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How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.

Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .

Guide Overview

Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.

Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.

Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.

In-text citation example:

  • Parenthetical :  (Ames & Doughty, 1911)
  • Narrative :  Ames & Doughty (1911)

If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:

  • The institution is presented in brackets after the title
  • The archive or database name is included

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.

Examples 1:

Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Example dissertation-thesis

Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.

In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.

If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.

In-text citation examples :

  • Parenthetical citation : (Trotman, 2018)
  • Narrative citation : Trotman (2018)

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL

Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf

Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745

It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.

In-text citation examples:

  • Parenthetical citation : (Kim, 2019)
  • Narrative citation : Kim (2019)
  • Parenthetical citation : (Stiles, 2001)
  • Narrative citation : Stiles (2001)

dissertation and thesis Citations for APA 7

We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.

If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.

To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :

  • Undergraduate thesis
  • Master’s thesis
  • Doctoral dissertation

You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .

When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:

  • Author’s last name, and first and middle initials
  • Year published
  • Title of thesis or dissertation
  • If it is unpublished
  • Publication or document number (if applicable; for published work)
  • Degree type (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral)
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Name of institution awarding degree
  • DOI (https://doi.org/xxxxx) or URL (if applicable)

Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.

To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:

  • Unpublished thesis or dissertation
  • Published thesis or dissertation from a database
  • Thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative

Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

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To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Cartmel (2007)

Parenthetical:

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Cartmel, 2007)

Reference list entry template and example:

The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL

Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf

To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:

Author Surname (Year)

Averill (2009)

(Author Surname, Year)

(Averill, 2009)

The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.

Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.

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Published thesis

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis [Type of thesis, Name of institution awarding degree]. Name of archive or site. https://xxxxxx

Stored in a database

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis (Database Publication number, if assigned) [Type of thesis, Name of institution awarding degree]. Database Name.

Taffe, S. (2017).  The Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders: The politics of inter-racial coalition in Australia, 1958–1973.  [Doctoral thesis, Monash University]. Bridges.  https://doi.org/10.4225/03/59d4482289ea4

Bozeman, A. Jr. (2007).  Age of onset as predictor of cognitive performance in children with seizure disorders  (Publication No. 3259752) [Doctoral dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Unpublished thesis

Author, A. A. (Year).  Title of thesis or dissertation  [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis]. Name of Institution.

Imber, A. (2003).  Applicant reactions to graduate recruitment and selection  [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation]. Monash University. 

For further guidance, see the APA Style website- Published Dissertation or Thesis , Unpublished Dissertation or Theses .

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APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

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Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title

See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

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How to cite a dissertation in APA

APA dissertation citation

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To cite a dissertation in a reference entry in APA style 6th edition include the following elements:

  • Author(s) of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to seven authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For eight or more authors include the first six names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the dissertation: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • URL: Give the full URL where the document can be retrieved from.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 6th edition:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from URL

If the dissertation is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template:

  • Author(s) of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Publication number: Give the identification number of the dissertation, if available.
  • Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.
  • Name of platform: Give the name of the database, archive or any platform that holds the dissertation.
  • URL: If the dissertation was found on a database, omit this element.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 7th edition:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation ( Publication number ) [Doctoral dissertation, Name of the degree awarding institution ]. Name of platform . URL

If the dissertation has not been published or is available from a database use the following template:

  • Location: Give the location of the institution. If outside the United States also include the country name.

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of the degree awarding institution , Location .

If the dissertation is not published, use the following template:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the degree awarding institution .

APA reference list examples

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the APA style guidelines for a dissertation citation in action:

A dissertation found in an online platform

Guo, J . ( 2018 ). Trust-based service management of internet of things systems and its applications ( Doctoral dissertation ). Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/82854
Guo, J . ( 2018 ). Trust-based service management of internet of things systems and its applications [ Doctoral dissertation , Virginia Tech ]. ETDs: Virginia Tech Electronic Theses and Dissertations . https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/82854

An unpublished doctoral dissertation

Neel, B. L . ( 2017 ). Three flute chamber works by Alberto Ginastera: Intertwining elements of art and folk music ( Unpublished doctoral dissertation ). University of Nebraska-Lincoln , NE .
Neel, B. L . ( 2017 ). Three flute chamber works by Alberto Ginastera: Intertwining elements of art and folk music [ Unpublished doctoral dissertation ]. University of Nebraska-Lincoln .

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This citation style guide is based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6 th edition).

More useful guides

  • APA Referencing: Theses
  • Reference List: Other Print Sources
  • APA 6th Edition Citation Style

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Managing the Dissertation Writing Process

Materials from workshop.

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  • Dissertation Analysis handout (PDF)
  • "How to Read like a Writer" (PDF) by Mike Bunn (in  Writing spaces : readings on writing Vol 2 )

Finding Dissertations

  • Dissertations and Theses Global This link opens in a new window Collection of dissertations and theses from around the world, offering millions of works from thousands of universities. Each year hundreds of thousands of works are added. Full-text coverage spans from 1743 to the present, with citation coverage dating back to 1637.
  • Google Scholar (Setup connection to get to PDFs) Use Google Scholar to find articles from academic publishers, professional societies, research institutes, and scholarly repositories from colleges and universities. If you are using from off-campus access, change the "Library Settings" to University of Minnesota Twin Cities. Look for the "FindIt@U of M Twin Cities" links in your Google Scholar search results to access full text and PDFs. View this tutorial to learn how to go from a general idea to a very precise set of results of journal articles and scholarly materials.
  • University Digital Conservancy at the University of Minnesota A digital archive of M.A. and PhD theses at the University of Minnesota. The collection in this institutional repository can also be searched by keyword, date, authors and majors.

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  • Restarting stalled research by Paul C. Rosenblatt ISBN: 9781483393551 Publication Date: 2016 Written for researchers and graduate students writing dissertations, this unique book offers detailed advice and perspective on many issues that can stall a research project and reveals what can be done to successfully resume it. Using a direct yet conversational style, author Paul C. Rosenblatt draws on his decades of experience to cover many diverse topics. The text guides readers through challenges such as clarifying the end goal of a project; resolving common and not-so-common writing problems; dealing with rejection and revision decisions; handling difficulties involving dissertation advisers and committee members; coping with issues of researcher motivation or self-esteem; and much more.

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How do I cite a dissertation in MLA style?

Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .

A dissertation is a unique type of source. It is a finished, stand-alone work written under the auspices of an institution. In a change from the previous edition of the MLA Handbook ,    we do not distinguish between published and unpublished dissertations. To cite a dissertation, include in the entry the author, title, and date of publication as core elements. As an optional element, list the institution granting the degree and a description of the work.

Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting . 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.

If you accessed the dissertation through an online repository, include this fact as the title of the second container:

Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting . 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.  ProQuest , search.proquest.com/docview/305212264?accountid=7432.

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How to Write a Dissertation Proposal | A Step-by-Step Guide

Published on 14 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 11 November 2022.

A dissertation proposal describes the research you want to do: what it’s about, how you’ll conduct it, and why it’s worthwhile. You will probably have to write a proposal before starting your dissertation as an undergraduate or postgraduate student.

A dissertation proposal should generally include:

  • An introduction to your topic and aims
  • A literature review  of the current state of knowledge
  • An outline of your proposed methodology
  • A discussion of the possible implications of the research
  • A bibliography  of relevant sources

Dissertation proposals vary a lot in terms of length and structure, so make sure to follow any guidelines given to you by your institution, and check with your supervisor when you’re unsure.

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Table of contents

Step 1: coming up with an idea, step 2: presenting your idea in the introduction, step 3: exploring related research in the literature review, step 4: describing your methodology, step 5: outlining the potential implications of your research, step 6: creating a reference list or bibliography.

Before writing your proposal, it’s important to come up with a strong idea for your dissertation.

Find an area of your field that interests you and do some preliminary reading in that area. What are the key concerns of other researchers? What do they suggest as areas for further research, and what strikes you personally as an interesting gap in the field?

Once you have an idea, consider how to narrow it down and the best way to frame it. Don’t be too ambitious or too vague – a dissertation topic needs to be specific enough to be feasible. Move from a broad field of interest to a specific niche:

  • Russian literature 19th century Russian literature The novels of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky
  • Social media Mental health effects of social media Influence of social media on young adults suffering from anxiety

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Like most academic texts, a dissertation proposal begins with an introduction . This is where you introduce the topic of your research, provide some background, and most importantly, present your aim , objectives and research question(s) .

Try to dive straight into your chosen topic: What’s at stake in your research? Why is it interesting? Don’t spend too long on generalisations or grand statements:

  • Social media is the most important technological trend of the 21st century. It has changed the world and influences our lives every day.
  • Psychologists generally agree that the ubiquity of social media in the lives of young adults today has a profound impact on their mental health. However, the exact nature of this impact needs further investigation.

Once your area of research is clear, you can present more background and context. What does the reader need to know to understand your proposed questions? What’s the current state of research on this topic, and what will your dissertation contribute to the field?

If you’re including a literature review, you don’t need to go into too much detail at this point, but give the reader a general sense of the debates that you’re intervening in.

This leads you into the most important part of the introduction: your aim, objectives and research question(s) . These should be clearly identifiable and stand out from the text – for example, you could present them using bullet points or bold font.

Make sure that your research questions are specific and workable – something you can reasonably answer within the scope of your dissertation. Avoid being too broad or having too many different questions. Remember that your goal in a dissertation proposal is to convince the reader that your research is valuable and feasible:

  • Does social media harm mental health?
  • What is the impact of daily social media use on 18– to 25–year–olds suffering from general anxiety disorder?

Now that your topic is clear, it’s time to explore existing research covering similar ideas. This is important because it shows you what is missing from other research in the field and ensures that you’re not asking a question someone else has already answered.

You’ve probably already done some preliminary reading, but now that your topic is more clearly defined, you need to thoroughly analyse and evaluate the most relevant sources in your literature review .

Here you should summarise the findings of other researchers and comment on gaps and problems in their studies. There may be a lot of research to cover, so make effective use of paraphrasing to write concisely:

  • Smith and Prakash state that ‘our results indicate a 25% decrease in the incidence of mechanical failure after the new formula was applied’.
  • Smith and Prakash’s formula reduced mechanical failures by 25%.

The point is to identify findings and theories that will influence your own research, but also to highlight gaps and limitations in previous research which your dissertation can address:

  • Subsequent research has failed to replicate this result, however, suggesting a flaw in Smith and Prakash’s methods. It is likely that the failure resulted from…

Next, you’ll describe your proposed methodology : the specific things you hope to do, the structure of your research and the methods that you will use to gather and analyse data.

You should get quite specific in this section – you need to convince your supervisor that you’ve thought through your approach to the research and can realistically carry it out. This section will look quite different, and vary in length, depending on your field of study.

You may be engaged in more empirical research, focusing on data collection and discovering new information, or more theoretical research, attempting to develop a new conceptual model or add nuance to an existing one.

Dissertation research often involves both, but the content of your methodology section will vary according to how important each approach is to your dissertation.

Empirical research

Empirical research involves collecting new data and analysing it in order to answer your research questions. It can be quantitative (focused on numbers), qualitative (focused on words and meanings), or a combination of both.

With empirical research, it’s important to describe in detail how you plan to collect your data:

  • Will you use surveys ? A lab experiment ? Interviews?
  • What variables will you measure?
  • How will you select a representative sample ?
  • If other people will participate in your research, what measures will you take to ensure they are treated ethically?
  • What tools (conceptual and physical) will you use, and why?

It’s appropriate to cite other research here. When you need to justify your choice of a particular research method or tool, for example, you can cite a text describing the advantages and appropriate usage of that method.

Don’t overdo this, though; you don’t need to reiterate the whole theoretical literature, just what’s relevant to the choices you have made.

Moreover, your research will necessarily involve analysing the data after you have collected it. Though you don’t know yet what the data will look like, it’s important to know what you’re looking for and indicate what methods (e.g. statistical tests , thematic analysis ) you will use.

Theoretical research

You can also do theoretical research that doesn’t involve original data collection. In this case, your methodology section will focus more on the theory you plan to work with in your dissertation: relevant conceptual models and the approach you intend to take.

For example, a literary analysis dissertation rarely involves collecting new data, but it’s still necessary to explain the theoretical approach that will be taken to the text(s) under discussion, as well as which parts of the text(s) you will focus on:

  • This dissertation will utilise Foucault’s theory of panopticism to explore the theme of surveillance in Orwell’s 1984 and Kafka’s The Trial…

Here, you may refer to the same theorists you have already discussed in the literature review. In this case, the emphasis is placed on how you plan to use their contributions in your own research.

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You’ll usually conclude your dissertation proposal with a section discussing what you expect your research to achieve.

You obviously can’t be too sure: you don’t know yet what your results and conclusions will be. Instead, you should describe the projected implications and contribution to knowledge of your dissertation.

First, consider the potential implications of your research. Will you:

  • Develop or test a theory?
  • Provide new information to governments or businesses?
  • Challenge a commonly held belief?
  • Suggest an improvement to a specific process?

Describe the intended result of your research and the theoretical or practical impact it will have:

Finally, it’s sensible to conclude by briefly restating the contribution to knowledge you hope to make: the specific question(s) you hope to answer and the gap the answer(s) will fill in existing knowledge:

Like any academic text, it’s important that your dissertation proposal effectively references all the sources you have used. You need to include a properly formatted reference list or bibliography at the end of your proposal.

Different institutions recommend different styles of referencing – commonly used styles include Harvard , Vancouver , APA , or MHRA . If your department does not have specific requirements, choose a style and apply it consistently.

A reference list includes only the sources that you cited in your proposal. A bibliography is slightly different: it can include every source you consulted in preparing the proposal, even if you didn’t mention it in the text. In the case of a dissertation proposal, a bibliography may also list relevant sources that you haven’t yet read, but that you intend to use during the research itself.

Check with your supervisor what type of bibliography or reference list you should include.

Cite this Scribbr article

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Caulfield, J. (2022, November 11). How to Write a Dissertation Proposal | A Step-by-Step Guide. Scribbr. Retrieved 19 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/thesis-dissertation/proposal/

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Plan de dissertation : méthodologie et exemples

Publié le 27 novembre 2018 par Justine Debret . Mis à jour le 14 février 2022.

Le plan d’une dissertation est la structure ou le “squelette” de votre dissertation.

Table des matières

Combien de parties pour un plan de dissertation , plan de dissertation : apparent ou pas , les types de plan pour une dissertation, exemple de plan pour une dissertation (de philosophie), le plan d’une dissertation juridique, le plan d’une dissertation de philosophie.

Nous conseillons de faire un plan en trois parties (et deux sous-parties) pour les dissertations en général.

Toutefois, ce n’est pas obligatoire et vous pouvez le faire en deux parties (et trois sous-parties).

C’est différent pour les dissertations de droit ! Pour les dissertations juridiques, le plan doit contenir deux parties (et pas trois).

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Le plan d’une dissertation peut être apparent ou non, tout dépend du type de dissertation rédigé.

Les dissertations de philosophie n’ont en général pas de plan apparent. Les titres apparaissent dans une phrase introductive.

Attention ! Pour les dissertations juridiques, les titres doivent être apparents et ils ne doivent pas comporter des verbes conjugués.

Il en existe plusieurs et chaque type de plan de dissertation a ses spécificités.

1. Le plan d’une dissertation dialectique

Le plan dialectique (ou critique) est un plan « thèse, antithèse et synthèse ». Il est utilisé lorsque l’opinion exprimée dans le sujet de dissertation est discutable et qu’il est possible d’envisager l’opinion inverse.

Le plan d’une dissertation dialectique suit le modèle suivant :

I. Exposé argumenté d’une thèse. II. Exposé argumenté de la thèse adverse. II. Synthèse (dépassement de la contradiction)

2. Le plan de dissertation analytique

Le plan analytique permet d’analyser un problème qui mérite une réflexion approfondie. Vous devez décrire la situation, analyser les causes et envisager les conséquences. Il est possible de faire un plan « explication / illustration / commentaire ».

Le plan d’une dissertation analytique suit généralement le modèle suivant :

I. Description/explication d’une situation II. Analyse des causes/illustration III. Analyse des conséquences/commentaire

3. Le plan de dissertation thématique

Le plan thématique est utilisé dans le cadre de questions générales, celles qui exigent une réflexion progressive.

I. Thème 1 II. Thème 2 III.Thème 3

4. Le plan de dissertation chronologique

Le plan chronologique est utilisé dans le cas d’une question sur un thème dont la compréhension évolue à travers l’histoire.

I. Temporalité 1 II. Temporalité 2 III. Temporalité 3

Voici un exemple de plan analytique pour une dissertation sur le thème «  l’Homme est-il un animal social ? « .

1. La nature en nous 1.1. L’être humain, un animal parmi les autres ? 1.2. Les pulsions humaines comme rappel de notre archaïsme ? 2. La personne humaine : un être de nature ou de culture ? 2.1. La société comme impératif de survie : l’Homme est un loup pour l’Homme 2.2. La perfectibilité de l’Homme l’extrait de la nature 3. Plus qu’un animal social, un animal politique 3.1. L’Homme, un être rationnel au profit du bien commun 3.2. La coexistence humaine et participation politique du citoyen

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Les dissertations juridiques sont construites en deux parties et ont un plan apparent.

Le plan a une forme binaire  : deux parties (I et II), deux sous-parties (A et B) et parfois deux sous-sous-parties (1 et 2). Votre plan de dissertation doit reposer sur quatre idées principales.

Plus d’informations sur le plan d’une dissertation juridique

Les dissertations de philosophie sont construites en trois parties (en général) et n’ont pas de plan apparent.

Chaque partie est introduite avec une phrase d’introduction.

Plus d’informations sur le plan d’une dissertation de philosophie

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Debret, J. (2022, 14 février). Plan de dissertation : méthodologie et exemples. Scribbr. Consulté le 19 février 2024, de https://www.scribbr.fr/dissertation-fr/plan-de-dissertation/

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Title: explainability for machine learning models: from data adaptability to user perception.

Abstract: This thesis explores the generation of local explanations for already deployed machine learning models, aiming to identify optimal conditions for producing meaningful explanations considering both data and user requirements. The primary goal is to develop methods for generating explanations for any model while ensuring that these explanations remain faithful to the underlying model and comprehensible to the users. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first enhances a widely used rule-based explanation method. It then introduces a novel approach for evaluating the suitability of linear explanations to approximate a model. Additionally, it conducts a comparative experiment between two families of counterfactual explanation methods to analyze the advantages of one over the other. The second part focuses on user experiments to assess the impact of three explanation methods and two distinct representations. These experiments measure how users perceive their interaction with the model in terms of understanding and trust, depending on the explanations and representations. This research contributes to a better explanation generation, with potential implications for enhancing the transparency, trustworthiness, and usability of deployed AI systems.

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  1. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor's thesis]. Iowa State University. In-text citation example: Parenthetical : (Ames & Doughty, 1911) : Ames & Doughty (1911)

  2. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add "Unpublished" to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

  3. Subject guides: APA 7th: Theses and dissertations

    Go to Getting started > In-text citation to view other examples such as multiple authors. Published thesis. Reference list. Format Online. ... Stored in a database. Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis (Database Publication number, if assigned) [Type of thesis, Name of institution awarding degree]. Database Name. Example. Taffe, S. (2017).

  4. Thesis/Dissertation

    Italicize the title Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in parentheses after the title Various Examples See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules Last Updated: Nov 1, 2023 3:17 PM

  5. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    This page contains reference examples for published dissertations or theses, which are considered published when they are available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive.

  6. PDF APA Style Dissertation Guidelines: Formatting Your Dissertation

    Dissertation Content When the content of the dissertation starts, the page numbering should restart at page one using Arabic numbering (i.e., 1, 2, 3, etc.) and continue throughout the dissertation until the end. The Arabic page number should be aligned to the upper right margin of the page with a running head aligned to the upper left margin.

  7. APA: how to cite a dissertation [Update 2023]

    For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name. Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop. Title of the dissertation: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized. Publication number: Give the identification number of the ...

  8. How to Write a Dissertation or Thesis Proposal

    Knowledge Base Dissertation How to Write a Dissertation or Thesis Proposal How to Write a Dissertation or Thesis Proposal Published on September 21, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on July 18, 2023. When starting your thesis or dissertation process, one of the first requirements is a research proposal or a prospectus.

  9. Research Guides: Managing the Dissertation Writing Process: Home

    Full-text coverage spans from 1743 to the present, with citation coverage dating back to 1637. Google Scholar (Setup connection to get to PDFs) ... this fully updated second edition--which includes a new chapter on the various formats for manuscript dissertations-- will help you plan, document, organize, and write your dissertation or scholarly ...

  10. Thesis and Dissertation: Getting Started

    Purdue OWL Graduate Writing Thesis & Dissertation Thesis and Dissertation: Getting Started Thesis and Dissertation: Getting Started The resources in this section are designed to provide guidance for the first steps of the thesis or dissertation writing process.

  11. How do I cite a dissertation in MLA style?

    To cite a dissertation, include in the entry the author, title, and date of publication as core elements. As an optional element, list the institution granting the degree and a description of the work. Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting. 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.

  12. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    In-Text Citations. Resources on using in-text citations in APA style. The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc.

  13. What Is a Dissertation?

    Knowledge Base Dissertation What Is a Dissertation? | Guide, Examples, & Template A dissertation is a long-form piece of academic writing based on original research conducted by you. It is usually submitted as the final step in order to finish a PhD program. Your dissertation is probably the longest piece of writing you've ever completed.

  14. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    APA Citation Basics. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  15. PDF Guidelines for The PhD Dissertation

    Advanced Planning of the Dissertation Approval of Dissertation Subject The subject of the dissertation must be approved in advance by the student's department.

  16. Cite a Thesis / Dissertation

    Plagiarism Checker Knowledge Base Your references will expire in 30 days. Save your work by creating a free account. Sign up Thesis / Dissertation Cite a thesis or dissertation (unpublished, published online, or accessed through a database). Use other forms to cite books, journal articles, reports, and conference proceedings. Title Required

  17. PDF Dissertation Planner: step-by-step

    Dissertation Planner: step-by-step About the Planner: This planner is designed to help you through all the stages of your dissertation, from starting to think about your question through to final submission. At each stage there are useful prompts to help you plan your work and manage your time.

  18. How to Write a Dissertation Proposal

    Step 1: Coming up with an idea Step 2: Presenting your idea in the introduction Step 3: Exploring related research in the literature review Step 4: Describing your methodology Step 5: Outlining the potential implications of your research Step 6: Creating a reference list or bibliography Step 1: Coming up with an idea

  19. Plan de dissertation : méthodologie et exemples

    Le plan d'une dissertation dialectique suit le modèle suivant : I. Exposé argumenté d'une thèse. II. Exposé argumenté de la thèse adverse. II. Synthèse (dépassement de la contradiction) 2. Le plan de dissertation analytique. Le plan analytique permet d'analyser un problème qui mérite une réflexion approfondie.

  20. Reference List: Other Print Sources

    Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic sources, it does not contain explicit instructions for certain less-common print sources that ...

  21. Free Citation Generator: APA, MLA & Chicago Style—QuillBot AI

    Get 100% accurate citations for free. QuillBot's Citation Generator can quickly and easily create references for books, articles, and web pages in APA, MLA, Chicago, and many more styles. Follow the simple steps below to create, edit, and export both in-text and full citations for your source material.

  22. Citation Machine®: APA Format & APA Citation Generator

    If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, like the one at CitationMachine.com, the names of the authors will format properly for you. ###No authors. ... An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. It's found in the beginning of a professional paper, right after the title page. ...

  23. Research and Citation Resources

    This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster. MLA Style. These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style.

  24. [2402.10888] Explainability for Machine Learning Models: From Data

    This thesis explores the generation of local explanations for already deployed machine learning models, aiming to identify optimal conditions for producing meaningful explanations considering both data and user requirements. The primary goal is to develop methods for generating explanations for any model while ensuring that these explanations remain faithful to the underlying model and ...

  25. Dissertation & Thesis Outline

    Abstract "Elevator pitch" of your work (often written last). Introduction Introduce your area of study, sharing details about your research question, problem statement, and hypotheses. Situate your research within an existing paradigm or conceptual or theoretical framework. Literature Review Subdivide as you see fit into main topics and sub-topics.

  26. Scribbr

    Whether we're proofreading and editing, checking for plagiarism or AI content, generating citations, or writing useful Knowledge Base articles, our aim is to support students on their journey to become better academic writers. We believe that every student should have the right tools for academic success.