier approaches focus on generation quality or retrieval, we explore properties of image representations learned by training a model to produce sketches of images. We show that this generative, class-agnostic model produces informative embeddings of images from novel examples, classes, and even novel datasets in a few-shot setting. Additionally, we find that these learned representations exhibit interesting structure and compositionality.

Universal Template for Few-Shot Dataset Generalization Eleni Triantafillou University of Toronto , Hugo Larochelle Google Brain , Richard Zemel Columbia University , Vincent Dumoulin Google

Few-shot dataset generalization is a challenging variant of the well-studied few-shot classification problem where a diverse training set of several datasets is given, for the purpose of training an adaptable model that can then learn classes from \emph{new datasets} using only a few examples. To this end, we propose to utilize the diverse training set to construct a \emph{universal template}: a partial model that can define a wide array of dataset-specialized models, by plugging in appropriate components. For each new few-shot classification problem, our approach therefore only requires inferring a small number of parameters to insert into the universal template. We design a separate network that produces an initialization of those parameters for each given task, and we then fine-tune its proposed initialization via a few steps of gradient descent. Our approach is more parameter-efficient, scalable and adaptable compared to previous methods, and achieves the state-of-the-art on the challenging Meta-Dataset benchmark.

On Monotonic Linear Interpolation of Neural Network Parameters James Lucas University of Toronto , Juhan Bae University of Toronto, Michael Zhang University of Toronto , Stanislav Fort Google AI , Richard Zemel Columbia University , Roger Grosse University of Toronto

Linear interpolation between initial neural network parameters and converged parameters after training with stochastic gradient descent (SGD) typically leads to a monotonic decrease in the training objective. This Monotonic Linear Interpolation (MLI) property, first observed by Goodfellow et al. 2014, persists in spite of the non-convex objectives and highly non-linear training dynamics of neural networks. Extending this work, we evaluate several hypotheses for this property that, to our knowledge, have not yet been explored. Using tools from differential geometry, we draw connections between the interpolated paths in function space and the monotonicity of the network — providing sufficient conditions for the MLI property under mean squared error. While the MLI property holds under various settings (e.g., network architectures and learning problems), we show in practice that networks violating the MLI property can be produced systematically, by encouraging the weights to move far from initialization. The MLI property raises important questions about the loss landscape geometry of neural networks and highlights the need to further study their global properties.

A Computational Framework For Slang Generation Zhewei Sun University of Toronto , Richard Zemel Columbia University , Yang Xu University of Toronto

Slang is a common type of informal language, but its flexible nature and paucity of data resources present challenges for existing natural language systems. We take an initial step toward machine generation of slang by developing a framework that models the speaker’s word choice in slang context. Our framework encodes novel slang meaning by relating the conventional and slang senses of a word while incorporating syntactic and contextual knowledge in slang usage. We construct the framework using a combination of probabilistic inference and neural contrastive learning. We perform rigorous evaluations on three slang dictionaries and show that our approach not only outperforms state-of-the-art language models, but also better predicts the historical emergence of slang word usages from 1960s to 2000s. We interpret the proposed models and find that the contrastively learned semantic space is sensitive to the similarities between slang and conventional senses of words. Our work creates opportunities for the automated generation and interpretation of informal language.

Wandering Within A World: Online Contextualized Few-Shot Learning Mengye Ren University of Toronto , Michael Iuzzolino Google Research , Michael Mozer Google Research , Richard Zemel Columbia University

We aim to bridge the gap between typical human and machine-learning environments by extending the standard framework of few-shot learning to an online, continual setting. In this setting, episodes do not have separate training and testing phases, and instead models are evaluated online while learning novel classes. As in the real world, where the presence of spatiotemporal context helps us retrieve learned skills in the past, our online few-shot learning setting also features an underlying context that changes throughout time. Object classes are correlated within a context and inferring the correct context can lead to better performance. Building upon this setting, we propose a new few-shot learning dataset based on large scale indoor imagery that mimics the visual experience of an agent wandering within a world. Furthermore, we convert popular few-shot learning approaches into online versions and we also propose a new contextual prototypical memory model that can make use of spatiotemporal contextual information from the recent past.

Bayesian Few-Shot Classification With One-Vs-Each Polya-Gamma Augmented Gaussian Processes Jake Snell University of Toronto , Richard Zemel Columbia University

Few-shot classification (FSC), the task of adapting a classifier to unseen classes given a small labeled dataset, is an important step on the path toward human-like machine learning. Bayesian methods are well-suited to tackling the fundamental issue of overfitting in the few-shot scenario because they allow practitioners to specify prior beliefs and update those beliefs in light of observed data. Contemporary approaches to Bayesian few-shot classification maintain a posterior distribution over model parameters, which is slow and requires storage that scales with model size. Instead, we propose a Gaussian process classifier based on a novel combination of Pólya-Gamma augmentation and the one-vs-each softmax approximation that allows us to efficiently marginalize over functions rather than model parameters. We demonstrate improved accuracy and uncertainty quantification on both standard few-shot classification benchmarks and few-shot domain transfer tasks.

Theoretical Bounds On Estimation Error For Meta-Learning James Lucas University of Toronto , Mengye Ren University of Toronto , Irene Kameni African Master for Mathematical Sciences , Toni Pitassi Columbia University , Richard Zemel Columbia University

Machine learning models have traditionally been developed under the assumption that the training and test distributions match exactly. However, recent success in few-shot learning and related problems are encouraging signs that these models can be adapted to more realistic settings where train and test distributions differ. Unfortunately, there is severely limited theoretical support for these algorithms and little is known about the difficulty of these problems. In this work, we provide novel information-theoretic lower-bounds on minimax rates of convergence for algorithms that are trained on data from multiple sources and tested on novel data. Our bounds depend intuitively on the information shared between sources of data, and characterize the difficulty of learning in this setting for arbitrary algorithms. We demonstrate these bounds on a hierarchical Bayesian model of meta-learning, computing both upper and lower bounds on parameter estimation via maximum-a-posteriori inference.

A PAC-Bayesian Approach To Generalization Bounds For Graph Neural Networks Renjie Liao University of Toronto , Raquel Urtasun University of Toronto , Richard Zemel Columbia University

In this paper, we derive generalization bounds for the two primary classes of graph neural networks (GNNs), namely graph convolutional networks (GCNs) and message passing GNNs (MPGNNs), via a PAC-Bayesian approach. Our result reveals that the maximum node degree and spectral norm of the weights govern the generalization bounds of both models. We also show that our bound for GCNs is a natural generalization of the results developed in  arXiv:1707.09564v2  [cs.LG] for fully-connected and convolutional neural networks. For message passing GNNs, our PAC-Bayes bound improves over the Rademacher complexity based bound in  arXiv:2002.06157v1  [cs.LG], showing a tighter dependency on the maximum node degree and the maximum hidden dimension. The key ingredients of our proofs are a perturbation analysis of GNNs and the generalization of PAC-Bayes analysis to non-homogeneous GNNs. We perform an empirical study on several real-world graph datasets and verify that our PAC-Bayes bound is tighter than others.

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The best research databases for computer science

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2. ieee xplore digital library, 3. dblp computer science bibliography, 4. springer lecture notes in computer science (lncs), frequently asked questions about computer science research databases, related articles.

Besides the interdisciplinary research databases Web of Science and Scopus there are also academic databases specifically dedicated to computer science. We have compiled a list of the top 4 research databases with a special focus on computer science to help you find research papers, scholarly articles, and conference papers fast.

ACM Digital Library is the clear number one when it comes to academic databases for computer science. The ACM Full-Text Collection currently has 540,000+ articles, while the ACM Guide to Computing Literature holds more than 2.8+ million bibliographic entries.

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IEEE Xplore holds more than 4.7 million research articles from the fields of electrical engineering, computer science, and electronics. It not only covers articles published in scholarly journals, but also conference papers, technical standards, as well as some books.

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A new design for quantum computers

Creating a quantum computer powerful enough to tackle problems we cannot solve with current computers remains a big challenge for quantum physicists. A well-functioning quantum simulator -- a specific type of quantum computer -- could lead to new discoveries about how the world works at the smallest scales. Quantum scientist Natalia Chepiga from Delft University of Technology has developed a guide on how to upgrade these machines so that they can simulate even more complex quantum systems. The study is now published in Physical Review Letters .

"Creating useful quantum computers and quantum simulators is one of the most important and debated topics in quantum science today, with the potential to revolutionise society," says researcher Natalia Chepiga. Quantum simulators are a type of quantum computer, Chepiga explains: "Quantum simulators are meant to address open problems of quantum physics to further push our understanding of nature. Quantum computers will have wide applications in various areas of social life, for example in finances, encryption and data storage."

Steering wheel

"A key ingredient of a useful quantum simulator is a possibility to control or manipulate it," says Chepiga. "Imagine a car without a steering wheel. It can only go forward but cannot turn. Is it useful? Only if you need to go in one particular direction, otherwise the answer will be 'no!'. If we want to create a quantum computer that will be able to discover new physics phenomena in the near-future, we need to build a 'steering wheel' to tune into what seems interesting. In my paper I propose a protocol that creates a fully controllable quantum simulator."

The protocol is a recipe -- a set of ingredients that a quantum simulator should have to be tunable. In the conventional setup of a quantum simulator, rubidium (Rb) or cesium (Cs) atoms are targeted by a single laser. As a result, these particles will take up electrons, and thereby become more energetic; they become excited. "I show that if we were to use two lasers with different frequencies or colours, thereby exciting these atoms to different states, we could tune the quantum simulators to many different settings," Chepiga explains.

The protocol offers an additional dimension of what can be simulated. "Imagine that you have only seen a cube as a sketch on a flat piece of paper, but now you get a real 3D cube that you can touch, rotate and explore in different ways," Chepiga continues. "Theoretically we can add even more dimensions by bringing in more lasers."

Simulating many particles

"The collective behaviour of a quantum system with many particles is extremely challenging to simulate," Chepiga explains. "Beyond a few dozens of particles, modelling with our usual computer or a supercomputer has to rely on approximations." When taking the interaction of more particles, temperature and motion into account, there are simply too many calculations to perform for the computer.

Quantum simulators are composed of quantum particles, which means that the components are entangled. "Entanglement is some sort of mutual information that quantum particles share between themselves. It is an intrinsic property of the simulator and therefore allows to overcome this computational bottleneck."

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  • Natalia Chepiga. Tunable Quantum Criticality in Multicomponent Rydberg Arrays . Physical Review Letters , 2024; 132 (7) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.076505

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Latest Computer Science Research Topics for 2024

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Everybody sees a dream—aspiring to become a doctor, astronaut, or anything that fits your imagination. If you were someone who had a keen interest in looking for answers and knowing the “why” behind things, you might be a good fit for research. Further, if this interest revolved around computers and tech, you would be an excellent computer researcher!

As a tech enthusiast, you must know how technology is making our life easy and comfortable. With a single click, Google can get you answers to your silliest query or let you know the best restaurants around you. Do you know what generates that answer? Want to learn about the science going on behind these gadgets and the internet?

For this, you will have to do a bit of research. Here we will learn about top computer science thesis topics and computer science thesis ideas.

Why is Research in Computer Science Important?

Computers and technology are becoming an integral part of our lives. We are dependent on them for most of our work. With the changing lifestyle and needs of the people, continuous research in this sector is required to ease human work. However, you need to be a certified researcher to contribute to the field of computers. You can check out Advance Computer Programming certification to learn and advance in the versatile language and get hands-on experience with all the topics of C# application development.

1. Innovation in Technology

Research in computer science contributes to technological advancement and innovations. We end up discovering new things and introducing them to the world. Through research, scientists and engineers can create new hardware, software, and algorithms that improve the functionality, performance, and usability of computers and other digital devices.

2. Problem-Solving Capabilities

From disease outbreaks to climate change, solving complex problems requires the use of advanced computer models and algorithms. Computer science research enables scholars to create methods and tools that can help in resolving these challenging issues in a blink of an eye.

3. Enhancing Human Life

Computer science research has the potential to significantly enhance human life in a variety of ways. For instance, researchers can produce educational software that enhances student learning or new healthcare technology that improves clinical results. If you wish to do Ph.D., these can become interesting computer science research topics for a PhD.

4. Security Assurance

As more sensitive data is being transmitted and kept online, security is our main concern. Computer science research is crucial for creating new security systems and tactics that defend against online threats.

Top Computer Science Research Topics

Before starting with the research, knowing the trendy research paper ideas for computer science exploration is important. It is not so easy to get your hands on the best research topics for computer science; spend some time and read about the following mind-boggling ideas before selecting one.

1. Integrated Blockchain and Edge Computing Systems: A Survey, Some Research Issues, and Challenges

Welcome to the era of seamless connectivity and unparalleled efficiency! Blockchain and edge computing are two cutting-edge technologies that have the potential to revolutionize numerous sectors. Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that is decentralized and offers a safe and transparent method of storing and transferring data.

As a young researcher, you can pave the way for a more secure, efficient, and scalable architecture that integrates blockchain and edge computing systems. So, let's roll up our sleeves and get ready to push the boundaries of technology with this exciting innovation!

Blockchain helps to reduce latency and boost speed. Edge computing, on the other hand, entails processing data close to the generation source, such as sensors and IoT devices. Integrating edge computing with blockchain technologies can help to achieve safer, more effective, and scalable architecture.

Moreover, this research title for computer science might open doors of opportunities for you in the financial sector.

2. A Survey on Edge Computing Systems and Tools

With the rise in population, the data is multiplying by manifolds each day. It's high time we find efficient technology to store it. However, more research is required for the same.

Say hello to the future of computing with edge computing! The edge computing system can store vast amounts of data to retrieve in the future. It also provides fast access to information in need. It maintains computing resources from the cloud and data centers while processing.

Edge computing systems bring processing power closer to the data source, resulting in faster and more efficient computing. But what tools are available to help us harness the power of edge computing?

As a part of this research, you will look at the newest edge computing tools and technologies to see how they can improve your computing experience. Here are some of the tools you might get familiar with upon completion of this research:

  • Apache NiFi:  A framework for data processing that enables users to gather, transform, and transfer data from edge devices to cloud computing infrastructure.
  • Microsoft Azure IoT Edge: A platform in the cloud that enables the creation and deployment of cutting-edge intelligent applications.
  • OpenFog Consortium:  An organization that supports the advancement of fog computing technologies and architectures is the OpenFog Consortium.

3. Machine Learning: Algorithms, Real-world Applications, and Research Directions

Machine learning is the superset of Artificial Intelligence; a ground-breaking technology used to train machines to mimic human action and work. ML is used in everything from virtual assistants to self-driving cars and is revolutionizing the way we interact with computers. But what is machine learning exactly, and what are some of its practical uses and future research directions?

To find answers to such questions, it can be a wonderful choice to pick from the pool of various computer science dissertation ideas.

You will discover how computers learn several actions without explicit programming and see how they perform beyond their current capabilities. However, to understand better, having some basic programming knowledge always helps. KnowledgeHut’s Programming course for beginners will help you learn the most in-demand programming languages and technologies with hands-on projects.

During the research, you will work on and study

  • Algorithm: Machine learning includes many algorithms, from decision trees to neural networks.
  • Applications in the Real-world: You can see the usage of ML in many places. It can early detect and diagnose diseases like cancer. It can detect fraud when you are making payments. You can also use it for personalized advertising.
  • Research Trend:  The most recent developments in machine learning research, include explainable AI, reinforcement learning, and federated learning.

While a single research paper is not enough to bring the light on an entire domain as vast as machine learning; it can help you witness how applicable it is in numerous fields, like engineering, data science & analysis, business intelligence, and many more.

Whether you are a data scientist with years of experience or a curious tech enthusiast, machine learning is an intriguing and vital field that's influencing the direction of technology. So why not dig deeper?

4. Evolutionary Algorithms and their Applications to Engineering Problems

Imagine a system that can solve most of your complex queries. Are you interested to know how these systems work? It is because of some algorithms. But what are they, and how do they work? Evolutionary algorithms use genetic operators like mutation and crossover to build new generations of solutions rather than starting from scratch.

This research topic can be a choice of interest for someone who wants to learn more about algorithms and their vitality in engineering.

Evolutionary algorithms are transforming the way we approach engineering challenges by allowing us to explore enormous solution areas and optimize complex systems.

The possibilities are infinite as long as this technology is developed further. Get ready to explore the fascinating world of evolutionary algorithms and their applications in addressing engineering issues.

5. The Role of Big Data Analytics in the Industrial Internet of Things

Datasets can have answers to most of your questions. With good research and approach, analyzing this data can bring magical results. Welcome to the world of data-driven insights! Big Data Analytics is the transformative process of extracting valuable knowledge and patterns from vast and complex datasets, boosting innovation and informed decision-making.

This field allows you to transform the enormous amounts of data produced by IoT devices into insightful knowledge that has the potential to change how large-scale industries work. It's like having a crystal ball that can foretell.

Big data analytics is being utilized to address some of the most critical issues, from supply chain optimization to predictive maintenance. Using it, you can find patterns, spot abnormalities, and make data-driven decisions that increase effectiveness and lower costs for several industrial operations by analyzing data from sensors and other IoT devices.

The area is so vast that you'll need proper research to use and interpret all this information. Choose this as your computer research topic to discover big data analytics' most compelling applications and benefits. You will see that a significant portion of industrial IoT technology demands the study of interconnected systems, and there's nothing more suitable than extensive data analysis.

6. An Efficient Lightweight Integrated Blockchain (ELIB) Model for IoT Security and Privacy

Are you concerned about the security and privacy of your Internet of Things (IoT) devices? As more and more devices become connected, it is more important than ever to protect the security and privacy of data. If you are interested in cyber security and want to find new ways of strengthening it, this is the field for you.

ELIB is a cutting-edge solution that offers private and secure communication between IoT devices by fusing the strength of blockchain with lightweight cryptography. This architecture stores encrypted data on a distributed ledger so only parties with permission can access it.

But why is ELIB so practical and portable? ELIB uses lightweight cryptography to provide quick and effective communication between devices, unlike conventional blockchain models that need complicated and resource-intensive computations.

Due to its increasing vitality, it is gaining popularity as a research topic as someone aware that this framework works and helps reinstate data security is highly demanded in financial and banking.

7. Natural Language Processing Techniques to Reveal Human-Computer Interaction for Development Research Topics

Welcome to the world where machines decode the beauty of the human language. With natural language processing (NLP) techniques, we can analyze the interactions between humans and computers to reveal valuable insights for development research topics. It is also one of the most crucial PhD topics in computer science as NLP-based applications are gaining more and more traction.

Etymologically, natural language processing (NLP) is a potential technique that enables us to examine and comprehend natural language data, such as discussions between people and machines. Insights on user behaviour, preferences, and pain areas can be gleaned from these encounters utilizing NLP approaches.

But which specific areas should we leverage on using NLP methods? This is precisely what you’ll discover while doing this computer science research.

Gear up to learn more about the fascinating field of NLP and how it can change how we design and interact with technology, whether you are a UX designer, a data scientist, or just a curious tech lover and linguist.

8. All One Needs to Know About Fog Computing and Related Edge Computing Paradigms: A Complete Survey

If you are an IoT expert or a keen lover of the Internet of Things, you should leap and move forward to discovering Fog Computing. With the rise of connected devices and the Internet of Things (IoT), traditional cloud computing models are no longer enough. That's where fog computing and related edge computing paradigms come in.

Fog computing is a distributed approach that brings processing and data storage closer to the devices that generate and consume data by extending cloud computing to the network's edge.

As computing technologies are significantly used today, the area has become a hub for researchers to delve deeper into the underlying concepts and devise more and more fog computing frameworks. You can also contribute to and master this architecture by opting for this stand-out topic for your research.

Tips and Tricks to Write Computer Research Topics

Before starting to explore these hot research topics in computer science you may have to know about some tips and tricks that can easily help you.

  • Know your interest.
  • Choose the topic wisely.
  • Make proper research about the demand of the topic.
  • Get proper references.
  • Discuss with experts.

By following these tips and tricks, you can write a compelling and impactful computer research topic that contributes to the field's advancement and addresses important research gaps.

From machine learning and artificial intelligence to blockchain, edge computing, and big data analytics, numerous trending computer research topics exist to explore.

One of the most important trends is using cutting-edge technology to address current issues. For instance, new IIoT security and privacy opportunities are emerging by integrating blockchain and edge computing. Similarly, the application of natural language processing methods is assisting in revealing human-computer interaction and guiding the creation of new technologies.

Another trend is the growing emphasis on sustainability and moral considerations in technological development. Researchers are looking into how computer science might help in innovation.

With the latest developments and leveraging cutting-edge tools and techniques, researchers can make meaningful contributions to the field and help shape the future of technology. Going for Full-stack Developer online training will help you master the latest tools and technologies. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Research in computer science is mainly focused on different niches. It can be theoretical or technical as well. It completely depends upon the candidate and his focused area. They may do research for inventing new algorithms or many more to get advanced responses in that field.  

Yes, moreover it would be a very good opportunity for the candidate. Because computer science students may have a piece of knowledge about the topic previously. They may find Easy thesis topics for computer science to fulfill their research through KnowledgeHut. 

 There are several scopes available for computer science. A candidate can choose different subjects such as AI, database management, software design, graphics, and many more. 

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Computer science course offerings in high school spur more students to coding degrees, by jeffrey r. young     feb 6, 2024.

Computer Science Course Offerings in High School Spur More Students to Coding Degrees

Oksana Klymenko / Shutterstock

In recent years high schools across the country have been adding computer science courses, and there is a movement to make them ubiquitous. A new study of an unusually rich dataset in Maryland found that such efforts can have a significant impact when it comes to getting more students to go on to careers in coding, and in bringing more diversity to the field.

The study, published as a working paper this month, found that taking a high-quality computer science course in high school increased the chance that the student goes on to major in computer science in college by 10 percentage points, and increased the chance that the student would finish a CS degree program by 5 percentage points.

“It’s not surprising in some ways,” says the lead researcher on the study, Jing Liu. “But we need the numbers so we can show it concretely.”

Liu, who is an assistant professor of education policy at the University of Maryland at College Park, surmises that taking a class in computer science helps some students overcome popular misconceptions about coding.

“It’s like math anxiety — they think they can’t do it,” the professor says of some students. And he knows that feeling firsthand. “I took my first CS course in grad school, and before that I totally thought I was not a CS person,” he says. “Just exposing people to the actual curriculum can overcome fears.”

The study found that taking a computer science course had the greatest impact for female students, Black students and those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Liu sees that as evidence that increasing CS offerings in high school is helping to address well-known disparities in the tech world. “We need more women and we need more students of color in coding,” he says. “We are far from achieving equity in this space.”

An estimated 57 percent of U.S. high schools offer an introductory computer science course, according to an analysis last year by the nonprofit Code.org. Maryland recently made it a statewide requirement that all high schools offer at least one high-quality computer science course, though much of the data analyzed in the study covers a period before that law went into effect.

While offering courses is a key first step, says Cameron Lee Conrad, a University of Maryland doctoral student who also worked on the study, the research points to the importance of encouraging a broader mix of students to actually take the CS courses. “Take-up rates are higher among students who have high math test scores, students who are male, white students — all the students you’d expect it to be,” he says. That trend has been identified nationwide as well . So schools need to do more work to increase broad participation in the courses they’ve started offering, he adds. “Strengthening preparedness is critical,” he argues, noting that strengthening fundamental math education in K-12 schools will help more students be ready for computer science courses.

The researchers say there’s another challenge as more schools around the country start to offer CS courses: finding qualified teachers.

“Very few teachers are qualified to teach CS,” says Liu, noting that many schools have tapped math teachers to start up their computer science offerings, but often more training is needed. “How do we get them motivated and compensated?”

The researchers worked with the Maryland Center for Computing Education to do the study, working with a few state datasets that have been linked, including information from schools, colleges and workforce data. They say their study is the first one to offer “causal evidence” that taking a course in high school leads to students going on to further study and work in computer science.

Jeffrey R. Young ( @jryoung ) is an editor and reporter at EdSurge and host of the EdSurge Podcast . He can be reached at jeff [at] edsurge [dot] com

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