hypothesis essay structure

How to Write a Hypothesis

hypothesis essay structure

If I [do something], then [this] will happen.

This basic statement/formula should be pretty familiar to all of you as it is the starting point of almost every scientific project or paper. It is a hypothesis – a statement that showcases what you “think” will happen during an experiment. This assumption is made based on the knowledge, facts, and data you already have.

How do you write a hypothesis? If you have a clear understanding of the proper structure of a hypothesis, you should not find it too hard to create one. However, if you have never written a hypothesis before, you might find it a bit frustrating. In this article from EssayPro - custom essay writing services , we are going to tell you everything you need to know about hypotheses, their types, and practical tips for writing them.

Hypothesis Definition

According to the definition, a hypothesis is an assumption one makes based on existing knowledge. To elaborate, it is a statement that translates the initial research question into a logical prediction shaped on the basis of available facts and evidence. To solve a specific problem, one first needs to identify the research problem (research question), conduct initial research, and set out to answer the given question by performing experiments and observing their outcomes. However, before one can move to the experimental part of the research, they should first identify what they expect to see for results. At this stage, a scientist makes an educated guess and writes a hypothesis that he or she is going to prove or refute in the course of their study.

Get Help With Writing a Hypothesis Now!

Head on over to EssayPro. We can help you with editing and polishing up any of the work you speedwrite.

A hypothesis can also be seen as a form of development of knowledge. It is a well-grounded assumption put forward to clarify the properties and causes of the phenomena being studied.

As a rule, a hypothesis is formed based on a number of observations and examples that confirm it. This way, it looks plausible as it is backed up with some known information. The hypothesis is subsequently proved by turning it into an established fact or refuted (for example, by pointing out a counterexample), which allows it to attribute it to the category of false statements.

As a student, you may be asked to create a hypothesis statement as a part of your academic papers. Hypothesis-based approaches are commonly used among scientific academic works, including but not limited to research papers, theses, and dissertations.

Note that in some disciplines, a hypothesis statement is called a thesis statement. However, its essence and purpose remain unchanged – this statement aims to make an assumption regarding the outcomes of the investigation that will either be proved or refuted.

Characteristics and Sources of a Hypothesis

Now, as you know what a hypothesis is in a nutshell, let’s look at the key characteristics that define it:

  • It has to be clear and accurate in order to look reliable.
  • It has to be specific.
  • There should be scope for further investigation and experiments.
  • A hypothesis should be explained in simple language—while retaining its significance.
  • If you are making a relational hypothesis, two essential elements you have to include are variables and the relationship between them.

The main sources of a hypothesis are:

  • Scientific theories.
  • Observations from previous studies and current experiences.
  • The resemblance among different phenomena.
  • General patterns that affect people’s thinking process.

Types of Hypothesis

Basically, there are two major types of scientific hypothesis: alternative and null.

Types of Hypothesis

  • Alternative Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H1. This statement is used to identify the expected outcome of your research. According to the alternative hypothesis definition, this type of hypothesis can be further divided into two subcategories:

  • Directional — a statement that explains the direction of the expected outcomes. Sometimes this type of hypothesis is used to study the relationship between variables rather than comparing between the groups.
  • Non-directional — unlike the directional alternative hypothesis, a non-directional one does not imply a specific direction of the expected outcomes.

Now, let’s see an alternative hypothesis example for each type:

Directional: Attending more lectures will result in improved test scores among students. Non-directional: Lecture attendance will influence test scores among students.

Notice how in the directional hypothesis we specified that the attendance of more lectures will boost student’s performance on tests, whereas in the non-directional hypothesis we only stated that there is a relationship between the two variables (i.e. lecture attendance and students’ test scores) but did not specify whether the performance will improve or decrease.

  • Null Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H0. This statement is the complete opposite of what you expect or predict will happen throughout the course of your study—meaning it is the opposite of your alternative hypothesis. Simply put, a null hypothesis claims that there is no exact or actual correlation between the variables defined in the hypothesis.

To give you a better idea of how to write a null hypothesis, here is a clear example: Lecture attendance has no effect on student’s test scores.

Both of these types of hypotheses provide specific clarifications and restatements of the research problem. The main difference between these hypotheses and a research problem is that the latter is just a question that can’t be tested, whereas hypotheses can.

Based on the alternative and null hypothesis examples provided earlier, we can conclude that the importance and main purpose of these hypotheses are that they deliver a rough description of the subject matter. The main purpose of these statements is to give an investigator a specific guess that can be directly tested in a study. Simply put, a hypothesis outlines the framework, scope, and direction for the study. Although null and alternative hypotheses are the major types, there are also a few more to keep in mind:

Research Hypothesis — a statement that is used to test the correlation between two or more variables.

For example: Eating vitamin-rich foods affects human health.

Simple Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between one independent and one dependent variable.

For example: Eating more vegetables leads to better immunity.

Complex Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables.

For example: Eating more fruits and vegetables leads to better immunity, weight loss, and lower risk of diseases.

Associative and Causal Hypothesis — an associative hypothesis is a statement used to indicate the correlation between variables under the scenario when a change in one variable inevitably changes the other variable. A causal hypothesis is a statement that highlights the cause and effect relationship between variables.

Be sure to read how to write a DBQ - this article will expand your understanding.

Add a secret ingredient to your hypothesis

Help of a professional writer.

Hypothesis vs Prediction

When speaking of hypotheses, another term that comes to mind is prediction. These two terms are often used interchangeably, which can be rather confusing. Although both a hypothesis and prediction can generally be defined as “guesses” and can be easy to confuse, these terms are different. The main difference between a hypothesis and a prediction is that the first is predominantly used in science, while the latter is most often used outside of science.

Simply put, a hypothesis is an intelligent assumption. It is a guess made regarding the nature of the unknown (or less known) phenomena based on existing knowledge, studies, and/or series of experiments, and is otherwise grounded by valid facts. The main purpose of a hypothesis is to use available facts to create a logical relationship between variables in order to provide a more precise scientific explanation. Additionally, hypotheses are statements that can be tested with further experiments. It is an assumption you make regarding the flow and outcome(s) of your research study.

A prediction, on the contrary, is a guess that often lacks grounding. Although, in theory, a prediction can be scientific, in most cases it is rather fictional—i.e. a pure guess that is not based on current knowledge and/or facts. As a rule, predictions are linked to foretelling events that may or may not occur in the future. Often, a person who makes predictions has little or no actual knowledge of the subject matter he or she makes the assumption about.

Another big difference between these terms is in the methodology used to prove each of them. A prediction can only be proven once. You can determine whether it is right or wrong only upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of the predicted event. A hypothesis, on the other hand, offers scope for further testing and experiments. Additionally, a hypothesis can be proven in multiple stages. This basically means that a single hypothesis can be proven or refuted numerous times by different scientists who use different scientific tools and methods.

To give you a better idea of how a hypothesis is different from a prediction, let’s look at the following examples:

Hypothesis: If I eat more vegetables and fruits, then I will lose weight faster.

This is a hypothesis because it is based on generally available knowledge (i.e. fruits and vegetables include fewer calories compared to other foods) and past experiences (i.e. people who give preference to healthier foods like fruits and vegetables are losing weight easier). It is still a guess, but it is based on facts and can be tested with an experiment.

Prediction: The end of the world will occur in 2023.

This is a prediction because it foretells future events. However, this assumption is fictional as it doesn’t have any actual grounded evidence supported by facts.

Based on everything that was said earlier and our examples, we can highlight the following key takeaways:

  • A hypothesis, unlike a prediction, is a more intelligent assumption based on facts.
  • Hypotheses define existing variables and analyze the relationship(s) between them.
  • Predictions are most often fictional and lack grounding.
  • A prediction is most often used to foretell events in the future.
  • A prediction can only be proven once – when the predicted event occurs or doesn’t occur. 
  • A hypothesis can remain a hypothesis even if one scientist has already proven or disproven it. Other scientists in the future can obtain a different result using other methods and tools.

We also recommend that you read about some informative essay topics .

Now, as you know what a hypothesis is, what types of it exist, and how it differs from a prediction, you are probably wondering how to state a hypothesis. In this section, we will guide you through the main stages of writing a good hypothesis and provide handy tips and examples to help you overcome this challenge:

how to write

1. Define Your Research Question

Here is one thing to keep in mind – regardless of the paper or project you are working on, the process should always start with asking the right research question. A perfect research question should be specific, clear, focused (meaning not too broad), and manageable.

Example: How does eating fruits and vegetables affect human health?

2. Conduct Your Basic Initial Research

As you already know, a hypothesis is an educated guess of the expected results and outcomes of an investigation. Thus, it is vital to collect some information before you can make this assumption.

At this stage, you should find an answer to your research question based on what has already been discovered. Search for facts, past studies, theories, etc. Based on the collected information, you should be able to make a logical and intelligent guess.

3. Formulate a Hypothesis

Based on the initial research, you should have a certain idea of what you may find throughout the course of your research. Use this knowledge to shape a clear and concise hypothesis.

Based on the type of project you are working on, and the type of hypothesis you are planning to use, you can restate your hypothesis in several different ways:

Non-directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will affect one’s human physical health. Directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will positively affect one’s human physical health. Null: Eating fruits and vegetables will have no effect on one’s human physical health.

4. Refine Your Hypothesis

Finally, the last stage of creating a good hypothesis is refining what you’ve got. During this step, you need to define whether your hypothesis:

  • Has clear and relevant variables;
  • Identifies the relationship between its variables;
  • Is specific and testable;
  • Suggests a predicted result of the investigation or experiment.

In case you need some help with your essay, leave us a notice ' pay someone to write my essay ' and we'll help asap. We also provide nursing writing services .

Hypothesis Examples

Following a step-by-step guide and tips from our essay writers for hire , you should be able to create good hypotheses with ease. To give you a starting point, we have also compiled a list of different research questions with one hypothesis and one null hypothesis example for each:

Ask Pros to Make a Perfect Hypothesis for You!

Sometimes, coping with a large academic load is just too much for a student to handle. Papers like research papers and dissertations can take too much time and effort to write, and, often, a hypothesis is a necessary starting point to get the task on track. Writing or editing a hypothesis is not as easy as it may seem. However, if you need help with forming it, the team at EssayPro is always ready to come to your rescue! If you’re feeling stuck, or don’t have enough time to cope with other tasks, don’t hesitate to send us you rewrite my essay for me or any other request.

Related Articles

Satire Essay

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, automatically generate references for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Methodology
  • How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Step 1: ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2: Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2022, May 06). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 19 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/research-methods/hypothesis-writing/

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, operationalisation | a guide with examples, pros & cons, what is a conceptual framework | tips & examples, a quick guide to experimental design | 5 steps & examples.

  • EXPLORE Random Article

How to Write a Hypothesis for an Essay

Last Updated: September 16, 2021

wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, volunteer authors worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has been viewed 22,067 times.

A hypothesis is an educated guess as to what will happen, given a certain set of circumstances. [1] X Research source Hypotheses are often used in science. Scientists look at a given set of circumstances or parameters and make an educated guess about how those circumstances affect something else. Then, they test that guess. Essays are often used to write up the results of these experiments. But before you ever write this type of essay, you have to choose and write out a hypothesis to test.

Narrowing Down Your Topic

Step 1 Choose a broad category.

  • It’s easy to use the library database at your local library. Once you locate the library’s databases, you should pick out ones that are focused on science articles.
  • Most libraries have some form of EBSCOhost, and if you use advanced search, you can select the databases you want, such as Science and Technology or Science Reference Center.
  • Once you’ve decided on databases, you can use search terms to find what you need. Ask your librarian can help you if you’re having trouble.

Step 3 Choose resources based on your level of study.

  • As a high school student, you’ll want to stick to more basic stuff; you can find databases geared towards your level, and your librarian should be able to point you in the right direction.
  • If you’re a college student, you should be able to use most of what you find in the academic databases. You can also use your textbook to help you decide what you want to study, as well as whose theories you will base your own experiment on.
  • For instance, maybe you want to study Gregor Mendel’s techniques with genetics and plants.

Step 4 Continue to explore the topic.

  • It’s best to keep all of the bibliographical information together so you can find it again. Just make sure you jot down the name of the author when you begin taking notes from a source, so you know what bibliographic entry it came from.
  • You should also note where you found the article or book, as well, so you can go back to it if you need to do further research.

Step 5 Make sure your topic is not too broad, but not too narrow either.

  • It is possible to be too narrow, but it is easier to expand it a bit if you need to rather than to condense it after you’ve tried to tackle too much research. If you are a younger student, such as a high school student, you may just want to repeat Mendel’s experiments to see how they work.
  • If you are an older student, such as a graduate student, your work will need to be more original. You will need to put your own spin on plants and genetics. Maybe you want to study how splicing together two plants changes the genes of the plant over time.

Composing the Hypothesis

Step 1 Begin by organizing your research.

  • That is, with a paper on hybrids, you might want to make one category on Mendel’s research, one for newer studies that are similar, one for splicing, and one for the type of cucumber you are using.

Step 2 Look at previous studies that focus on what you want to do.

  • To conduct the experiment, you will splice plants that manifest certain characteristics to see which produces the desired results. In this case, you are manipulating genes by picking plants for certain characteristics.
  • According to Explorable, the point of an experiment is to change one variable while controlling other ones and watching for changes. [3] X Research source That is, with the cucumbers, you would need a control, such as splicing one set of cucumber plants at random, noting its characteristics, instead of choosing for a particular characteristic. Then you compare the fruit each type of plants produce.

Step 4 Based on your research, predict how the experiment will turn out.

  • Also include how you plan to carry out the experiment and what you expect to happen. Because a hypothesis is a guess about what will happen, you have to spell out for your reader what you're thinking.
  • Start putting it together into a formal sentence. Basically, your hypothesis is how you tell your reader in one concise sentence what you are going to do. You are boiling it down as much as possible.

Step 6 Be as specific as possible.

  • For instance, for this experiment, you could write something like, “This experiment will test the hypothesis that selecting Armenian cucumbers (scientific name Cucumis melo var. flexuosus) for crispiness and splicing those plants together will, over time, produce a crisper cucumber, and this hypothesis will be tested by selecting cucumbers for crispiness to splice with cucumbers with similar traits, along with a control group for comparing results.”
  • This hypothesis is specific, it tells what you want to do, and it gives an idea of how you are going to do it.

Step 7 Have someone read over your hypothesis.

Expert Q&A

  • Essentially, to write a hypothesis, you need to pick a field and narrow down to an experiment you want to conduct. Make an educated guess about that experiment, and write it up formally for your paper. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • For instance, a kid doing science project might guess that a plant will grow better if it is fed tea rather than water. It is an educated guess because the kid knows that tea has more nutrients than water, so it might help it grow faster. The kid will then test the hypothesis by performing a set of experiments over time, comparing a plant growing with just water to one growing with tea, to prove whether her hypothesis was correct or not. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Remember that you will not necessarily prove your hypothesis is correct. The point of the experiment is to see if you are right, but you may not be. The outcome of the experiment should not affect the quality of the essay one way or the other. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

You Might Also Like

Ask for Feedback

  • ↑ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/hypothesis
  • ↑ http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/314.htm
  • ↑ https://explorable.com/experimental-research

About this article

Did this article help you.

Ask for Feedback

  • About wikiHow
  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Info
  • Not Selling Info
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Therapy Center
  • When To See a Therapist
  • Types of Therapy
  • Best Online Therapy
  • Best Couples Therapy
  • Best Family Therapy
  • Managing Stress
  • Sleep and Dreaming
  • Understanding Emotions
  • Self-Improvement
  • Healthy Relationships
  • Student Resources
  • Personality Types
  • Verywell Mind Insights
  • 2023 Verywell Mind 25
  • Mental Health in the Classroom
  • Editorial Process
  • Meet Our Review Board
  • Crisis Support

How to Write a Great Hypothesis

Hypothesis Format, Examples, and Tips

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

hypothesis essay structure

Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist and international bestselling author. Her books, including "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," have been translated into more than 40 languages. Her TEDx talk,  "The Secret of Becoming Mentally Strong," is one of the most viewed talks of all time.

hypothesis essay structure

Verywell / Alex Dos Diaz

  • The Scientific Method

Hypothesis Format

Falsifiability of a hypothesis, operational definitions, types of hypotheses, hypotheses examples.

  • Collecting Data

Frequently Asked Questions

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more  variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study.

One hypothesis example would be a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states: "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep-deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep-deprived."

This article explores how a hypothesis is used in psychology research, how to write a good hypothesis, and the different types of hypotheses you might use.

The Hypothesis in the Scientific Method

In the scientific method , whether it involves research in psychology, biology, or some other area, a hypothesis represents what the researchers think will happen in an experiment. The scientific method involves the following steps:

  • Forming a question
  • Performing background research
  • Creating a hypothesis
  • Designing an experiment
  • Collecting data
  • Analyzing the results
  • Drawing conclusions
  • Communicating the results

The hypothesis is a prediction, but it involves more than a guess. Most of the time, the hypothesis begins with a question which is then explored through background research. It is only at this point that researchers begin to develop a testable hypothesis. Unless you are creating an exploratory study, your hypothesis should always explain what you  expect  to happen.

In a study exploring the effects of a particular drug, the hypothesis might be that researchers expect the drug to have some type of effect on the symptoms of a specific illness. In psychology, the hypothesis might focus on how a certain aspect of the environment might influence a particular behavior.

Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be correct. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of the research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore a number of factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome.

In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment  do not  support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.

In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research. For example, prior research has shown that stress can impact the immune system. So a researcher might hypothesize: "People with high-stress levels will be more likely to contract a common cold after being exposed to the virus than people who have low-stress levels."

In other instances, researchers might look at commonly held beliefs or folk wisdom. "Birds of a feather flock together" is one example of folk wisdom that a psychologist might try to investigate. The researcher might pose a specific hypothesis that "People tend to select romantic partners who are similar to them in interests and educational level."

Elements of a Good Hypothesis

So how do you write a good hypothesis? When trying to come up with a hypothesis for your research or experiments, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Is your hypothesis based on your research on a topic?
  • Can your hypothesis be tested?
  • Does your hypothesis include independent and dependent variables?

Before you come up with a specific hypothesis, spend some time doing background research. Once you have completed a literature review, start thinking about potential questions you still have. Pay attention to the discussion section in the  journal articles you read . Many authors will suggest questions that still need to be explored.

To form a hypothesis, you should take these steps:

  • Collect as many observations about a topic or problem as you can.
  • Evaluate these observations and look for possible causes of the problem.
  • Create a list of possible explanations that you might want to explore.
  • After you have developed some possible hypotheses, think of ways that you could confirm or disprove each hypothesis through experimentation. This is known as falsifiability.

In the scientific method ,  falsifiability is an important part of any valid hypothesis.   In order to test a claim scientifically, it must be possible that the claim could be proven false.

Students sometimes confuse the idea of falsifiability with the idea that it means that something is false, which is not the case. What falsifiability means is that  if  something was false, then it is possible to demonstrate that it is false.

One of the hallmarks of pseudoscience is that it makes claims that cannot be refuted or proven false.

A variable is a factor or element that can be changed and manipulated in ways that are observable and measurable. However, the researcher must also define how the variable will be manipulated and measured in the study.

For example, a researcher might operationally define the variable " test anxiety " as the results of a self-report measure of anxiety experienced during an exam. A "study habits" variable might be defined by the amount of studying that actually occurs as measured by time.

These precise descriptions are important because many things can be measured in a number of different ways. One of the basic principles of any type of scientific research is that the results must be replicable.   By clearly detailing the specifics of how the variables were measured and manipulated, other researchers can better understand the results and repeat the study if needed.

Some variables are more difficult than others to define. How would you operationally define a variable such as aggression ? For obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot create a situation in which a person behaves aggressively toward others.

In order to measure this variable, the researcher must devise a measurement that assesses aggressive behavior without harming other people. In this situation, the researcher might utilize a simulated task to measure aggressiveness.

Hypothesis Checklist

  • Does your hypothesis focus on something that you can actually test?
  • Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
  • Can you manipulate the variables?
  • Can your hypothesis be tested without violating ethical standards?

The hypothesis you use will depend on what you are investigating and hoping to find. Some of the main types of hypotheses that you might use include:

  • Simple hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests that there is a relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.
  • Complex hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests a relationship between three or more variables, such as two independent variables and a dependent variable.
  • Null hypothesis : This hypothesis suggests no relationship exists between two or more variables.
  • Alternative hypothesis : This hypothesis states the opposite of the null hypothesis.
  • Statistical hypothesis : This hypothesis uses statistical analysis to evaluate a representative sample of the population and then generalizes the findings to the larger group.
  • Logical hypothesis : This hypothesis assumes a relationship between variables without collecting data or evidence.

A hypothesis often follows a basic format of "If {this happens} then {this will happen}." One way to structure your hypothesis is to describe what will happen to the  dependent variable  if you change the  independent variable .

The basic format might be: "If {these changes are made to a certain independent variable}, then we will observe {a change in a specific dependent variable}."

A few examples of simple hypotheses:

  • "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
  • Complex hypothesis: "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."​
  • "Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone."

Examples of a complex hypothesis include:

  • "People with high-sugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression."
  • "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective well-being than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."

Examples of a null hypothesis include:

  • "Children who receive a new reading intervention will have scores different than students who do not receive the intervention."
  • "There will be no difference in scores on a memory recall task between children and adults."

Examples of an alternative hypothesis:

  • "Children who receive a new reading intervention will perform better than students who did not receive the intervention."
  • "Adults will perform better on a memory task than children." 

Collecting Data on Your Hypothesis

Once a researcher has formed a testable hypothesis, the next step is to select a research design and start collecting data. The research method depends largely on exactly what they are studying. There are two basic types of research methods: descriptive research and experimental research.

Descriptive Research Methods

Descriptive research such as  case studies ,  naturalistic observations , and surveys are often used when it would be impossible or difficult to  conduct an experiment . These methods are best used to describe different aspects of a behavior or psychological phenomenon.

Once a researcher has collected data using descriptive methods, a correlational study can then be used to look at how the variables are related. This type of research method might be used to investigate a hypothesis that is difficult to test experimentally.

Experimental Research Methods

Experimental methods  are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables. In an experiment, the researcher systematically manipulates a variable of interest (known as the independent variable) and measures the effect on another variable (known as the dependent variable).

Unlike correlational studies, which can only be used to determine if there is a relationship between two variables, experimental methods can be used to determine the actual nature of the relationship—whether changes in one variable actually  cause  another to change.

A Word From Verywell

The hypothesis is a critical part of any scientific exploration. It represents what researchers expect to find in a study or experiment. In situations where the hypothesis is unsupported by the research, the research still has value. Such research helps us better understand how different aspects of the natural world relate to one another. It also helps us develop new hypotheses that can then be tested in the future.

Some examples of how to write a hypothesis include:

  • "Staying up late will lead to worse test performance the next day."
  • "People who consume one apple each day will visit the doctor fewer times each year."
  • "Breaking study sessions up into three 20-minute sessions will lead to better test results than a single 60-minute study session."

The four parts of a hypothesis are:

  • The research question
  • The independent variable (IV)
  • The dependent variable (DV)
  • The proposed relationship between the IV and DV

Castillo M. The scientific method: a need for something better? . AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(9):1669-71. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3401

Nevid J. Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadworth, 2013.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Enago Academy

How to Develop a Good Research Hypothesis

' src=

The story of a research study begins by asking a question. Researchers all around the globe are asking curious questions and formulating research hypothesis. However, whether the research study provides an effective conclusion depends on how well one develops a good research hypothesis. Research hypothesis examples could help researchers get an idea as to how to write a good research hypothesis.

This blog will help you understand what is a research hypothesis, its characteristics and, how to formulate a research hypothesis

Table of Contents

What is Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is an assumption or an idea proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested. It is a precise, testable statement of what the researchers predict will be outcome of the study.  Hypothesis usually involves proposing a relationship between two variables: the independent variable (what the researchers change) and the dependent variable (what the research measures).

What is a Research Hypothesis?

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It is an integral part of the scientific method that forms the basis of scientific experiments. Therefore, you need to be careful and thorough when building your research hypothesis. A minor flaw in the construction of your hypothesis could have an adverse effect on your experiment. In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment).

Characteristics of a Good Research Hypothesis

As the hypothesis is specific, there is a testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. You may consider drawing hypothesis from previously published research based on the theory.

A good research hypothesis involves more effort than just a guess. In particular, your hypothesis may begin with a question that could be further explored through background research.

To help you formulate a promising research hypothesis, you should ask yourself the following questions:

  • Is the language clear and focused?
  • What is the relationship between your hypothesis and your research topic?
  • Is your hypothesis testable? If yes, then how?
  • What are the possible explanations that you might want to explore?
  • Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
  • Can you manipulate your variables without hampering the ethical standards?
  • Does your research predict the relationship and outcome?
  • Is your research simple and concise (avoids wordiness)?
  • Is it clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
  • Is your research observable and testable results?
  • Is it relevant and specific to the research question or problem?

research hypothesis example

The questions listed above can be used as a checklist to make sure your hypothesis is based on a solid foundation. Furthermore, it can help you identify weaknesses in your hypothesis and revise it if necessary.

Source: Educational Hub

How to formulate a research hypothesis.

A testable hypothesis is not a simple statement. It is rather an intricate statement that needs to offer a clear introduction to a scientific experiment, its intentions, and the possible outcomes. However, there are some important things to consider when building a compelling hypothesis.

1. State the problem that you are trying to solve.

Make sure that the hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of the experiment.

2. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement.

Follow this template: If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is expected.

3. Define the variables

Independent variables are the ones that are manipulated, controlled, or changed. Independent variables are isolated from other factors of the study.

Dependent variables , as the name suggests are dependent on other factors of the study. They are influenced by the change in independent variable.

4. Scrutinize the hypothesis

Evaluate assumptions, predictions, and evidence rigorously to refine your understanding.

Types of Research Hypothesis

The types of research hypothesis are stated below:

1. Simple Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable.

2. Complex Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

3. Directional Hypothesis

It specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables and is derived from theory. Furthermore, it implies the researcher’s intellectual commitment to a particular outcome.

4. Non-directional Hypothesis

It does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. The non-directional hypothesis is used when there is no theory involved or when findings contradict previous research.

5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis

The associative hypothesis defines interdependency between variables. A change in one variable results in the change of the other variable. On the other hand, the causal hypothesis proposes an effect on the dependent due to manipulation of the independent variable.

6. Null Hypothesis

Null hypothesis states a negative statement to support the researcher’s findings that there is no relationship between two variables. There will be no changes in the dependent variable due the manipulation of the independent variable. Furthermore, it states results are due to chance and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.

7. Alternative Hypothesis

It states that there is a relationship between the two variables of the study and that the results are significant to the research topic. An experimental hypothesis predicts what changes will take place in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated. Also, it states that the results are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the theory being investigated.

Research Hypothesis Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables

Research Hypothesis Example 1 The greater number of coal plants in a region (independent variable) increases water pollution (dependent variable). If you change the independent variable (building more coal factories), it will change the dependent variable (amount of water pollution).
Research Hypothesis Example 2 What is the effect of diet or regular soda (independent variable) on blood sugar levels (dependent variable)? If you change the independent variable (the type of soda you consume), it will change the dependent variable (blood sugar levels)

You should not ignore the importance of the above steps. The validity of your experiment and its results rely on a robust testable hypothesis. Developing a strong testable hypothesis has few advantages, it compels us to think intensely and specifically about the outcomes of a study. Consequently, it enables us to understand the implication of the question and the different variables involved in the study. Furthermore, it helps us to make precise predictions based on prior research. Hence, forming a hypothesis would be of great value to the research. Here are some good examples of testable hypotheses.

More importantly, you need to build a robust testable research hypothesis for your scientific experiments. A testable hypothesis is a hypothesis that can be proved or disproved as a result of experimentation.

Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

To devise and perform an experiment using scientific method, you need to make sure that your hypothesis is testable. To be considered testable, some essential criteria must be met:

  • There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is true.
  • There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is false.
  • The results of the hypothesis must be reproducible.

Without these criteria, the hypothesis and the results will be vague. As a result, the experiment will not prove or disprove anything significant.

What are your experiences with building hypotheses for scientific experiments? What challenges did you face? How did you overcome these challenges? Please share your thoughts with us in the comments section.

Frequently Asked Questions

The steps to write a research hypothesis are: 1. Stating the problem: Ensure that the hypothesis defines the research problem 2. Writing a hypothesis as an 'if-then' statement: Include the action and the expected outcome of your study by following a ‘if-then’ structure. 3. Defining the variables: Define the variables as Dependent or Independent based on their dependency to other factors. 4. Scrutinizing the hypothesis: Identify the type of your hypothesis

Hypothesis testing is a statistical tool which is used to make inferences about a population data to draw conclusions for a particular hypothesis.

Hypothesis in statistics is a formal statement about the nature of a population within a structured framework of a statistical model. It is used to test an existing hypothesis by studying a population.

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It forms the basis of scientific experiments.

The different types of hypothesis in research are: • Null hypothesis: Null hypothesis is a negative statement to support the researcher’s findings that there is no relationship between two variables. • Alternate hypothesis: Alternate hypothesis predicts the relationship between the two variables of the study. • Directional hypothesis: Directional hypothesis specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables. • Non-directional hypothesis: Non-directional hypothesis does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. • Simple hypothesis: Simple hypothesis predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable. • Complex hypothesis: Complex hypothesis predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables. • Associative and casual hypothesis: Associative and casual hypothesis predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables. • Empirical hypothesis: Empirical hypothesis can be tested via experiments and observation. • Statistical hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis utilizes statistical models to draw conclusions about broader populations.

' src=

Wow! You really simplified your explanation that even dummies would find it easy to comprehend. Thank you so much.

Thanks a lot for your valuable guidance.

I enjoy reading the post. Hypotheses are actually an intrinsic part in a study. It bridges the research question and the methodology of the study.

Useful piece!

This is awesome.Wow.

It very interesting to read the topic, can you guide me any specific example of hypothesis process establish throw the Demand and supply of the specific product in market

Nicely explained

It is really a useful for me Kindly give some examples of hypothesis

It was a well explained content ,can you please give me an example with the null and alternative hypothesis illustrated

clear and concise. thanks.

So Good so Amazing

Good to learn

Thanks a lot for explaining to my level of understanding

Rate this article Cancel Reply

Your email address will not be published.

hypothesis essay structure

Enago Academy's Most Popular

Content Analysis vs Thematic Analysis: What's the difference?

  • Reporting Research

Choosing the Right Analytical Approach: Thematic analysis vs. content analysis for data interpretation

In research, choosing the right approach to understand data is crucial for deriving meaningful insights.…

Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Study Design

Comparing Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Studies: 5 steps for choosing the right approach

The process of choosing the right research design can put ourselves at the crossroads of…

hypothesis essay structure

  • Industry News

COPE Forum Discussion Highlights Challenges and Urges Clarity in Institutional Authorship Standards

The COPE forum discussion held in December 2023 initiated with a fundamental question — is…

Networking in Academic Conferences

  • Career Corner

Unlocking the Power of Networking in Academic Conferences

Embarking on your first academic conference experience? Fear not, we got you covered! Academic conferences…

Research recommendation

Research Recommendations – Guiding policy-makers for evidence-based decision making

Research recommendations play a crucial role in guiding scholars and researchers toward fruitful avenues of…

Choosing the Right Analytical Approach: Thematic analysis vs. content analysis for…

Comparing Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Studies: 5 steps for choosing the right…

8 Effective Strategies to Write Argumentative Essays

hypothesis essay structure

Sign-up to read more

Subscribe for free to get unrestricted access to all our resources on research writing and academic publishing including:

  • 2000+ blog articles
  • 50+ Webinars
  • 10+ Expert podcasts
  • 50+ Infographics
  • 10+ Checklists
  • Research Guides

We hate spam too. We promise to protect your privacy and never spam you.

I am looking for Editing/ Proofreading services for my manuscript Tentative date of next journal submission:

hypothesis essay structure

When should AI tools be used in university labs?

  • Affiliate Program

Wordvice

  • UNITED STATES
  • 台灣 (TAIWAN)
  • TÜRKIYE (TURKEY)
  • Academic Editing Services
  • - Research Paper
  • - Journal Manuscript
  • - Dissertation
  • - College & University Assignments
  • Admissions Editing Services
  • - Application Essay
  • - Personal Statement
  • - Recommendation Letter
  • - Cover Letter
  • - CV/Resume
  • Business Editing Services
  • - Business Documents
  • - Report & Brochure
  • - Website & Blog
  • Writer Editing Services
  • - Script & Screenplay
  • Our Editors
  • Client Reviews
  • Editing & Proofreading Prices
  • Wordvice Points
  • Partner Discount
  • Plagiarism Checker
  • APA Citation Generator
  • MLA Citation Generator
  • Chicago Citation Generator
  • Vancouver Citation Generator
  • - APA Style
  • - MLA Style
  • - Chicago Style
  • - Vancouver Style
  • Writing & Editing Guide
  • Academic Resources
  • Admissions Resources

How to Write a Research Hypothesis: Good & Bad Examples

hypothesis essay structure

What is a research hypothesis?

A research hypothesis is an attempt at explaining a phenomenon or the relationships between phenomena/variables in the real world. Hypotheses are sometimes called “educated guesses”, but they are in fact (or let’s say they should be) based on previous observations, existing theories, scientific evidence, and logic. A research hypothesis is also not a prediction—rather, predictions are ( should be) based on clearly formulated hypotheses. For example, “We tested the hypothesis that KLF2 knockout mice would show deficiencies in heart development” is an assumption or prediction, not a hypothesis. 

The research hypothesis at the basis of this prediction is “the product of the KLF2 gene is involved in the development of the cardiovascular system in mice”—and this hypothesis is probably (hopefully) based on a clear observation, such as that mice with low levels of Kruppel-like factor 2 (which KLF2 codes for) seem to have heart problems. From this hypothesis, you can derive the idea that a mouse in which this particular gene does not function cannot develop a normal cardiovascular system, and then make the prediction that we started with. 

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a prediction?

You might think that these are very subtle differences, and you will certainly come across many publications that do not contain an actual hypothesis or do not make these distinctions correctly. But considering that the formulation and testing of hypotheses is an integral part of the scientific method, it is good to be aware of the concepts underlying this approach. The two hallmarks of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability (an evaluation standard that was introduced by the philosopher of science Karl Popper in 1934) and testability —if you cannot use experiments or data to decide whether an idea is true or false, then it is not a hypothesis (or at least a very bad one).

So, in a nutshell, you (1) look at existing evidence/theories, (2) come up with a hypothesis, (3) make a prediction that allows you to (4) design an experiment or data analysis to test it, and (5) come to a conclusion. Of course, not all studies have hypotheses (there is also exploratory or hypothesis-generating research), and you do not necessarily have to state your hypothesis as such in your paper. 

But for the sake of understanding the principles of the scientific method, let’s first take a closer look at the different types of hypotheses that research articles refer to and then give you a step-by-step guide for how to formulate a strong hypothesis for your own paper.

Types of Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses can be simple , which means they describe the relationship between one single independent variable (the one you observe variations in or plan to manipulate) and one single dependent variable (the one you expect to be affected by the variations/manipulation). If there are more variables on either side, you are dealing with a complex hypothesis. You can also distinguish hypotheses according to the kind of relationship between the variables you are interested in (e.g., causal or associative ). But apart from these variations, we are usually interested in what is called the “alternative hypothesis” and, in contrast to that, the “null hypothesis”. If you think these two should be listed the other way round, then you are right, logically speaking—the alternative should surely come second. However, since this is the hypothesis we (as researchers) are usually interested in, let’s start from there.

Alternative Hypothesis

If you predict a relationship between two variables in your study, then the research hypothesis that you formulate to describe that relationship is your alternative hypothesis (usually H1 in statistical terms). The goal of your hypothesis testing is thus to demonstrate that there is sufficient evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis, rather than evidence for the possibility that there is no such relationship. The alternative hypothesis is usually the research hypothesis of a study and is based on the literature, previous observations, and widely known theories. 

Null Hypothesis

The hypothesis that describes the other possible outcome, that is, that your variables are not related, is the null hypothesis ( H0 ). Based on your findings, you choose between the two hypotheses—usually that means that if your prediction was correct, you reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative. Make sure, however, that you are not getting lost at this step of the thinking process: If your prediction is that there will be no difference or change, then you are trying to find support for the null hypothesis and reject H1. 

Directional Hypothesis

While the null hypothesis is obviously “static”, the alternative hypothesis can specify a direction for the observed relationship between variables—for example, that mice with higher expression levels of a certain protein are more active than those with lower levels. This is then called a one-tailed hypothesis. 

Another example for a directional one-tailed alternative hypothesis would be that 

H1: Attending private classes before important exams has a positive effect on performance. 

Your null hypothesis would then be that

H0: Attending private classes before important exams has no/a negative effect on performance.

Nondirectional Hypothesis

A nondirectional hypothesis does not specify the direction of the potentially observed effect, only that there is a relationship between the studied variables—this is called a two-tailed hypothesis. For instance, if you are studying a new drug that has shown some effects on pathways involved in a certain condition (e.g., anxiety) in vitro in the lab, but you can’t say for sure whether it will have the same effects in an animal model or maybe induce other/side effects that you can’t predict and potentially increase anxiety levels instead, you could state the two hypotheses like this:

H1: The only lab-tested drug (somehow) affects anxiety levels in an anxiety mouse model.

You then test this nondirectional alternative hypothesis against the null hypothesis:

H0: The only lab-tested drug has no effect on anxiety levels in an anxiety mouse model.

hypothesis in a research paper

How to Write a Hypothesis for a Research Paper

Now that we understand the important distinctions between different kinds of research hypotheses, let’s look at a simple process of how to write a hypothesis.

Writing a Hypothesis Step:1

Ask a question, based on earlier research. Research always starts with a question, but one that takes into account what is already known about a topic or phenomenon. For example, if you are interested in whether people who have pets are happier than those who don’t, do a literature search and find out what has already been demonstrated. You will probably realize that yes, there is quite a bit of research that shows a relationship between happiness and owning a pet—and even studies that show that owning a dog is more beneficial than owning a cat ! Let’s say you are so intrigued by this finding that you wonder: 

What is it that makes dog owners even happier than cat owners? 

Let’s move on to Step 2 and find an answer to that question.

Writing a Hypothesis Step 2:

Formulate a strong hypothesis by answering your own question. Again, you don’t want to make things up, take unicorns into account, or repeat/ignore what has already been done. Looking at the dog-vs-cat papers your literature search returned, you see that most studies are based on self-report questionnaires on personality traits, mental health, and life satisfaction. What you don’t find is any data on actual (mental or physical) health measures, and no experiments. You therefore decide to make a bold claim come up with the carefully thought-through hypothesis that it’s maybe the lifestyle of the dog owners, which includes walking their dog several times per day, engaging in fun and healthy activities such as agility competitions, and taking them on trips, that gives them that extra boost in happiness. You could therefore answer your question in the following way:

Dog owners are happier than cat owners because of the dog-related activities they engage in.

Now you have to verify that your hypothesis fulfills the two requirements we introduced at the beginning of this resource article: falsifiability and testability . If it can’t be wrong and can’t be tested, it’s not a hypothesis. We are lucky, however, because yes, we can test whether owning a dog but not engaging in any of those activities leads to lower levels of happiness or well-being than owning a dog and playing and running around with them or taking them on trips.  

Writing a Hypothesis Step 3:

Make your predictions and define your variables. We have verified that we can test our hypothesis, but now we have to define all the relevant variables, design our experiment or data analysis, and make precise predictions. You could, for example, decide to study dog owners (not surprising at this point), let them fill in questionnaires about their lifestyle as well as their life satisfaction (as other studies did), and then compare two groups of active and inactive dog owners. Alternatively, if you want to go beyond the data that earlier studies produced and analyzed and directly manipulate the activity level of your dog owners to study the effect of that manipulation, you could invite them to your lab, select groups of participants with similar lifestyles, make them change their lifestyle (e.g., couch potato dog owners start agility classes, very active ones have to refrain from any fun activities for a certain period of time) and assess their happiness levels before and after the intervention. In both cases, your independent variable would be “ level of engagement in fun activities with dog” and your dependent variable would be happiness or well-being . 

Examples of a Good and Bad Hypothesis

Let’s look at a few examples of good and bad hypotheses to get you started.

Good Hypothesis Examples

Bad hypothesis examples, tips for writing a research hypothesis.

If you understood the distinction between a hypothesis and a prediction we made at the beginning of this article, then you will have no problem formulating your hypotheses and predictions correctly. To refresh your memory: We have to (1) look at existing evidence, (2) come up with a hypothesis, (3) make a prediction, and (4) design an experiment. For example, you could summarize your dog/happiness study like this:

(1) While research suggests that dog owners are happier than cat owners, there are no reports on what factors drive this difference. (2) We hypothesized that it is the fun activities that many dog owners (but very few cat owners) engage in with their pets that increases their happiness levels. (3) We thus predicted that preventing very active dog owners from engaging in such activities for some time and making very inactive dog owners take up such activities would lead to an increase and decrease in their overall self-ratings of happiness, respectively. (4) To test this, we invited dog owners into our lab, assessed their mental and emotional well-being through questionnaires, and then assigned them to an “active” and an “inactive” group, depending on… 

Note that you use “we hypothesize” only for your hypothesis, not for your experimental prediction, and “would” or “if – then” only for your prediction, not your hypothesis. A hypothesis that states that something “would” affect something else sounds as if you don’t have enough confidence to make a clear statement—in which case you can’t expect your readers to believe in your research either. Write in the present tense, don’t use modal verbs that express varying degrees of certainty (such as may, might, or could ), and remember that you are not drawing a conclusion while trying not to exaggerate but making a clear statement that you then, in a way, try to disprove . And if that happens, that is not something to fear but an important part of the scientific process.

Similarly, don’t use “we hypothesize” when you explain the implications of your research or make predictions in the conclusion section of your manuscript, since these are clearly not hypotheses in the true sense of the word. As we said earlier, you will find that many authors of academic articles do not seem to care too much about these rather subtle distinctions, but thinking very clearly about your own research will not only help you write better but also ensure that even that infamous Reviewer 2 will find fewer reasons to nitpick about your manuscript. 

Perfect Your Manuscript With Professional Editing

Now that you know how to write a strong research hypothesis for your research paper, you might be interested in our free AI proofreader , Wordvice AI, which finds and fixes errors in grammar, punctuation, and word choice in academic texts. Or if you are interested in human proofreading , check out our English editing services , including research paper editing and manuscript editing .

On the Wordvice academic resources website , you can also find many more articles and other resources that can help you with writing the other parts of your research paper , with making a research paper outline before you put everything together, or with writing an effective cover letter once you are ready to submit.

Elsevier QRcode Wechat

  • Manuscript Preparation

What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research?

  • 4 minute read

Table of Contents

One of the most important aspects of conducting research is constructing a strong hypothesis. But what makes a hypothesis in research effective? In this article, we’ll look at the difference between a hypothesis and a research question, as well as the elements of a good hypothesis in research. We’ll also include some examples of effective hypotheses, and what pitfalls to avoid.

What is a Hypothesis in Research?

Simply put, a hypothesis is a research question that also includes the predicted or expected result of the research. Without a hypothesis, there can be no basis for a scientific or research experiment. As such, it is critical that you carefully construct your hypothesis by being deliberate and thorough, even before you set pen to paper. Unless your hypothesis is clearly and carefully constructed, any flaw can have an adverse, and even grave, effect on the quality of your experiment and its subsequent results.

Research Question vs Hypothesis

It’s easy to confuse research questions with hypotheses, and vice versa. While they’re both critical to the Scientific Method, they have very specific differences. Primarily, a research question, just like a hypothesis, is focused and concise. But a hypothesis includes a prediction based on the proposed research, and is designed to forecast the relationship of and between two (or more) variables. Research questions are open-ended, and invite debate and discussion, while hypotheses are closed, e.g. “The relationship between A and B will be C.”

A hypothesis is generally used if your research topic is fairly well established, and you are relatively certain about the relationship between the variables that will be presented in your research. Since a hypothesis is ideally suited for experimental studies, it will, by its very existence, affect the design of your experiment. The research question is typically used for new topics that have not yet been researched extensively. Here, the relationship between different variables is less known. There is no prediction made, but there may be variables explored. The research question can be casual in nature, simply trying to understand if a relationship even exists, descriptive or comparative.

How to Write Hypothesis in Research

Writing an effective hypothesis starts before you even begin to type. Like any task, preparation is key, so you start first by conducting research yourself, and reading all you can about the topic that you plan to research. From there, you’ll gain the knowledge you need to understand where your focus within the topic will lie.

Remember that a hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship that exists between two or more variables. Your job is to write a hypothesis, and design the research, to “prove” whether or not your prediction is correct. A common pitfall is to use judgments that are subjective and inappropriate for the construction of a hypothesis. It’s important to keep the focus and language of your hypothesis objective.

An effective hypothesis in research is clearly and concisely written, and any terms or definitions clarified and defined. Specific language must also be used to avoid any generalities or assumptions.

Use the following points as a checklist to evaluate the effectiveness of your research hypothesis:

  • Predicts the relationship and outcome
  • Simple and concise – avoid wordiness
  • Clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
  • Observable and testable results
  • Relevant and specific to the research question or problem

Research Hypothesis Example

Perhaps the best way to evaluate whether or not your hypothesis is effective is to compare it to those of your colleagues in the field. There is no need to reinvent the wheel when it comes to writing a powerful research hypothesis. As you’re reading and preparing your hypothesis, you’ll also read other hypotheses. These can help guide you on what works, and what doesn’t, when it comes to writing a strong research hypothesis.

Here are a few generic examples to get you started.

Eating an apple each day, after the age of 60, will result in a reduction of frequency of physician visits.

Budget airlines are more likely to receive more customer complaints. A budget airline is defined as an airline that offers lower fares and fewer amenities than a traditional full-service airline. (Note that the term “budget airline” is included in the hypothesis.

Workplaces that offer flexible working hours report higher levels of employee job satisfaction than workplaces with fixed hours.

Each of the above examples are specific, observable and measurable, and the statement of prediction can be verified or shown to be false by utilizing standard experimental practices. It should be noted, however, that often your hypothesis will change as your research progresses.

Language Editing Plus

Elsevier’s Language Editing Plus service can help ensure that your research hypothesis is well-designed, and articulates your research and conclusions. Our most comprehensive editing package, you can count on a thorough language review by native-English speakers who are PhDs or PhD candidates. We’ll check for effective logic and flow of your manuscript, as well as document formatting for your chosen journal, reference checks, and much more.

Systematic Literature Review or Literature Review

  • Research Process

Systematic Literature Review or Literature Review?

What is a Problem Statement

What is a Problem Statement? [with examples]

You may also like.

Guide to Crafting Impactful Sentences

A Guide to Crafting Shorter, Impactful Sentences in Academic Writing

Write an Excellent Discussion in Your Manuscript

6 Steps to Write an Excellent Discussion in Your Manuscript

How to Write Clear Civil Engineering Papers

How to Write Clear and Crisp Civil Engineering Papers? Here are 5 Key Tips to Consider

hypothesis essay structure

The Clear Path to An Impactful Paper: ②

Essentials of Writing to Communicate Research in Medicine

The Essentials of Writing to Communicate Research in Medicine

There are some recognizable elements and patterns often used for framing engaging sentences in English. Find here the sentence patterns in Academic Writing

Changing Lines: Sentence Patterns in Academic Writing

hypothesis essay structure

Path to An Impactful Paper: Common Manuscript Writing Patterns and Structure

how to write the results section of a research paper

How to write the results section of a research paper

Input your search keywords and press Enter.

PrepScholar

Choose Your Test

Sat / act prep online guides and tips, what is a hypothesis and how do i write one.

author image

General Education

body-glowing-question-mark

Think about something strange and unexplainable in your life. Maybe you get a headache right before it rains, or maybe you think your favorite sports team wins when you wear a certain color. If you wanted to see whether these are just coincidences or scientific fact, you would form a hypothesis, then create an experiment to see whether that hypothesis is true or not. 

But what is a hypothesis, anyway? If you’re not sure about what a hypothesis is--or how to test for one!--you’re in the right place. This article will teach you everything you need to know about hypotheses, including: 

  • Defining the term “hypothesis” 
  • Providing hypothesis examples 
  • Giving you tips for how to write your own hypothesis 

So let’s get started!

body-picture-ask-sign

What Is a Hypothesis?

Merriam Webster defines a hypothesis as “an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument.” In other words, a hypothesis is an educated guess . Scientists make a reasonable assumption--or a hypothesis--then design an experiment to test whether it’s true or not. Keep in mind that in science, a hypothesis should be testable. You have to be able to design an experiment that tests your hypothesis in order for it to be valid. 

As you could assume from that statement, it’s easy to make a bad hypothesis. But when you’re holding an experiment, it’s even more important that your guesses be good...after all, you’re spending time (and maybe money!) to figure out more about your observation. That’s why we refer to a hypothesis as an educated guess--good hypotheses are based on existing data and research to make them as sound as possible.

Hypotheses are one part of what’s called the scientific method .  Every (good) experiment or study is based in the scientific method. The scientific method gives order and structure to experiments and ensures that interference from scientists or outside influences does not skew the results. It’s important that you understand the concepts of the scientific method before holding your own experiment. Though it may vary among scientists, the scientific method is generally made up of six steps (in order):

  • Observation
  • Asking questions
  • Forming a hypothesis
  • Analyze the data
  • Communicate your results

You’ll notice that the hypothesis comes pretty early on when conducting an experiment. That’s because experiments work best when they’re trying to answer one specific question. And you can’t conduct an experiment until you know what you’re trying to prove!

Independent and Dependent Variables 

After doing your research, you’re ready for another important step in forming your hypothesis: identifying variables. Variables are basically any factor that could influence the outcome of your experiment . Variables have to be measurable and related to the topic being studied.

There are two types of variables:  independent variables and dependent variables. I ndependent variables remain constant . For example, age is an independent variable; it will stay the same, and researchers can look at different ages to see if it has an effect on the dependent variable. 

Speaking of dependent variables... dependent variables are subject to the influence of the independent variable , meaning that they are not constant. Let’s say you want to test whether a person’s age affects how much sleep they need. In that case, the independent variable is age (like we mentioned above), and the dependent variable is how much sleep a person gets. 

Variables will be crucial in writing your hypothesis. You need to be able to identify which variable is which, as both the independent and dependent variables will be written into your hypothesis. For instance, in a study about exercise, the independent variable might be the speed at which the respondents walk for thirty minutes, and the dependent variable would be their heart rate. In your study and in your hypothesis, you’re trying to understand the relationship between the two variables.

Elements of a Good Hypothesis

The best hypotheses start by asking the right questions . For instance, if you’ve observed that the grass is greener when it rains twice a week, you could ask what kind of grass it is, what elevation it’s at, and if the grass across the street responds to rain in the same way. Any of these questions could become the backbone of experiments to test why the grass gets greener when it rains fairly frequently.

As you’re asking more questions about your first observation, make sure you’re also making more observations . If it doesn’t rain for two weeks and the grass still looks green, that’s an important observation that could influence your hypothesis. You'll continue observing all throughout your experiment, but until the hypothesis is finalized, every observation should be noted.

Finally, you should consult secondary research before writing your hypothesis . Secondary research is comprised of results found and published by other people. You can usually find this information online or at your library. Additionally, m ake sure the research you find is credible and related to your topic. If you’re studying the correlation between rain and grass growth, it would help you to research rain patterns over the past twenty years for your county, published by a local agricultural association. You should also research the types of grass common in your area, the type of grass in your lawn, and whether anyone else has conducted experiments about your hypothesis. Also be sure you’re checking the quality of your research . Research done by a middle school student about what minerals can be found in rainwater would be less useful than an article published by a local university.

body-pencil-notebook-writing

Writing Your Hypothesis

Once you’ve considered all of the factors above, you’re ready to start writing your hypothesis. Hypotheses usually take a certain form when they’re written out in a research report.

When you boil down your hypothesis statement, you are writing down your best guess and not the question at hand . This means that your statement should be written as if it is fact already, even though you are simply testing it.

The reason for this is that, after you have completed your study, you'll either accept or reject your if-then or your null hypothesis. All hypothesis testing examples should be measurable and able to be confirmed or denied. You cannot confirm a question, only a statement! 

In fact, you come up with hypothesis examples all the time! For instance, when you guess on the outcome of a basketball game, you don’t say, “Will the Miami Heat beat the Boston Celtics?” but instead, “I think the Miami Heat will beat the Boston Celtics.” You state it as if it is already true, even if it turns out you’re wrong. You do the same thing when writing your hypothesis.

Additionally, keep in mind that hypotheses can range from very specific to very broad.  These hypotheses can be specific, but if your hypothesis testing examples involve a broad range of causes and effects, your hypothesis can also be broad.  

body-hand-number-two

The Two Types of Hypotheses

Now that you understand what goes into a hypothesis, it’s time to look more closely at the two most common types of hypothesis: the if-then hypothesis and the null hypothesis.

#1: If-Then Hypotheses

First of all, if-then hypotheses typically follow this formula:

If ____ happens, then ____ will happen.

The goal of this type of hypothesis is to test the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable. It’s fairly simple, and each hypothesis can vary in how detailed it can be. We create if-then hypotheses all the time with our daily predictions. Here are some examples of hypotheses that use an if-then structure from daily life: 

  • If I get enough sleep, I’ll be able to get more work done tomorrow.
  • If the bus is on time, I can make it to my friend’s birthday party. 
  • If I study every night this week, I’ll get a better grade on my exam. 

In each of these situations, you’re making a guess on how an independent variable (sleep, time, or studying) will affect a dependent variable (the amount of work you can do, making it to a party on time, or getting better grades). 

You may still be asking, “What is an example of a hypothesis used in scientific research?” Take one of the hypothesis examples from a real-world study on whether using technology before bed affects children’s sleep patterns. The hypothesis read s:

“We hypothesized that increased hours of tablet- and phone-based screen time at bedtime would be inversely correlated with sleep quality and child attention.”

It might not look like it, but this is an if-then statement. The researchers basically said, “If children have more screen usage at bedtime, then their quality of sleep and attention will be worse.” The sleep quality and attention are the dependent variables and the screen usage is the independent variable. (Usually, the independent variable comes after the “if” and the dependent variable comes after the “then,” as it is the independent variable that affects the dependent variable.) This is an excellent example of how flexible hypothesis statements can be, as long as the general idea of “if-then” and the independent and dependent variables are present.

#2: Null Hypotheses

Your if-then hypothesis is not the only one needed to complete a successful experiment, however. You also need a null hypothesis to test it against. In its most basic form, the null hypothesis is the opposite of your if-then hypothesis . When you write your null hypothesis, you are writing a hypothesis that suggests that your guess is not true, and that the independent and dependent variables have no relationship .

One null hypothesis for the cell phone and sleep study from the last section might say: 

“If children have more screen usage at bedtime, their quality of sleep and attention will not be worse.” 

In this case, this is a null hypothesis because it’s asking the opposite of the original thesis! 

Conversely, if your if-then hypothesis suggests that your two variables have no relationship, then your null hypothesis would suggest that there is one. So, pretend that there is a study that is asking the question, “Does the amount of followers on Instagram influence how long people spend on the app?” The independent variable is the amount of followers, and the dependent variable is the time spent. But if you, as the researcher, don’t think there is a relationship between the number of followers and time spent, you might write an if-then hypothesis that reads:

“If people have many followers on Instagram, they will not spend more time on the app than people who have less.”

In this case, the if-then suggests there isn’t a relationship between the variables. In that case, one of the null hypothesis examples might say:

“If people have many followers on Instagram, they will spend more time on the app than people who have less.”

You then test both the if-then and the null hypothesis to gauge if there is a relationship between the variables, and if so, how much of a relationship. 

feature_tips

4 Tips to Write the Best Hypothesis

If you’re going to take the time to hold an experiment, whether in school or by yourself, you’re also going to want to take the time to make sure your hypothesis is a good one. The best hypotheses have four major elements in common: plausibility, defined concepts, observability, and general explanation.

#1: Plausibility

At first glance, this quality of a hypothesis might seem obvious. When your hypothesis is plausible, that means it’s possible given what we know about science and general common sense. However, improbable hypotheses are more common than you might think. 

Imagine you’re studying weight gain and television watching habits. If you hypothesize that people who watch more than  twenty hours of television a week will gain two hundred pounds or more over the course of a year, this might be improbable (though it’s potentially possible). Consequently, c ommon sense can tell us the results of the study before the study even begins.

Improbable hypotheses generally go against  science, as well. Take this hypothesis example: 

“If a person smokes one cigarette a day, then they will have lungs just as healthy as the average person’s.” 

This hypothesis is obviously untrue, as studies have shown again and again that cigarettes negatively affect lung health. You must be careful that your hypotheses do not reflect your own personal opinion more than they do scientifically-supported findings. This plausibility points to the necessity of research before the hypothesis is written to make sure that your hypothesis has not already been disproven.

#2: Defined Concepts

The more advanced you are in your studies, the more likely that the terms you’re using in your hypothesis are specific to a limited set of knowledge. One of the hypothesis testing examples might include the readability of printed text in newspapers, where you might use words like “kerning” and “x-height.” Unless your readers have a background in graphic design, it’s likely that they won’t know what you mean by these terms. Thus, it’s important to either write what they mean in the hypothesis itself or in the report before the hypothesis.

Here’s what we mean. Which of the following sentences makes more sense to the common person?

If the kerning is greater than average, more words will be read per minute.

If the space between letters is greater than average, more words will be read per minute.

For people reading your report that are not experts in typography, simply adding a few more words will be helpful in clarifying exactly what the experiment is all about. It’s always a good idea to make your research and findings as accessible as possible. 

body-blue-eye

Good hypotheses ensure that you can observe the results. 

#3: Observability

In order to measure the truth or falsity of your hypothesis, you must be able to see your variables and the way they interact. For instance, if your hypothesis is that the flight patterns of satellites affect the strength of certain television signals, yet you don’t have a telescope to view the satellites or a television to monitor the signal strength, you cannot properly observe your hypothesis and thus cannot continue your study.

Some variables may seem easy to observe, but if you do not have a system of measurement in place, you cannot observe your hypothesis properly. Here’s an example: if you’re experimenting on the effect of healthy food on overall happiness, but you don’t have a way to monitor and measure what “overall happiness” means, your results will not reflect the truth. Monitoring how often someone smiles for a whole day is not reasonably observable, but having the participants state how happy they feel on a scale of one to ten is more observable. 

In writing your hypothesis, always keep in mind how you'll execute the experiment.

#4: Generalizability 

Perhaps you’d like to study what color your best friend wears the most often by observing and documenting the colors she wears each day of the week. This might be fun information for her and you to know, but beyond you two, there aren’t many people who could benefit from this experiment. When you start an experiment, you should note how generalizable your findings may be if they are confirmed. Generalizability is basically how common a particular phenomenon is to other people’s everyday life.

Let’s say you’re asking a question about the health benefits of eating an apple for one day only, you need to realize that the experiment may be too specific to be helpful. It does not help to explain a phenomenon that many people experience. If you find yourself with too specific of a hypothesis, go back to asking the big question: what is it that you want to know, and what do you think will happen between your two variables?

body-experiment-chemistry

Hypothesis Testing Examples

We know it can be hard to write a good hypothesis unless you’ve seen some good hypothesis examples. We’ve included four hypothesis examples based on some made-up experiments. Use these as templates or launch pads for coming up with your own hypotheses.

Experiment #1: Students Studying Outside (Writing a Hypothesis)

You are a student at PrepScholar University. When you walk around campus, you notice that, when the temperature is above 60 degrees, more students study in the quad. You want to know when your fellow students are more likely to study outside. With this information, how do you make the best hypothesis possible?

You must remember to make additional observations and do secondary research before writing your hypothesis. In doing so, you notice that no one studies outside when it’s 75 degrees and raining, so this should be included in your experiment. Also, studies done on the topic beforehand suggested that students are more likely to study in temperatures less than 85 degrees. With this in mind, you feel confident that you can identify your variables and write your hypotheses:

If-then: “If the temperature in Fahrenheit is less than 60 degrees, significantly fewer students will study outside.”

Null: “If the temperature in Fahrenheit is less than 60 degrees, the same number of students will study outside as when it is more than 60 degrees.”

These hypotheses are plausible, as the temperatures are reasonably within the bounds of what is possible. The number of people in the quad is also easily observable. It is also not a phenomenon specific to only one person or at one time, but instead can explain a phenomenon for a broader group of people.

To complete this experiment, you pick the month of October to observe the quad. Every day (except on the days where it’s raining)from 3 to 4 PM, when most classes have released for the day, you observe how many people are on the quad. You measure how many people come  and how many leave. You also write down the temperature on the hour. 

After writing down all of your observations and putting them on a graph, you find that the most students study on the quad when it is 70 degrees outside, and that the number of students drops a lot once the temperature reaches 60 degrees or below. In this case, your research report would state that you accept or “failed to reject” your first hypothesis with your findings.

Experiment #2: The Cupcake Store (Forming a Simple Experiment)

Let’s say that you work at a bakery. You specialize in cupcakes, and you make only two colors of frosting: yellow and purple. You want to know what kind of customers are more likely to buy what kind of cupcake, so you set up an experiment. Your independent variable is the customer’s gender, and the dependent variable is the color of the frosting. What is an example of a hypothesis that might answer the question of this study?

Here’s what your hypotheses might look like: 

If-then: “If customers’ gender is female, then they will buy more yellow cupcakes than purple cupcakes.”

Null: “If customers’ gender is female, then they will be just as likely to buy purple cupcakes as yellow cupcakes.”

This is a pretty simple experiment! It passes the test of plausibility (there could easily be a difference), defined concepts (there’s nothing complicated about cupcakes!), observability (both color and gender can be easily observed), and general explanation ( this would potentially help you make better business decisions ).

body-bird-feeder

Experiment #3: Backyard Bird Feeders (Integrating Multiple Variables and Rejecting the If-Then Hypothesis)

While watching your backyard bird feeder, you realized that different birds come on the days when you change the types of seeds. You decide that you want to see more cardinals in your backyard, so you decide to see what type of food they like the best and set up an experiment. 

However, one morning, you notice that, while some cardinals are present, blue jays are eating out of your backyard feeder filled with millet. You decide that, of all of the other birds, you would like to see the blue jays the least. This means you'll have more than one variable in your hypothesis. Your new hypotheses might look like this: 

If-then: “If sunflower seeds are placed in the bird feeders, then more cardinals will come than blue jays. If millet is placed in the bird feeders, then more blue jays will come than cardinals.”

Null: “If either sunflower seeds or millet are placed in the bird, equal numbers of cardinals and blue jays will come.”

Through simple observation, you actually find that cardinals come as often as blue jays when sunflower seeds or millet is in the bird feeder. In this case, you would reject your “if-then” hypothesis and “fail to reject” your null hypothesis . You cannot accept your first hypothesis, because it’s clearly not true. Instead you found that there was actually no relation between your different variables. Consequently, you would need to run more experiments with different variables to see if the new variables impact the results.

Experiment #4: In-Class Survey (Including an Alternative Hypothesis)

You’re about to give a speech in one of your classes about the importance of paying attention. You want to take this opportunity to test a hypothesis you’ve had for a while: 

If-then: If students sit in the first two rows of the classroom, then they will listen better than students who do not.

Null: If students sit in the first two rows of the classroom, then they will not listen better or worse than students who do not.

You give your speech and then ask your teacher if you can hand out a short survey to the class. On the survey, you’ve included questions about some of the topics you talked about. When you get back the results, you’re surprised to see that not only do the students in the first two rows not pay better attention, but they also scored worse than students in other parts of the classroom! Here, both your if-then and your null hypotheses are not representative of your findings. What do you do?

This is when you reject both your if-then and null hypotheses and instead create an alternative hypothesis . This type of hypothesis is used in the rare circumstance that neither of your hypotheses is able to capture your findings . Now you can use what you’ve learned to draft new hypotheses and test again! 

Key Takeaways: Hypothesis Writing

The more comfortable you become with writing hypotheses, the better they will become. The structure of hypotheses is flexible and may need to be changed depending on what topic you are studying. The most important thing to remember is the purpose of your hypothesis and the difference between the if-then and the null . From there, in forming your hypothesis, you should constantly be asking questions, making observations, doing secondary research, and considering your variables. After you have written your hypothesis, be sure to edit it so that it is plausible, clearly defined, observable, and helpful in explaining a general phenomenon.

Writing a hypothesis is something that everyone, from elementary school children competing in a science fair to professional scientists in a lab, needs to know how to do. Hypotheses are vital in experiments and in properly executing the scientific method . When done correctly, hypotheses will set up your studies for success and help you to understand the world a little better, one experiment at a time.

body-whats-next-post-it-note

What’s Next?

If you’re studying for the science portion of the ACT, there’s definitely a lot you need to know. We’ve got the tools to help, though! Start by checking out our ultimate study guide for the ACT Science subject test. Once you read through that, be sure to download our recommended ACT Science practice tests , since they’re one of the most foolproof ways to improve your score. (And don’t forget to check out our expert guide book , too.)

If you love science and want to major in a scientific field, you should start preparing in high school . Here are the science classes you should take to set yourself up for success.

If you’re trying to think of science experiments you can do for class (or for a science fair!), here’s a list of 37 awesome science experiments you can do at home

Need more help with this topic? Check out Tutorbase!

Our vetted tutor database includes a range of experienced educators who can help you polish an essay for English or explain how derivatives work for Calculus. You can use dozens of filters and search criteria to find the perfect person for your needs.

Connect With a Tutor Now

Ashley Sufflé Robinson has a Ph.D. in 19th Century English Literature. As a content writer for PrepScholar, Ashley is passionate about giving college-bound students the in-depth information they need to get into the school of their dreams.

Student and Parent Forum

Our new student and parent forum, at ExpertHub.PrepScholar.com , allow you to interact with your peers and the PrepScholar staff. See how other students and parents are navigating high school, college, and the college admissions process. Ask questions; get answers.

Join the Conversation

Ask a Question Below

Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Improve With Our Famous Guides

  • For All Students

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 160+ SAT Points

How to Get a Perfect 1600, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Score 800 on SAT Math

Score 800 on SAT Reading

Score 800 on SAT Writing

Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:

Score 600 on SAT Math

Score 600 on SAT Reading

Score 600 on SAT Writing

Free Complete Official SAT Practice Tests

What SAT Target Score Should You Be Aiming For?

15 Strategies to Improve Your SAT Essay

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 4+ ACT Points

How to Get a Perfect 36 ACT, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

36 on ACT English

36 on ACT Math

36 on ACT Reading

36 on ACT Science

Series: How to Get to 24 on Each ACT Section:

24 on ACT English

24 on ACT Math

24 on ACT Reading

24 on ACT Science

What ACT target score should you be aiming for?

ACT Vocabulary You Must Know

ACT Writing: 15 Tips to Raise Your Essay Score

How to Get Into Harvard and the Ivy League

How to Get a Perfect 4.0 GPA

How to Write an Amazing College Essay

What Exactly Are Colleges Looking For?

Is the ACT easier than the SAT? A Comprehensive Guide

Should you retake your SAT or ACT?

When should you take the SAT or ACT?

Stay Informed

hypothesis essay structure

Get the latest articles and test prep tips!

Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

GRE Online Prep Blog

GMAT Online Prep Blog

TOEFL Online Prep Blog

Holly R. "I am absolutely overjoyed and cannot thank you enough for helping me!”
  • How it works

How to Write a Hypothesis – Steps & Tips

Published by Alaxendra Bets at August 14th, 2021 , Revised On October 26, 2023

What is a Research Hypothesis?

You can test a research statement with the help of experimental or theoretical research, known as a hypothesis.

If you want to find out the similarities, differences, and relationships between variables, you must write a testable hypothesis before compiling the data, performing analysis, and generating results to complete.

The data analysis and findings will help you test the hypothesis and see whether it is true or false. Here is all you need to know about how to write a hypothesis for a  dissertation .

Research Hypothesis Definition

Not sure what the meaning of the research hypothesis is?

A research hypothesis predicts an answer to the research question  based on existing theoretical knowledge or experimental data.

Some studies may have multiple hypothesis statements depending on the research question(s).  A research hypothesis must be based on formulas, facts, and theories. It should be testable by data analysis, observations, experiments, or other scientific methodologies that can refute or support the statement.

Variables in Hypothesis

Developing a hypothesis is easy. Most research studies have two or more variables in the hypothesis, particularly studies involving correlational and experimental research. The researcher can control or change the independent variable(s) while measuring and observing the independent variable(s).

“How long a student sleeps affects test scores.”

In the above statement, the dependent variable is the test score, while the independent variable is the length of time spent in sleep. Developing a hypothesis will be easy if you know your research’s dependent and independent variables.

Once you have developed a thesis statement, questions such as how to write a hypothesis for the dissertation and how to test a research hypothesis become pretty straightforward.

Looking for dissertation help?

Researchprospect to the rescue then.

We have expert writers on our team who are skilled at helping students with quantitative dissertations across a variety of STEM disciplines. Guaranteeing 100% satisfaction!

dissertation help

Step-by-Step Guide on How to Write a Hypothesis

Here are the steps involved in how to write a hypothesis for a dissertation.

Step 1: Start with a Research Question

  • Begin by asking a specific question about a topic of interest.
  • This question should be clear, concise, and researchable.

Example: Does exposure to sunlight affect plant growth?

Step 2: Do Preliminary Research

  • Before formulating a hypothesis, conduct background research to understand existing knowledge on the topic.
  • Familiarise yourself with prior studies, theories, or observations related to the research question.

Step 3: Define Variables

  • Independent Variable (IV): The factor that you change or manipulate in an experiment.
  • Dependent Variable (DV): The factor that you measure.

Example: IV: Amount of sunlight exposure (e.g., 2 hours/day, 4 hours/day, 8 hours/day) DV: Plant growth (e.g., height in centimetres)

Step 4: Formulate the Hypothesis

  • A hypothesis is a statement that predicts the relationship between variables.
  • It is often written as an “if-then” statement.

Example: If plants receive more sunlight, then they will grow taller.

Step 5: Ensure it is Testable

A good hypothesis is empirically testable. This means you should be able to design an experiment or observation to test its validity.

Example: You can set up an experiment where plants are exposed to varying amounts of sunlight and then measure their growth over a period of time.

Step 6: Consider Potential Confounding Variables

  • Confounding variables are factors other than the independent variable that might affect the outcome.
  • It is important to identify these to ensure that they do not skew your results.

Example: Soil quality, water frequency, or type of plant can all affect growth. Consider keeping these constant in your experiment.

Step 7: Write the Null Hypothesis

  • The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no effect or no relationship between the variables.
  • It is what you aim to disprove or reject through your research.

Example: There is no difference in plant growth regardless of the amount of sunlight exposure.

Step 8: Test your Hypothesis

Design an experiment or conduct observations to test your hypothesis.

Example: Grow three sets of plants: one set exposed to 2 hours of sunlight daily, another exposed to 4 hours, and a third exposed to 8 hours. Measure and compare their growth after a set period.

Step 9: Analyse the Results

After testing, review your data to determine if it supports your hypothesis.

Step 10: Draw Conclusions

  • Based on your findings, determine whether you can accept or reject the hypothesis.
  • Remember, even if you reject your hypothesis, it’s a valuable result. It can guide future research and refine questions.

Three Ways to Phrase a Hypothesis

Try to use “if”… and “then”… to identify the variables. The independent variable should be present in the first part of the hypothesis, while the dependent variable will form the second part of the statement. Consider understanding the below research hypothesis example to create a specific, clear, and concise research hypothesis;

If an obese lady starts attending Zomba fitness classes, her health will improve.

In academic research, you can write the predicted variable relationship directly because most research studies correlate terms.

The number of Zomba fitness classes attended by the obese lady has a positive effect on health.

If your research compares two groups, then you can develop a hypothesis statement on their differences.

An obese lady who attended most Zumba fitness classes will have better health than those who attended a few.

How to Write a Null Hypothesis

If a statistical analysis is involved in your research, then you must create a null hypothesis. If you find any relationship between the variables, then the null hypothesis will be the default position that there is no relationship between them. H0 is the symbol for the null hypothesis, while the hypothesis is represented as H1. The null hypothesis will also answer your question, “How to test the research hypothesis in the dissertation.”

H0: The number of Zumba fitness classes attended by the obese lady does not affect her health.

H1: The number of Zumba fitness classes attended by obese lady positively affects health.

Also see:  Your Dissertation in Education

Hypothesis Examples

Research Question: Does the amount of sunlight a plant receives affect its growth? Hypothesis: Plants that receive more sunlight will grow taller than plants that receive less sunlight.

Research Question: Do students who eat breakfast perform better in school exams than those who don’t? Hypothesis: Students who eat a morning breakfast will score higher on school exams compared to students who skip breakfast.

Research Question: Does listening to music while studying impact a student’s ability to retain information? Hypothesis 1 (Directional): Students who listen to music while studying will retain less information than those who study in silence. Hypothesis 2 (Non-directional): There will be a difference in information retention between students who listen to music while studying and those who study in silence.

How can ResearchProspect Help?

If you are unsure about how to rest a research hypothesis in a dissertation or simply unsure about how to develop a hypothesis for your research, then you can take advantage of our dissertation services which cover every tiny aspect of a dissertation project you might need help with including but not limited to setting up a hypothesis and research questions,  help with individual chapters ,  full dissertation writing ,  statistical analysis , and much more.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 5 rules for writing a good hypothesis.

  • Clear Statement: State a clear relationship between variables.
  • Testable: Ensure it can be investigated and measured.
  • Specific: Avoid vague terms, be precise in predictions.
  • Falsifiable: Design to allow potential disproof.
  • Relevant: Address research question and align with existing knowledge.

What is a hypothesis in simple words?

A hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction about something that can be tested. It is a statement that suggests a possible explanation for an event or phenomenon based on prior knowledge or observation. Scientists use hypotheses as a starting point for experiments to discover if they are true or false.

What is the hypothesis and examples?

A hypothesis is a testable prediction or explanation for an observation or phenomenon. For example, if plants are given sunlight, then they will grow. In this case, the hypothesis suggests that sunlight has a positive effect on plant growth. It can be tested by experimenting with plants in varying light conditions.

What is the hypothesis in research definition?

A hypothesis in research is a clear, testable statement predicting the possible outcome of a study based on prior knowledge and observation. It serves as the foundation for conducting experiments or investigations. Researchers test the validity of the hypothesis to draw conclusions and advance knowledge in a particular field.

Why is it called a hypothesis?

The term “hypothesis” originates from the Greek word “hypothesis,” which means “base” or “foundation.” It’s used to describe a foundational statement or proposition that can be tested. In scientific contexts, it denotes a tentative explanation for a phenomenon, serving as a starting point for investigation or experimentation.

You May Also Like

Not sure how to approach a company for your primary research study? Don’t worry. Here we have some tips for you to successfully gather primary study.

Make sure that your selected topic is intriguing, manageable, and relevant. Here are some guidelines to help understand how to find a good dissertation topic.

Penning your dissertation proposal can be a rather daunting task. Here are comprehensive guidelines on how to write a dissertation proposal.

USEFUL LINKS

LEARNING RESOURCES

DMCA.com Protection Status

COMPANY DETAILS

Research-Prospect-Writing-Service

  • How It Works

You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.

how-to-write-a-hypothesis

How to Write a Hypothesis: The Ultimate Guide with Examples

how-to-write-a-hypothesis

Hypotheses aren’t about science, experiments, and creating new theories only. While students in science classes formulate a hypothesis every second day, others from non-science fields may find it challenging to write it for an essay or a research paper.

This article is here to reveal the nature of hypothesis writing and help you learn how to write a hypothesis for essays, reports, studies, and any paper type you may need to compose.

We’ve researched all the guides, invited  our top writers  to answer all the FAQs students have on hypothesis writing, gathered hypothesis examples, and put first things first.

Yes, we are ready to make it loud and clear with our essay maker !

Table of Contents:

  • Hypothesis vs. prediction
  • Theory vs. hypothesis
  • Hypothesis characteristics
  • Thesis statement vs. hypothesis in an essay
  • Main hypothesis sources
  • 7 types of hypotheses you may need to write
  • Ask a question
  • Conduct research
  • Write a null hypothesis
  • Define variables
  • State it using an if-then format
  • What is a hypothesis in a research paper?
  • How to write a hypothesis: example
  • Frequently asked questions

What is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is an assumption you make based on existing data and knowledge, stating your predictions about what your research will find. It’s a tentative answer to your research question; it needs to be testable so you could later support or refuse it through further experiments, observations, and any other scientific research methods.

Example of a hypothesis:

Teenagers who get sex education lessons in high school will have lower rates of unplanned pregnancy than those who did not get any sex education.

Your research question here is,  “How effective is high school sex education at reducing teen pregnancies?”  and you formulate a hypothesis to check and explain in your paper.

A hypothesis always proposes a relationship between several variables. As a rule, variables are two – independent and dependent – but it’s also possible to state more variables in your hypothesis essay, to address different aspects of your research question.

  • An independent variable  is the one you, as a researcher, can change or control.
  • A dependent variable  is the one you, as a researcher, observe and measure based on how an independent variable changes.

In the above example, we can see that an independent variable is “sex education lessons at school” (you assume it is a cause). And a dependent variable here is “lower rates of unplanned pregnancy” (you consider it’s an effect).

Please note that there’s a difference between theory and hypothesis. Also, some guides may tell you that a hypothesis equals a  thesis statement  in essay writing, though a slight difference between these two is yet in place.

More on that below.

Hypothesis vs. Prediction

hypothesis-vs-prediction

Given they both are a kind of guess, many people get a hypothesis and a prediction confused. But while a difference is slight, it’s yet critical:

  • A hypothesis  explains  why something happens based on  scientific methods  (testing, experiments, data analysis, etc.).
  • A prediction  suggests  that something will happen based on  observations .

You write a hypothesis using a statement with variables, while a prediction consists of “if-then” schemes stating about future happenings.

We can also say that a prediction is something you expect to happen if your hypothesis statement is true.

Theory vs. Hypothesis

hypothesis-vs-theory

  • A hypothesis states a  suggested  explanation of a phenomenon, which you’ll later support or refuse through testing and other scientific methods.
  • A theory is an  already tested , well-substantiated explanation backed by evidence.

You write a hypothesis using a statement with variables, while a theory represents a phenomenon that is already widely accepted and supported by data.

Examples of theories include Einstein’s theory of relativity, the Big Bang theory, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, and many others.

For your hypothesis to become a theory, you need to test all the aspects under various circumstances and prove it with well-substantiated facts. You can also use theories to make predictions about something unexplained and then turn those predictions into hypotheses to test and support (or refuse).

It’s worth noting that testings don’t stop once a hypothesis becomes a theory: Science is ongoing, and any theory can become disproved one day.

Hypothesis Characteristics

And now it’s high time to reveal the characteristics of your statement to become a reasonable hypothesis.

They are five:

  • A cause-effect relationship between variables . When writing a hypothesis, make sure your one variable causes another one to change (or not change.) There should always be a cause-effect relationship between them.
  • Testable nature.  Formulate a hypothesis that you can  test  to support or refuse. You should be able to conduct experiments and control your thesis when working on it.
  • Precise and accurate variables.  Your hypothesis’s independent and dependent variables need to be specific and clear for the audience to understand.
  • Explained in simple language.   Research papers  and academic writing, in general, are often challenging to understand for an average reader, so do your best to write a hypothesis so there would be no confusion or ambiguity.
  • Ethical.  We can test many things, but there’s always a question about  what  we should test or make a subject to experiments. Avoid questionable or taboo topics when thinking about your hypothesis outline.

Thesis Statement vs. Hypothesis in an Essay

When looking for information on writing a hypothesis essay, you can find guides telling that it’s the same with writing a thesis statement for your  argumentative essay . This notion is not entirely true, and there’s still a slight difference between these two:

hypothesis-vs-thesis-statement

  • A thesis statement is a sentence or two in your essay introduction that summarizes a central claim you’ll  discuss and prove  in the essay body. You’ll use arguments, evidence, and examples for that. 
  • A hypothesis is a one-sentence prediction based on the relationships between reliables that you’ll  test   and then  prove or disprove  in the essay body. You’ll use experiments, observation, and quantitative research for that.

Writing a research study should have a thesis statement; if your research intends to prove/disprove something, it will also contain a hypothesis statement.

Feel free to try our  online thesis statement generator  to get a better idea of writing strong thesis statements for your essays.

Main Hypothesis Sources

Once they ask you to write a hypothesis essay, it would be great to have some sources for inspiration at hand, wouldn’t it?

Where to go for  creative ideas ? Where to research hypothesis and come up with new statements for your essay? What sources do science students use?

The primary hypothesis sources are four:

  • Scientific theories that already exist
  • Some general patterns affecting our thinking process
  • Analogies between different phenomena we observe
  • The previous knowledge and observations from studies and our experience

Depending on the niche and type of hypothesis you need to cover, you’ll use corresponding sources for research and further hypothesis  outline .

Below you’ll learn what types of hypotheses exist and how to write a hypothesis statement so it would sound scientific.

7 Types of Hypotheses You May Need to Write

So many sources, so many hypothesis classifications they offer. Some specify eight, ten, and even 13  types of hypotheses, depending on the factors like the number of variables you use and the experiment stage you’re in. Some insist that only two significant kinds of hypotheses exist: alternative and null; others call them directional and non-directional hypotheses, respectively.

Let’s put things straight and explain the types of hypotheses you may need to write in essays . They are seven, with examples for you to get a better idea of “who is who,” as they say.

types-of-hypothesis

1) Simple hypothesis

It’s the most common type of hypothesis to use in college papers, predicting the direct relationship between two variables in your experiment: a single dependent and a single independent one.

How to write a simple hypothesis? Use an “if-then” format.

For example:

  • Everyday smoking leads to lung cancer.  ( If  you smoke every day,  then  you’ll get lung cancer.)
  • Covering wounds with a bandage heals with fewer scars.  ( If  you bandage an injury,  then  it will heal with less scarring.)

2) Complex hypothesis

This one also predicts the relationship between variables but has more than two dependent and independent variables to check for supporting or refusing.

  • Overweight people who eat junk food have higher chances of getting excessive cholesterol and heart disease.  (Two independent variables are  extra weight  and  junk food consumption ; two dependent variables are  heart disease  and  high cholesterol level .)
  • The higher illiteracy in a society, the higher is poverty and crime rate.  (One independent variable is higher  illiteracy , and two dependent variables are higher  poverty  and higher  crime rate .)

3) Null hypothesis

How to write a null hypothesis? It’s the default position stating there’s no relationship between variables, i.e., there will be no difference in the experiment’s results. 

Scientists use null hypotheses to disapprove or reaffirm given statements.

  • A person’s productivity doesn’t suffer from getting six instead of eight hours of sleep.
  • All daisies are equal in the number of their petals.
  • Sex education in high school doesn’t affect unplanned pregnancy rates.

4) Alternative hypothesis

When searching for information on how to write a hypothesis online, you might see queries like “how to write a null and alternative hypothesis.” That’s because alternative hypothesis statements come in place when someone tries to  disprove  a null hypothesis, so these two go hand in hand.

In other words, an alternative hypothesis  directly contradicts  a null one.

Also, an alternative hypothesis is one you may want to develop when the experiment on your initial statement doesn’t bring any result.

  • H0 (a null hypothesis): Light color does not affect plant growth.
  • H1 (an alternative hypothesis): Light color affects plant growth.
  • H0: Cats have no preference for food based on shape.
  • H1: Cats prefer round kibbles to other food shapes.

5) Logical hypothesis

This one is a hypothesis you can verify logically, though there’s little to no substantial evidence for it. Here you use reasoning and logical connections instead of proven facts, statistics, or background research.

Logical hypotheses remain assumptions until you put them to the test and support/refuse them after experiments.

  • Dogs won’t survive without water.  (Here, you make an assumption based on the fact humans can’t live without water, so dogs, as mammals, won’t do that, either.)
  • Creatures from Mars won’t breathe in the Earth’s atmosphere.  (Here, you assume that they won’t because we humans can’t breathe on Mars.)

6) Empirical hypothesis

In plain English, it’s a currently-tested hypothesis that can yet be changed or adjusted according to the results of experiments. It’s a working hypothesis that’s yet to confirm or refuse:

Empirical hypotheses are those going through tests, trials, or errors via observation and experiments right now and can be changed later around the independent variables. As a rule, it’s the opposite of a logical hypothesis.

  • Women taking vitamin E grow hair faster than those taking vitamin K.
  • Mushrooms grow faster at 22 degrees Celsius than 27 degrees Celsius.

7) Statistical hypothesis

This one is a hypothesis you can test and verify statistically based on data and quantitative research methods.

How to write a statistical hypothesis?

Statistical hypotheses have quantifiable variables and are usually about the nature of a population. It comes in handy when it’s impossible to test or survey every single person in a group. To write such a hypothesis, you’ll need to state the data about your topic using a portion of people.

  • 35% of the poor in the USA are illiterate.
  • 60% of people talking on the phone while driving have been in at least one car accident.
  • 56% of marriages end in divorce.

How to Write a Hypothesis: 5 Steps

First and foremost, it’s worth mentioning that hypothesis writing is the third step of the scientific method scholars, researchers, and science students use to test theories, answer questions, and solve problems.

The steps are six, and they are as follows:

scientific-research-method

  • Observation:  Decide on an issue to solve or a phenomenon to explain. 
  • Question:  Develop a research question you’d like to check.
  • Hypothesis (we are here!):  Formulate a hypothesis that answers your question and that you can test.
  • Prediction:  Determine the experiment’s outcome based on your hypothesis.
  • Test:  Do your experiments to test your prediction.
  • Analyze:  Review the results to see if your hypothesis was correct. If it wasn’t, you could revise it by formulating another one and going through the whole process again.

In academic writing, hypotheses come as something relating to thesis statements: It’s a sentence or two summarizing a central claim you’ll discuss and prove in your essay.

It stands to reason that hypothesis writing is more common for STEM disciplines like math, chemistry, biology, physics, or economics. Here’s how to craft it, step by step:

1) Ask a Question

This stage is about choosing an  argumentative topic for your essay . Except as assigned by a teacher or a thesis tutor, you can start with an issue of your interest, so your curiosity and questions on it come naturally.

Why is it the way it is?

Why does it happen the way it goes?

What causes this factor you see around?

Your question needs to be  clear ,  specific , and  manageable  so you can research it, test it, and analyze the results. Also, ensure it’s not too broad so you can focus on its particular aspect to formulate your hypothesis.

For example:   How does eating apples affect human dental health?

2) Conduct Research

Now you’ll need to check and collect some information on your question to understand if it’s possible to formulate a research hypothesis. It’s so-called initial research to find an answer to your question.

This stage is not about proving or disproving your hypothesis. Here you’ll collect facts, theories, past studies, and any other information that will help prove or disprove it so that you can make an apparent assumption: Based on the gathered information, you’ll be able to make a logical guess.

Depending on your question, this initial research can  take some time  from you. You may need to read a few books on the topic, find and compare some scientific materials, etc. Or, it may be enough to perform a quick web search to find the answer.

3) Write a Null Hypothesis

To ease the process of hypothesis writing, start with a null hypothesis. As you already know, it’s the default position stating no relationship between variables. (And that’s why it’s so easy to formulate.)

So, take your initial question and write it as a negative statement. In our example with eating apples and dental health, the null hypothesis would sound like that:

Eating apples do not affect a human’s dental health.

(Which means your teeth condition will be the same, whether you eat apples or not.)

4) Define Variables

And now, for your hypothesis to become testable so you can do experiments, make predictions, and analyze the results, think of dependent and independent variables for it.

As you already know, independent variables are the factors you, as a researcher, can control during experiments to check the hypothesis. 

Example:   Eating one apple a day will positively affect a human’s dental health.

“One apple” is the independent variable, and “dental health” is the dependent variable here.

You’ll come up with variables based on your initial research. With some facts and studies already in place, you can predict how your experiment may go and what its results may be. Use this knowledge to shape variables into a clear and concise hypothesis.

And remember:

The way you’ll frame a hypothesis into one sentence depends on a few factors: the type of your project and the type of hypothesis you want to use. 

Simple hypotheses are most common for student research papers , so we use them as examples here. With that in mind, the final stage of hypothesis writing comes:

5) State It Using an If-Then Format

To formulate a hypothesis the best way possible, try framing it with an “if-then” format. Like this:

If a human eats one apple per day, then he gets healthier teeth.

This format becomes tricky when working with complex hypotheses with multiple variables, but it’s reliable when expressing the cause-and-effect relationship. 

The “if-then” format allows you to refine a hypothesis and ensure its final version:

  • is clear, specific, and testable;
  • has relevant variables;
  • identifies the relationship between variables;
  • suggests a predicted result of the experiment.

Another way to check if you’ve shaped a hypothesis properly is using the “PICOT” model, best explained via  visual examples . According to this model, a hypothesis should have five components:

P –  population: the specific group or individual of your research

I –  interest: the primary concern of your study

C –  comparison: the leading alternative group

O –  outcome: the expected result

T – time: the length of your experimen t

hypothesis-example

Always write a hypothesis in  the present tense  because it refers to research that’s currently being conducted.

What is a Hypothesis in a Research Paper?

A hypothesis in a research paper is a statement demonstrating a prediction you believe may happen based on research, evidence, and experimentation.

Often used and associated with science, hypotheses are assumptions (or guesses) for researchers and scholars to prove or disprove via tests and experiments. And they later write a hypothesis essay to analyze and report the experiments’ results to the scientific community.

When writing a hypothesis for a research paper, you should still describe an experiment to prove or disprove it. However, hypothesis essays don’t necessarily have to be on STEM disciplines and tests taken in a lab:

  • You can  write a book critique  and state a hypothesis on its or its author’s impact on literature. 
  • Or, your hypothesis essay can be about how demographics change a country’s language.
  • Or, you’ll  write an autobiography  with a focus on the hypothesis that one particular event influenced your further deeds. 

In such essays, you won’t spend hours in labs to prove that your hypothesis is true; you’ll do that through research, arguments, data, interviews, or previous studies.

Is a thesis statement a hypothesis?

As we already mentioned, there’s a slight difference between these two. While  thesis statements  in essays are about  summarizing  a central claim you’ll discuss,  hypotheses  are about  predictions  or  assumptions  you’ll prove (or disprove) in the essay body.

You don’t have to prove that your hypothesis is correct. The point is to research, test, and experiment to see if you’re right. Even if your hypothesis appears incorrect in  conclusion , it doesn’t mean the quality of your essay is poor.

How to Write a Hypothesis: Example

And now, let’s go to even more hypothesis examples for you to understand the nature of this writing better.

example-of-a-hypothesis

Here goes another example of a hypothesis:

statistical-hypothesis-examples

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a hypothesis in an essay.

A hypothesis in an essay is a statement demonstrating a prediction you believe may happen based on research, evidence, and experimentation. As a rule, it predicts the relationship between a few variables; and you can prove or disprove it by the end of your tests and experiments on it.

How long is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is one-sentence long. It should be clear, direct, and testable through experimentation, predicting a possible outcome.

How to write a hypothesis statement?

First of all, you need to state a problem you’re trying to solve, do some initial research on it to learn the background and predict an outcome, and then think of both dependent and independent variables for your hypothesis. For that, research or brainstorm ideas for your stated problem’s solution. Finally, write your hypothesis as an “if-then” statement, using your variables.

How to write a null hypothesis?

A null hypothesis is the default position stating no relationship between variables. To write it, you need to assume an experiment has no effect regardless of variables; use denying. 

For example, you want to learn whether teens are better at math than adults. In this case, your null hypothesis will be, “ Age does not affect math ability.”

How to write an alternative hypothesis?

An alternative hypothesis directly contradicts   a null one, trying to disprove it. To write it, you need to assume there’s enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis; but never state your claim is already proven true or false.

In contrast with a null hypothesis, typically marked as H0, an alternative one gets an H1 mark. For example:

H0: If I put Mentos into a Coke bottle, there will be no reaction.

H1: If I put Mentos into a Coke bottle, there will be a big explosion.

How to write a simple hypothesis?

A simple hypothesis is the most common one to use in college papers. It predicts the direct relationship between two variables — one dependent and one independent, — so write a simple hypothesis with an “if-then” format.

For example: 

If a postpartum woman has low hemoglobin, then she gets higher risk of infection.

A statistical hypothesis claims the value of a single population characteristic or relationship between several population characteristics. To write it, you first need to specify null and alternative hypotheses, set the significance level, calculate the statistics, and draw a conclusion. Ensure that your variables are quantifiable. For example: 

A population mean is equal to 10.

How to write a hypothesis for a lab report?

To write a hypothesis for a lab report, you should state the issue, predict its outcome based on tests and experiments, define the variables, and formulate a hypothesis as an if-then statement. For example:

If one puts Mentos in a bottle with Coke, there will be an explosion.

How to write a hypothesis for a research paper?

  • Decide on a question/problem you want to check/solve.
  • Conduct initial research to collect as much background information and observation about your topic as you can.
  • Evaluate this information to assume possible causes and possible explanations.
  • Define variables you’ll use to confirm or disprove your hypothesis through experimentation.
  • Write down a one-sentence hypothesis using the present tense.

Now that you know how to write a hypothesis, it’s high time to give it a try:

  • Address your curiosity.
  • Ask questions.
  • Conduct some initial research.
  • Come up with a type of hypothesis that fits your expectations most.

Think of variables for your hypothesis, and ensure it’s clear, concise, and measurable (testable). Then write it in the present tense — and you’ve got it!

Any questions left? Don’t hesitate to write in the comments (yes, we read them and reply!) or ask  Bid4Papers writers  directly!

Related posts

  • APA vs MLA Citation Styles
  • How to Write Family Essay
  • Strategies for Effective Lengthening and Shortening Essay

Our Writing Guides

Literacy Ideas

HOW TO WRITE A HYPOTHESIS

How to write a Hypothesis

Writing a hypothesis

Frequently, when we hear the word ‘hypothesis’, we immediately think of an investigation in the form of a science experiment. This is not surprising, as science is the subject area where we are usually first introduced to the term.

However, the term hypothesis also applies to investigations and research in many diverse areas and branches of learning, leaving us wondering how to write a hypothesis in statistics and how to write a hypothesis in sociology alongside how to write a hypothesis in a lab report.

We can find hypotheses at work in areas as wide-ranging as history, psychology, technology, engineering, literature, design, and economics. With such a vast array of uses, hypothesis writing is an essential skill for our students to develop.

What Is a Hypothesis?

how to write a hypothesis | Hypothesis definition | HOW TO WRITE A HYPOTHESIS | literacyideas.com

A hypothesis is a proposed or predicted answer to a question. The purpose of writing a hypothesis is to follow it up by testing that answer. This test can take the form of an investigation, experiment, or writing a research paper that will ideally prove or disprove the hypothesis’s prediction.

Despite this element of the unknown, a hypothesis is not the same thing as a guess. Though the hypothesis writer typically has some uncertainty, the creation of the hypothesis is generally based on some background knowledge and research of the topic. The writer believes in the likelihood of a specific outcome, but further investigation will be required to validate or falsify the claim made in their hypothesis.

In this regard, a hypothesis is more along the lines of an ‘educated guess’ that has been based on observation and/or background knowledge.

A hypothesis should:

  • Make a prediction
  • Provide reasons for that prediction
  • Specifies a relationship between two or more variables
  • Be testable
  • Be falsifiable
  • Be expressed simply and concisely
  • Serves as the starting point for an investigation, an experiment, or another form of testing

A COMPLETE TEACHING UNIT ON WRITING PROCEDURAL TEXTS

how to write a hypothesis | procedural text writing unit 1 | HOW TO WRITE A HYPOTHESIS | literacyideas.com

This HUGE BUNDLE  offers 97 PAGES of hands-on, printable, and digital media resources. Your students will be WRITING procedures with STRUCTURE, INSIGHT AND KNOWLEDGE like never before.

Hypothesis Examples for Students and Teachers

If students listen to classical music while studying, they will retain more information.

Mold growth is affected by the level of moisture in the air.

Students who sleep for longer at night retain more information at school.

Employees who work more than 40 hours per week show higher instances of clinical depression.

Time spent on social media is negatively correlated to the length of the average attention span.

People who spend time exercising regularly are less likely to develop a cardiovascular illness.

If people are shorter, then they are more likely to live longer.

What are Variables in a Hypothesis?

Variables are an essential aspect of any hypothesis. But what exactly do we mean by this term?

Variables are changeable factors or characteristics that may affect the outcome of an investigation. Things like age, weight, the height of participants, length of time, the difficulty of reading material, etc., could all be considered variables.

Usually, an investigation or experiment will focus on how different variables affect each other. So, it is vital to define the variables clearly if you are to measure the effect they have on each other accurately.

There are three main types of variables to consider in a hypothesis. These are:

  • Independent Variables
  • Dependent Variables

The Independent Variable

The independent variable is unaffected by any of the other variables in the hypothesis. We can think of the independent variable as the assumed cause .

The Dependent Variable

The dependent variable is affected by the other variables in the hypothesis. It is what is being tested or measured. We can think of the dependent variable as the assumed effect .

For example, let’s investigate the correlation between test scores across different age groups. The age groups will be the independent variable, and the test scores will be the dependent variable .

Now that we know what variables are let’s look at how they work in the various types of hypotheses.

Types of Hypotheses

There are many different types of hypotheses, and it is helpful to know the most common of these if the student selects the most suitable tool for their specific job.

The most frequently used types of hypotheses are:

The Simple Hypothesis

The complex hypothesis, the empirical hypothesis, the null hypothesis, the directional hypothesis, the non-directional hypothesis.

This straightforward hypothesis type predicts the relationship between an independent and dependent variable.

Example: Eating too much sugar causes weight gain.

This type of hypothesis is based on the relationship between multiple independent and/or dependent variables.

Example: Overeating sugar causes weight gain and poor cardiovascular health.

Also called a working hypothesis, an empirical hypothesis is tested through observation and experimentation. An empirical hypothesis is produced through investigation and trial and error. As a result, the empirical hypothesis may change its independent variables in the process.

Example: Exposure to sunlight helps lettuces grow faster.

This hypothesis states that there is no significant or meaningful relationship between specific variables.

Example: Exposure to sunlight does not affect the rate of a plant’s growth.

This type of hypothesis predicts the direction of an effect between variables, i.e., positive or negative.

Example: A high-quality education will result in a greater number of career opportunities.

Similar to the directional hypothesis, this type of hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect but not the direction that effect will go in.

Example: A high-quality education will affect the number of available career opportunities.

How to Write a Hypothesis : A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE

  • Ask a Question

The starting point for any hypothesis is asking a question. This is often called the research question . The research question is the student’s jumping-off point to developing their hypothesis. This question should be specific and answerable. The hypothesis will be the point where the research question is transformed into a declarative statement.

Ideally, the questions the students develop should be relational, i.e., they should look at how two or more variables relate to each other as described above. For example, what effect does sunlight have on the growth rate of lettuce?

  • Research the Question

The research is an essential part of the process of developing a hypothesis. Students will need to examine the ideas and studies that are out there on the topic already. By examining the literature already out there on their topic, they can begin to refine their questions on the subject and begin to form predictions based on their studies.

Remember, a hypothesis can be defined as an ‘educated’ guess. This is the part of the process where the student educates themself on the subject before making their ‘guess.’

  • Define Your Variables

By now, your students should be ready to form their preliminary hypotheses. To do this, they should first focus on defining their independent and dependent variables. Now may be an excellent opportunity to remind students that the independent variables are the only variables that they have complete control over, while dependent variables are what is tested or measured.

  • Develop Your Preliminary Hypotheses

With variables defined, students can now work on a draft of their hypothesis. To do this, they can begin by examining their variables and the available data and then making a statement about the relationship between these variables. Students must brainstorm and reflect on what they expect to happen in their investigation before making a prediction upon which to base their hypothesis. It’s worth noting, too, that hypotheses are typically, though not exclusively, written in the present tense.

Students revisit the different types of hypotheses described earlier in this article. Students select three types of hypotheses and frame their preliminary hypotheses according to each criteria. Which works best? Which type is the least suitable for the student’s hypothesis?

  • Finalize the Phrasing

By now, students will have made a decision on which type of hypothesis suits their needs best, and it will now be time to finalize the wording of their hypotheses. There are various ways that students can choose to frame their hypothesis, but below, we will examine the three most common ways.

The If/Then Phrasing

This is the most common type of hypothesis and perhaps the easiest to write for students. It follows a simple ‘ If x, then y ’ formula that makes a prediction that forms the basis of a subsequent investigation.

If I eat more calories, then I will gain weight.

Correlation Phrasing

Another way to phrase a hypothesis is to focus on the correlation between the variables. This typically takes the form of a statement that defines that relationship positively or negatively.

The more calories that are eaten beyond the daily recommended requirements, the greater the weight gain will be.

Comparison Phrasing

This form of phrasing is applicable when comparing two groups and focuses on the differences that the investigation is expected to reveal between those two groups.

Those who eat more calories will gain more weight than those who eat fewer calories.

Questions to ask during this process include:

  • What tense is the hypothesis written in?
  • Does the hypothesis contain both independent and dependent variables?
  • Is the hypothesis framed using the if/then, correlation, or comparison framework (or other similar suitable structure)?
  • Is the hypothesis worded clearly and concisely?
  • Does the hypothesis make a prediction?
  • Is the prediction specific?
  • Is the hypothesis testable?
  • Gather Data to Support/Disprove Your Hypothesis

If the purpose of a hypothesis is to provide a reason to pursue an investigation, then the student will need to gather related information together to fuel that investigation.

While, by definition, a hypothesis leans towards a specific outcome, the student shouldn’t worry if their investigations or experiments ultimately disprove their hypothesis. The hypothesis is the starting point; the destination is not preordained. This is the very essence of the scientific method. Students should trust the results of their investigation to speak for themselves. Either way, the outcome is valuable information.

TOP 10 TIPS FOR WRITING A STRONG HYPOTHESIS

  • Begin by asking a clear and compelling question. Your hypothesis is a response to the inquiry you are eager to explore.
  • Keep it simple and straightforward. Avoid using complex phrases or making multiple predictions in one hypothesis.
  • Use the right format. A strong hypothesis is often written in the form of an “if-then” statement.
  • Ensure that your hypothesis is testable. Your hypothesis should be something that can be verified through experimentation or observation.
  • Stay objective. Your hypothesis should be based on facts and evidence, not personal opinions or prejudices.
  • Examine different possibilities. Don’t limit yourself to just one hypothesis. Consider alternative explanations for your observations.
  • Stay open to the possibility of being wrong. Your hypothesis is just a prediction, and it may not always be correct.
  • Search for evidence to support your hypothesis. Investigate existing literature and gather data that supports your hypothesis.
  • Make sure that your hypothesis is pertinent. Your hypothesis should be relevant to the question you are trying to investigate.
  • Revise your hypothesis as necessary. If new evidence arises that contradicts your hypothesis, you may need to adjust it accordingly.

HYPOTHESIS TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES

When teaching young scientists and writers, it’s essential to remember that the process of formulating a hypothesis is not always straightforward. It’s easy to make mistakes along the way, but with a bit of guidance, you can ensure your students avoid some of the most common pitfalls like these.

  • Don’t let your students be too vague. Remind them that when formulating a hypothesis, it’s essential to be specific and avoid using overly general language. Make sure their hypothesis is clear and easy to understand.
  • Being swayed by personal biases will impact their hypothesis negatively. It’s important to stay objective when formulating a hypothesis, so avoid letting personal biases or opinions get in the way.
  • Not starting with a clear question is the number one stumbling block for students, so before forming a hypothesis, you need to reinforce the need for a clear understanding of the question they’re trying to answer. Start with a question that is specific and relevant.

Hypothesis Warmup Activity: First, organize students into small working groups of four or five. Then, set each group to collect a list of hypotheses. They can find these by searching on the Internet or finding examples in textbooks . When students have gathered together a suitable list of hypotheses, have them identify the independent and dependent variables in each case. They can underline each of these in different colors.

It may be helpful for students to examine each hypothesis to identify the ‘cause’ elements and the ‘effect’ elements. When students have finished, they can present their findings to the class.

Task 1: Set your students the task of coming up with an investigation-worthy question on a topic that interests them. This activity works particularly well for groups.

Task 2: Students search for existing information and theories on their topic on the Internet or in the library. They should take notes where necessary and begin to form an assumption or prediction based on their reading and research that they can investigate further.

Task 3: When working with a talking partner, can students identify which of their partner’s independent and dependent variables? If not, then one partner will need to revisit the definitions for the two types of variables as outlined earlier.

Task 4: Organize students into smaller groups and task them with presenting their hypotheses to each other. Students can then provide feedback before the final wording of each hypothesis is finalized.

Procedural Writing Unit

Perhaps due to their short length, learning how to create a well-written hypothesis is not typically afforded much time in the curriculum.

However, though they are brief in length, they are complex enough to warrant focused learning and practice in class, particularly given their importance across many curriculum areas.

Learning how to write a hypothesis works well as a standalone writing skill. It can also form part of a more comprehensive academic or scientific writing study that focuses on how to write a research question, develop a theory, etc.

As with any text type, practice improves performance. By following the processes outlined above, students will be well on their way to writing their own hypotheses competently in no time.

The content for this page has been written by Shane Mac Donnchaidh.  A former principal of an international school and English university lecturer with 15 years of teaching and administration experience. Shane’s latest Book, The Complete Guide to Nonfiction Writing , can be found here.  Editing and support for this article have been provided by the literacyideas team.

The Classroom | Empowering Students in Their College Journey

How to Write a Hypothesis for an Essay

Hana LaRock

How to Start a Critique Paper

Whether you're writing a scientific paper or an essay for your literature class, the premise of your essay may be to form a hypothesis to construct your piece around. A hypothesis is a statement that demonstrates a prediction that you think will happen based off of well-researched evidence or experimentation. Though it sounds somewhat straightforward, coming up with the appropriate hypothesis for a paper can actually be a rather difficult task, and writing that hypothesis so that it aligns with the rest of your essay can also be challenging.

A Hypothesis for an Experiment vs. a Hypothesis for a Paper

Typically, a hypothesis connects directly with a scientific experiment. After conducting some brief research and making subtle observations, students in science classes usually write a hypothesis and test it out with an experiment. Perhaps they submit lab notes with their hypothesis but not much else. However, a hypothesis can actually be much longer when it's for an essay.

When you write a hypothesis for a paper, you should still be doing an experiment to prove that your hypothesis is true. However, it doesn't necessarily have to link to something completely scientific, and the experiment does not always need to be in a lab. Your hypothesis could be about an author's impact on literature, how demographics are changing the language of a country or how parents should expose their children to more peanut butter. To prove that a hypothesis like that is true, you won't be doing it with a Bunson burner and a flask. You'll be doing it through research, interviews and solid data that can support your point.

How to Decide on a Hypothesis

To decide on your hypothesis, your teacher may give you a topic or ask that you find one that you're interested in. The first step, then, is to do some research. Your goal is to find something that must be testable, yet you are able to prove even before testing it.

A hypothesis, therefore, should be an educated guess that essentially states, "If I (do this), then (this) will happen." It should show your ability to predict the relationship between two or more variables. Likewise, even though your guess is educated and likely to prove your hypothesis, your hypothesis should also be something that can be proven false. Some things you can do to help decide your hypothesis are:

  • Conduct observations
  • Evaluate observations closely.
  • Look for a potential problem.
  • Think of explanations of why that problem exists.
  • See if you can prove and disprove your explanation.

Writing Your Hypothesis

Once you've decided on what you think you want your hypothesis to be, you want to make sure it fits the general hypothesis structure, "If (I do this), then (this) will happen." If you can fit your hypothesis into that, then you're that much closer to being able to write it. It's always a good idea to look at some examples so that you know whether or not you're on the right track:

"As children become more dependent on electronics, their attention spans will decrease."

"As more traditional jobs become automated, people will need to find more creative ways to make money."

These are strong hypotheses because they can be tested, explained and proved to be true, but they can also be proven false, which is essential to any hypothesis you write.

"As pollution levels increase, it is inevitable that more people will die of cancer that's directly related to the pollutants."

"Girls who grow up with older brothers will be more likely to marry over the age of 30."

These are okay hypotheses, but there are a few problems with them. They are either too vague, too specific or too generalized, which makes them difficult to prove. Also, using terms like, "more likely" isn't definite, and therefore, hard to prove as well. The writer is not directly linking one variable to another. These hypotheses also cannot necessarily be falsified, simply because there's not enough of a solid statement to prove them wrong or right the first place.

Related Articles

How to write an opinion paragraph.

What Are the Four Tips for Writing a Good Thesis Statement for an Expository Essay?

What Are the Four Tips for Writing a Good Thesis Statement for an ...

What Components Are Necessary for an Experiment to Be Valid?

What Components Are Necessary for an Experiment to Be Valid?

Simple Topics for Research Papers

Simple Topics for Research Papers

How to Form a Hypothesis in Sociology

How to Form a Hypothesis in Sociology

The Advantages of Using Quantitative Methods in Nursing Research

The Advantages of Using Quantitative Methods in Nursing Research

Difference Between College-Level and Casual Writing?

Difference Between College-Level and Casual Writing?

What Makes an Experiment Testable?

What Makes an Experiment Testable?

  • Explorable: How to Write a Hypothesis
  • Science Buddies: A Strong Hypothesis

Hana LaRock is a freelance content writer from New York, currently living in Mexico. Before becoming a writer, Hana worked as a teacher for several years in the U.S. and around the world. She has her teaching certification in Elementary Education and Special Education, as well as a TESOL certification. Please visit her website, www.hanalarockwriting.com, to learn more.

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base

Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples

Published on November 8, 2019 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics . It is most often used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, that arise from theories.

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

  • State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o ) and (H a  or H 1 ).
  • Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis.
  • Perform an appropriate statistical test .
  • Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
  • Present the findings in your results and discussion section.

Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps.

Table of contents

Step 1: state your null and alternate hypothesis, step 2: collect data, step 3: perform a statistical test, step 4: decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis, step 5: present your findings, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.

After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want to investigate), it is important to restate it as a null (H o ) and alternate (H a ) hypothesis so that you can test it mathematically.

The alternate hypothesis is usually your initial hypothesis that predicts a relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a prediction of no relationship between the variables you are interested in.

  • H 0 : Men are, on average, not taller than women. H a : Men are, on average, taller than women.

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services

Discover proofreading & editing

For a statistical test to be valid , it is important to perform sampling and collect data in a way that is designed to test your hypothesis. If your data are not representative, then you cannot make statistical inferences about the population you are interested in.

There are a variety of statistical tests available, but they are all based on the comparison of within-group variance (how spread out the data is within a category) versus between-group variance (how different the categories are from one another).

If the between-group variance is large enough that there is little or no overlap between groups, then your statistical test will reflect that by showing a low p -value . This means it is unlikely that the differences between these groups came about by chance.

Alternatively, if there is high within-group variance and low between-group variance, then your statistical test will reflect that with a high p -value. This means it is likely that any difference you measure between groups is due to chance.

Your choice of statistical test will be based on the type of variables and the level of measurement of your collected data .

  • an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
  • a p -value showing how likely you are to see this difference if the null hypothesis of no difference is true.

Based on the outcome of your statistical test, you will have to decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.

In most cases you will use the p -value generated by your statistical test to guide your decision. And in most cases, your predetermined level of significance for rejecting the null hypothesis will be 0.05 – that is, when there is a less than 5% chance that you would see these results if the null hypothesis were true.

In some cases, researchers choose a more conservative level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%). This minimizes the risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis ( Type I error ).

The results of hypothesis testing will be presented in the results and discussion sections of your research paper , dissertation or thesis .

In the results section you should give a brief summary of the data and a summary of the results of your statistical test (for example, the estimated difference between group means and associated p -value). In the discussion , you can discuss whether your initial hypothesis was supported by your results or not.

In the formal language of hypothesis testing, we talk about rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. You will probably be asked to do this in your statistics assignments.

However, when presenting research results in academic papers we rarely talk this way. Instead, we go back to our alternate hypothesis (in this case, the hypothesis that men are on average taller than women) and state whether the result of our test did or did not support the alternate hypothesis.

If your null hypothesis was rejected, this result is interpreted as “supported the alternate hypothesis.”

These are superficial differences; you can see that they mean the same thing.

You might notice that we don’t say that we reject or fail to reject the alternate hypothesis . This is because hypothesis testing is not designed to prove or disprove anything. It is only designed to test whether a pattern we measure could have arisen spuriously, or by chance.

If we reject the null hypothesis based on our research (i.e., we find that it is unlikely that the pattern arose by chance), then we can say our test lends support to our hypothesis . But if the pattern does not pass our decision rule, meaning that it could have arisen by chance, then we say the test is inconsistent with our hypothesis .

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Descriptive statistics
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Correlation coefficient

Methodology

  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Types of interviews
  • Cohort study
  • Thematic analysis

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Survivorship bias
  • Availability heuristic
  • Nonresponse bias
  • Regression to the mean

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Bevans, R. (2023, June 22). Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 20, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/hypothesis-testing/

Is this article helpful?

Rebecca Bevans

Rebecca Bevans

Other students also liked, choosing the right statistical test | types & examples, understanding p values | definition and examples, what is your plagiarism score.

  • International edition
  • Australia edition
  • Europe edition

Illustration shows ChatGPT logo and AI Artificial Intelligence words

How to get away with AI-generated essays

Prof Paul Kleiman on putting ChatGPT to the test on his work. Plus letters from Michael Bulley and Dr Paul Flewers

No wonder Robert Topinka found himself in a quandary ( The software says my student cheated using AI. They say they’re innocent. Who do I believe?, 13 February ). To test ChatGPT’s abilities and weaknesses, I asked it to write a short essay on a particular topic that I specialised in. Before looking at what it produced, I wrote my own 100% original short essay on the same topic. I then submitted both pieces to ChatGPT and asked it to identify whether they were written by AI or a human. It immediately identified the first piece as AI-generated. But then it also said that my essay “was probably generated by AI”.

I concluded that if you write well, in logical, appropriate and grammatically correct English, then the chances are that it will be deemed to be AI-generated. To avoid detection, write badly. Prof Paul Kleiman Truro, Cornwall

Robert Topinka gets into a twist about whether his student’s essay was genuine or produced by AI. The obvious solution is for such work not to contribute to the final degree qualification. Then there would be no point in cheating.

Let there be real chat between teachers and students rather than ChatGPT , and let the degree be decided only by exams, with surprise questions, done in an exam room with pen and paper, and not a computer in sight. Michael Bulley Chalon-sur-Saône, France

Dr Robert Topinka overlooks a crucial factor with respect to student cheating – so long as a degree is a requirement to obtain a reasonable job, then chicanery is inevitable. When I left school at 16 in the early 1970s, an administrative job could be had with a few O-levels; when I finished my PhD two decades ago and was looking for that sort of job, each one required A-levels, and often a degree. I was a mature student, studying for my own edification, and so cheating was self-defeating. Cheating will stop being a major problem only when students attend university primarily to learn for the sake of learning and not as a means of gaining employment. Dr Paul Flewers London

  • Artificial intelligence (AI)
  • Higher education
  • Universities

Most viewed

IMAGES

  1. How to Write a Hypothesis

    hypothesis essay structure

  2. How to write a hypothesis [Steps and samples]

    hypothesis essay structure

  3. How to Write a Hypothesis: The Ultimate Guide with Examples

    hypothesis essay structure

  4. How to Write a Hypothesis in 12 Steps 2023

    hypothesis essay structure

  5. How to Write a Hypothesis for an Essay: A Complete Guide by

    hypothesis essay structure

  6. How to write a hypothesis

    hypothesis essay structure

VIDEO

  1. Hypothesis [Research Hypothesis simply explained]

  2. 6 Steps to Formulate a STRONG Hypothesis

  3. How To Write a Hypothesis

  4. How To Write A Research Question/Hypothesis & Template

  5. how to write hypothesis in research paper i step by step guide

  6. what is hypothesis l what is hypothesis in research l introduction l types of hypothesis

COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Home Knowledge Base Methodology How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023. A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research.

  2. How to Write a Hypothesis in 6 Steps, With Examples

    Write with Grammarly What is a hypothesis? One of our 10 essential words for university success, a hypothesis is one of the earliest stages of the scientific method. It's essentially an educated guess—based on observations—of what the results of your experiment or research will be. Some hypothesis examples include:

  3. How to Write a Hypothesis: Types, Steps and Examples

    July 21, 2022 11 min read Share the article If I [do something], then [this] will happen. This basic statement/formula should be pretty familiar to all of you as it is the starting point of almost every scientific project or paper. It is a hypothesis - a statement that showcases what you "think" will happen during an experiment.

  4. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Step 1: Ask a question Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question Do students who attend more lectures get better exam results? Step 2: Do some preliminary research

  5. How to Write a Hypothesis for an Essay: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

    Hypotheses are mainly used in the sciences, but you still need to narrow down the field. If your class is in organic chemistry or botany, you still need to narrow down the field even further. Choose a particular aspect of the field, such as genetics in botany. 2. Do some preliminary research in the narrowed field.

  6. How to Write a Great Hypothesis

    Examples of a complex hypothesis include: "People with high-sugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression." "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective well-being than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."

  7. What is a Research Hypothesis and How to Write a Hypothesis

    Is the language clear and focused? What is the relationship between your hypothesis and your research topic? Is your hypothesis testable? If yes, then how? What are the possible explanations that you might want to explore?

  8. How to Write a Research Hypothesis: Good & Bad Examples

    Your hypothesis is the "seed" from which your entire study grows and develops in detail. It is perhaps the most important sentence of your research paper. What is a research hypothesis? A research hypothesis is an attempt at explaining a phenomenon or the relationships between phenomena/variables in the real world.

  9. What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research?

    Table of Contents What is a Hypothesis in Research? Research Question vs Hypothesis How to Write Hypothesis in Research Research Hypothesis Example One of the most important aspects of conducting research is constructing a strong hypothesis. But what makes a hypothesis in research effective?

  10. What Is a Hypothesis and How Do I Write One?

    Defining the term "hypothesis" Providing hypothesis examples Giving you tips for how to write your own hypothesis So let's get started! A hypothesis is all about asking a question. What Is a Hypothesis? Merriam Webster defines a hypothesis as "an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument."

  11. How to Structure an Essay

    The basic structure of an essay always consists of an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. But for many students, the most difficult part of structuring an essay is deciding how to organize information within the body.

  12. How to Write a Hypothesis for a Research Paper + Examples

    Updated 05 Feb 2024 The narrative of a research study commences with the formulation of a question. Inquisitive researchers worldwide are constantly posing questions and crafting research hypotheses. The effectiveness of a paper's conclusion hinges on the quality of every research element.

  13. How to Write a Hypothesis

    Step 8: Test your Hypothesis. Design an experiment or conduct observations to test your hypothesis. Example: Grow three sets of plants: one set exposed to 2 hours of sunlight daily, another exposed to 4 hours, and a third exposed to 8 hours. Measure and compare their growth after a set period.

  14. How to Write a Hypothesis: The Ultimate Guide with Examples

    A hypothesis is a research statement based on predictions you can test to support or refuse through scientific methods like experiments, statistical data analysis, observations, etc. Hypotheses aren't about science, experiments, and creating new theories only.

  15. Writing a Research Paper Introduction

    Step 1: Introduce your topic. Step 2: Describe the background. Step 3: Establish your research problem. Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper. Research paper introduction examples. Frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

  16. How to Write a Hypothesis in 5 Easy Steps:

    A hypothesis should: Make a prediction. Provide reasons for that prediction. Specifies a relationship between two or more variables. Be testable. Be falsifiable. Be expressed simply and concisely. Serves as the starting point for an investigation, an experiment, or another form of testing.

  17. How to Write a Hypothesis for an Essay

    Likewise, even though your guess is educated and likely to prove your hypothesis, your hypothesis should also be something that can be proven false. Some things you can do to help decide your hypothesis are: Conduct observations. Evaluate observations closely. Look for a potential problem. Think of explanations of why that problem exists.

  18. PDF Writing Economics

    • Short Essays (4-6pp.). Short essays may require you to analyze two articles and compare their policy implications, explain a model, criticize an argument, present a case study, extend a theory, evaluate an intellectual debate and so on. • Response Papers (1-2pp.). Response papers might involve

  19. Scientific hypothesis

    scientific hypothesis, an idea that proposes a tentative explanation about a phenomenon or a narrow set of phenomena observed in the natural world. The two primary features of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability and testability, which are reflected in an "If…then" statement summarizing the idea and in the ability to be supported or ...

  20. How to Structure a Theory of Knowledge Essay

    How to Structure a Theory of Knowledge Essay The following structure is a very good, step-by-step method you can use on any TOK essay to get a great mark. (It is updated for the 2022 syllabus ). You can find our video analysis of the most recently May and November Theory of Knowledge Essay Prescribed Titles in our members area.

  21. What is a Theoretical Framework? How to Write It (with Examples)

    A theoretical framework guides the research process like a roadmap for the study, so you need to get this right. Theoretical framework 1,2 is the structure that supports and describes a theory. A theory is a set of interrelated concepts and definitions that present a systematic view of phenomena by describing the relationship among the variables for explaining these phenomena.

  22. Essay Structure: The 3 Main Parts of an Essay

    Basic essay structure: the 3 main parts of an essay Almost every single essay that's ever been written follows the same basic structure: Introduction Body paragraphs Conclusion This structure has stood the test of time for one simple reason: It works.

  23. Hypothesis Testing

    Step 5: Present your findings. The results of hypothesis testing will be presented in the results and discussion sections of your research paper, dissertation or thesis.. In the results section you should give a brief summary of the data and a summary of the results of your statistical test (for example, the estimated difference between group means and associated p-value).

  24. How to get away with AI-generated essays

    To test ChatGPT's abilities and weaknesses, I asked it to write a short essay on a particular topic that I specialised in. Before looking at what it produced, I wrote my own 100% original short ...

  25. PDF Holographic Inflation, Primordial Black Holes and Early Structure

    Structure Formation Submitted to 2024 Gravitation Research Foundation Essay Contest May 13, 2024 Tom Banks (corresponding author) NHETC and Department of Physics ... [13] Y. B. Zel'dovich and I. D. Novikov, "The Hypothesis of Cores Retarded during Expan-sion and the Hot Cosmological Model," Sov. Astron. 10, 602 (1967)