How to Find an Abstract for My House

An abstract is a document that summarizes information from various sources and lists the current titleholder of a property, and any current liens or judgments against the property. Abstracts, also called an Abstract of Title, are typically put together by the title company before a sale can be completed to protect the buyer from any unforeseen legal and financial obligations attached to the property. Abstractors gather data from many sources, including county recorders and the court clerk's office, and interpret the land survey. They also understand legal issues, such as the time limitations for claimants against a property.

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Contact a title company or real estate attorney. Title companies employ trained abstractors, who are qualified to research the history of your property. You can contact a local title company or attorney, or use an online service such as TitleSearch and AmericanAbstract (see Resources).

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Pay the applicable fee, which can vary according to company or professional.

Review the abstract. The abstract may take from several days to weeks, depending on the complexities of the property and encumbrances or liens. The abstract will clearly list any claims against the property, the land survey or boundaries of a particular piece of property, as well as the current titleholder.

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Where to Buy Cool Artwork Online: 50 Best Stores for Prints, Paintings, and More

By Kristi Kellogg

Illustration by Soleil Summer

Collage of cool artwork

All products featured on Architectural Digest are independently selected by our editors. However, when you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

Filling up a wall with affordable art is far from an easy task. First off, art preference is incredibly personal. It can be tough to hit the online shops with a singular goal of “finding art.” You never know what’s going to resonate with you, when it will happen, or why it does. But the truth is, sometimes you just need to get some artwork quickly—because there aren’t many people who love empty white walls for a prolonged period of time.

Ahead, we pulled together our favorite places to shop for affordable art online. Supplement these purchases with random pieces from art fairs—or even your favorite local art gallery—and you’ve got the beginnings of your own collection.

Top sources for affordable art

  • For originals: Artfinder
  • For the budding collector: Saatchi Art
  • For indie artists: Etsy
  • For vintage: 1stdibs
  • For on trend finds: Nordstrom
  • For photography: 20x200
  • For the super affordable: Minted

1. Artfinder

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May Woodland Wildflowers (2016) by Sophie Scharer

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Kyiv Khreshchatyk2 (2023) by Ole Karako

Founded in London in 2011, Artfinder is an online marketplace for original pieces of art from around the globe. The site sorts its offerings by both style and medium, making it easy to browse the more than 200,000 pieces (including abstract paintings, sculpture, photography, collage, and digital art), all of which are signed by the artist. Prices start at $24 and can go up to over $3000. The site also has dedicated services for interior designers purchasing cool artwork for its clients.

2. Saatchi Art

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Deep Winter Central Park

Saatchi Art

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Abstract Landscape Giclée by Ranko Ajdinovic

On the more expensive side, Saatchi Art boasts an impressive collection of art. While some of the prices can reach into the thousands, original art—which includes photography, collages, canvas prints, oil paintings, and sculptures—starts at around $110, and limited-edition prints at $75. The site also runs a complimentary art advisory service, where a team of curators will build a collection for you based on your taste or space.

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In Your Face by Helena Wurzel

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Camp Nathan Hale (mess call) by Gordon Parks

The goal of 20x200 is to provide art for everyone. The 1,000 editions the site has produced so far range from $24 to $10,000, and each is produced exclusively for 20x200. The company also wants customers to be passionate and knowledgeable about the art it receives, so every print or photo ships with documentation about the work, and the site announces each new launch with an informative write-up on the artist and project.

4. Serena & Lily

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SJ Johnson Standout

Serena & Lily

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Holly Addi Ice Cream

The art section of Serena & Lily is full of watercolor (or watercolor-inspired) artwork—perfect for a sunroom, nursery, or any place that needs a little boost in the “peaceful” department. That’s not the only style that’s offered, but scrolling through the many options will be like ASMR for your eyes.

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SERAPIS Multicolor Yiannis Yacht Silk Wall Hanging

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SERAPIS Multicolor Terra Grid Bed Linen Set, Queen

There is a whole lot of everything on SSENSE, and the best part is that each piece looks like it was carefully curated—even if you impulse purchase something you saw for approximately 30 seconds. Be prepared for that to happen because there are a lot of beautiful things in stock and there are constantly new arrivals. That also means that things can sell out quickly, especially if they’re one-of-one.

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New Dance by Deborah Velasquez

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Ramnik Velji Painting of a Man

When you think of Minted, there’s no doubt that stationary and gifts come to mind—but don’t sleep on its incredible collection of art. You’ll find curated collections that feature independent artists, Black artists, and more. There are pieces in a wide variety of mediums, including paintings, drawings, photography, and more. It also has really unique and stylish options for custom art. For example, you can commission a portrait of your pooch or a rendering of your home .

7. Anthropologie

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Artfully Walls Cows Below the Mountain Wall Art

Anthropologie

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Georgina Wall Flowers, Set of 2

It’s no secret that Anthropologie has an incredible sale section, but did you know it has a hefty wall art selection, as well? There are paintings, prints, and even art in different types of frames. And we’re not talking the usual wooden frames—think studded designs and lots of gold.

8. AllModern

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Amber Vittoria It's Always An Almost

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The Miuus Studio Wood Framed Wall Art Print Midcentury Modern Squares No 1

Allmodern is a one-stop shop for anything—literally anything—you may need for your living space. Furniture, decor, dinnerware, and lots of art. You can find some real gems, like work from Amber Vittoria , if you dig deep.

9. Schoolhouse

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Beachcomber Print by Jim Golden

Schoolhouse

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Amanda Jane Jones Sunny Side Up Print

We love Schoolhouse for the plethora of lighting and furniture options—but they also had a solid roster of wall art. If poppy prints are your kind of decor, buckle up. There’s also a good selection of graphic art, featuring bold fonts.

10 . Society6

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Cat with Ball Canvas Wall Art by Picomodi

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California Living Framed Art Print

For those who like to swap out their art on a regular basis, Society6’s assorted collection of whimsical, affordable prints is a great bet. Everything from cheeky sayings to watercolor florals, nature scenes, and abstracts can be had for as little as $20, so your gallery wall is limitless.

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Nathalie Du Pasquier "FREDDO"

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Ronan Bouroullec Drawing 5

Our favorite Danish furniture business also dabbles in the arts. The picks tend to skew bold and colorful, and there are often solid sales happening so you can score a deal. There may not be a ton of options, but each one feels really special and will quickly become your favorite piece of home.

12. Herman Miller

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Nelson Pop Art Blue and Black Poster

Herman Miller

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Exercise Poster

Herman Miller is famed for its office chairs and midcentury-modern furniture, but the brand also has a unique selection home decor, including contemporary prints and posters . Among them, you’ll find pop art, typography, and abstract art, all bursting with vivid color.

13. Artifact Uprising

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Large Format Prints

Artifact Uprising

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Square Print Set

Ok, here’s a fun one: Choose your favorite photograph (that you’ve taken) and have it printed out in a massive size—just make sure it’s hi-res. This is a fun way to mark your own personal mark on your space and you can order prints up to 60” x 40”.

14. PSTR Studio

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Poppies by Madelen Möllard

PSTR Studio

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Fouiller La Nuit by Maliv

This European art store is based in The Netherlands and ships worldwide. Its top-quality giclée prints run the creative gamut. You’ll find colorful abstracts, vintage prints, and Japandi pieces, which blend together Japanese and Scandinavian aesthetics. There’s even a nursery collection that has chic baby room decor. Oh, and if you’re looking for a gift idea, you’ll be happy to know it offers gift cards starting at €10,00 (the equivalent of $12.20).

15. Burke Decor

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A Dreamlike Mood IV

Burke Decor

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Santorini Multi / Ivory Wall Art

You never really know what you’re going to find at Burke Decor, and that’s part of the fun. While there are some more budget-friendly fine art options (think: $300), you can find some one-of-a-kind additions for your collection—as long as you’re open to spending a bit more.

16. West Elm

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"Calming Waves" by Oliver Gal

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Colorblock Lacquer Square Dimensional Wall Art by Margo Selby

West Elm is a destination for all things tasteful: Furniture, rugs, lighting, home decor, and more. It also has an expansive selection of wall art. Prints, photography, and canvas art are par for the course, and it also stocks 3D pieces, tapestries, and macramé art. There’s something for every room in the house, from pastel pieces fit for a nursery to Japanese art that would make sense in a modern, minimalist space. If you live near one of its physical stores, you can check out a small sample of its offerings in real life. However, its selection online is even more robust.

17. Nordstrom

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Stay Home No. 3 Framed Wall Art by Deny Designs

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Magical Marrakech Framed Art Print with Wood Frame by Deny Designs

Nordstrom, no doubt, is a fashion and beauty destination, but the stylish retailer is also a hub for design-forward decor, including photography, art prints, and paintings.

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Eucalyptus Greenery Wall Art Set by Nursery Home Decor

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Riding in Swimsuits Canvas Art

If you’re anything like us, you rely on Etsy for all things home decor, and cool paintings and original works are no exception. Etsy offers every type of art you can imagine, from stunning black-and-white photography to bespoke oil paintings. Shop at Etsy, and you can take anything—your living room, home office, man cave—to the next level while also supporting small business owners and artisans.

19. 1stDibs

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Graciela Rodo Boulanger Three Part Out Circa 1980

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Nina Bovasso Blue Lace Thumbprint Mound 2022

A favorite of the interior-design set, 1stDibs hosts a large inventory of art from established galleries, from Old Master dealers to contemporary specialists, much of which is available for purchase on the spot. Original Banksy street art has even been known to pop up now and then. Prices for many works are listed, and you can easily filter your search. The site’s curated sales are a good way to see how art might mix with vintage and antique furnishings or to check out artists whose work you might not know.

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Iveta Abolina Blush Forest Bamboo Framed Wall Art by Deny Designs

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Van and Surfboard Framed Wall Art (Set of 2)

Target has lovely curations of cool art, including quirky, boho picks from Opalhouse and geometric, abstract, and modern artwork from Project 62. Framed or unframed, with matting or without, sets or single pieces, Target has it all.

21. Mixtiles

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Blue Lisbon by Raisa Zwart Photography

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Summer Bloom (Set of 5)

Mixtiles takes the guesswork out of creating a gallery wall. It has tons of ready-to-go sets that are made to complement one another in color, style, and placement. If you don’t like all the items in a set, don’t worry: You can easily remove or replace the art in each collection (it has a huge art library to choose from). Additionally, you can upload your own photos or artwork to make something completely custom.

The other great thing about Mixtiles? It has sticky strips on the back of each print that stick to your wall. That’s right: no nails, no hammers, no damage. Plus, you can remove and re-stick them with ease.

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Tennis 4 by Burak Boylu

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Flower 6 by Max Blackmore

Drool believes that you should never settle for boring walls—and we couldn’t agree more. Its contemporary collection of art features prints, original paintings, graphic design, typography, and more. Shopping for the right piece is easy, given that you can sort by theme, color, medium, or subject.

23. Good Black Art

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Voodoo In My Blood Sleeps 6: The Sea In Me by Frank Xarate

Good Black Art

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Donli by Kadine Lindsay

One look at Good Black Art’s selection will show you these statement pieces are worth every penny. Good Black Art curates work from Black artists around the globe, while simultaneously mentoring them and fostering community along the way. The result is a selection of artwork that evocatively captures aspects of the Black experience. Offerings range from ceramic sculptures by Maya Beverly to futuristic paintings by Kadine Lindsay.

24. Rifle Paper Co

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Dog Days of Summer Peel & Stick Wallpaper

Rifle Paper Co

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Blossom Picture Frame

Rifle Paper Co. has some of the cutest prints around, and at an especially affordable price. It has everything from sweet florals to cityscapes, all with a touch of whimsy. Among its bestsellers you’ll find cute art like the homage to the many dog breeds pictured above. All of its art is available with or without a frame, and most prints come in two or more sizes. Come for the art, and you’ll probably head to the checkout with prints as well as some fun wrapping paper or tote bags.

25. Tappan Collective

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Kiss 6 in Wine by Dana Veraldi

Tappan Collective

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Sunset Wall by James Needham

Founded in 2012 by Chelsea Neman and Jordan Klein, Tappan aims to nurture emerging artists by connecting them to seasoned collectors. This support extends beyond the internet too: Tappan has curated numerous exhibitions of its artists in assorted spaces throughout Los Angeles. Tappan certainly features pieces on the higher end—with some items priced at upwards of $10,000—but you’ll also find small paintings for around $175.

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Adjoa Print

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3 Xhosa Ladies Large Wall Tapestry

54Kibo features contemporary African art across mediums. The brand’s name was inspired by Kibo, the volcanic peak at the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Founded by Nana Quagraine to address what she saw as a void in the market, 54Kibo has a fantastic selection of art, pillows, blankets, furniture, rugs, and more. The wall art includes beaded wall hangings, stunning prints—among which there’s a collection by designer Lisa Hunt —and mirrors.

27. Art.com

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Garden in Bloom Arles, c.1888

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GICLEE PRINT Breakfast with the Morning Newspaper, 1898

In terms of affordable art, it doesn’t get much better than Art.com. The online retailer has a breadth of options organized by type, price point, and more. You can even purchase frames for your pieces.

28. GreatBigCanvas

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Free Flow Wall Art Circle Art Group

Great Big Canvas

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Vintage Advertising Poster - La Chablisienne Wall Art

Need one big canvas for a statement piece? GreatBigCanvas has you covered. They have a variety of styles and subjects—including vintage art, movie posters, and figurative art. Plus, all of it is meticulously organized into different sections: subjects, colors, styles, rooms, artists, and even ideas specifically for a gallery wall.

29. BLK MKT Vintage

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Vintage Large Black Panther Party Poster // Bobby Seale “Pigs”

BLK MKT Vintage

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Vintage “jungle Fever " Promo Lobby Card Prints (German, 1991)

BLK MKT Vintage is a Brookyn-based design shop specializing in decor, literature, and records that celebrate Black history and artistic expression. Its online shop features a unique collection of vintage art prints you can’t find elsewhere. The highly framable pieces include rare posters, magazine covers, movie stills, and more. You’ll also find vintage patches, collectible VHS tapes, and trading cards you’ll want to add to your shopping cart.

30. Jungalow

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Face 1 Art Print by Justina Blakeney

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Alessa Art Print by Justina Blakeney

Looking for a fresh take on wall decor (and home decor in general)? Head to Jungalow . Everything in its collections is fresh, bold, and vibrant. Jungalow showcases collections from artists around the world as well as artworks from founder Justina Blakeney , and much of the selection is bohemian and colorful.

31. The Poster Club

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Anine Cecilie Iversen Cerulean Still Life

The Poster Club

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The Dream by Hanna Peterson

Discover cool prints and modern art posters that will add a polish to your bare bedroom, dining room, and living room walls. The Poster Club is well-curated, reasonably priced, and easy to browse. You can shop by size, orientation, price, color, artist, or art category—and we love a good sorting system because it makes the whole art-buying process less overwhelming. Once you’ve settled on a print, you can also choose a frame. The frames are available in basically every color and style imaginable. Once you have a print and frame picked out, the Poster Club will assemble it and ship out your bespoke creation (you can also buy the prints individually without framing, if you prefer).

32. BetterShared

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Build Your Own by Amberlee Green

BetterShared

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Elleux by Gilles Mayk Navangi

Swakara Atwell-Bennett founded BetterShared and launched it in 2016 as a platform dedicated to showcasing artists of the African Diaspora. Based in the U.K. with wide-ranging shipping options within Europe and to the U.S., art lovers can choose from a wide selection of prints, photographs, paintings, and mixed-media works—there’s even a curation for the budget-conscious collector, where no piece is over 100 British pounds.

33. One King’s Lane

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One Kings Lane Whimsical Vegetable Couple, 1900

One Kings Lane

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Black & Cream Garden Plans II Painting

Like West Elm, we all know and love One King’s Lane for their luxe furniture selection, but the classy retailer also has an equally lovely selection of art. The selection is especially fitting if you’re looking for whimsical, cottage-inspired English art for a gallery wall or to hang around a new home.

34. Palomarin Decor

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Boho Arid, Dusk Lake: 2-Print Boho Set

Palomarin Decor

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Palomarin Decor is a gem of a small business with a unique selection of cottage, coastal, cabin, and island artwork. Notably, Palomarin Decor strives to be as eco-friendly as possible, and all its fine art prints are made using green-certified fine art paper.

35. The Baltic Club

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The Baltic Club Peony Art Print

Baltic Club

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Deer Art Print by Sarah Walsh

The Baltic Club

Baltic Club is a one-stop shop for home decor, and it has a nice selection of quirky art prints. It offers contemporary works of art featuring animals, plants, florals, city scenes, and more. All the pieces have a fresh feel and are sure to liven up any room. While you’re shopping, make sure to check out the rest of its offerings, including frames, vases, textiles, and stationary.

36. Wall of Art

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Wall of Art

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Love Letter to Myself

Wall of Art is a hub for independent artists around the world. You can find work spanning Swedish artist Mathilda Boalawong Nilsson to Berlin-based multidisciplinary artist Mühi . Wall of Art shines in situations where you just need to fill some wall space with a beautiful piece of work.

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Astronaut Wall Art (Set of 2)

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Haus and Hues Modern Abstract Wall Art Prints

Similarly, Amazon has all kinds of affordable art. Whatever your vibe, you can find something to suit it—whether it's retro pop art, anime posters, nature photography, or acrylic art. You can even find reproductions of the world’s most famous art, including Vincent van Gogh’s Starry Night.

38. Urban Outfitters

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Kira Cyan Present Time Art Print

Urban Outfitters

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Tarot Tapestry

Part of why we love Urban Outfitters is for their modern yet groovy style—so it makes sense that approach would bleed into the art they feature. Their prints and wall hangings feel fresh and cool, and will add just the right amount of distinct character to your room.

39. Opposite Wall

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Collage No. 2, Poster

Opposite Wall

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No Wi-Fi, Poster

You may have to dig past a few coffee enthusiast prints and run-of-the-mill line drawings, but there are some abstract gems in the mix at Opposite Wall. The subjects hit a wide range: fashion shoot outtakes, city maps, geometric patterns, font spotlights, and much more.

40. Uprise Art

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Untitled, (verre) William Luz

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Nine Women Work by Dana Bell

With a wide variety of original artworks available to purchase across a diverse set of mediums, Uprise Art is easily one of your best options to begin investing in your art collection. While some of the pieces can get pricy, the site has sections of curations available at under $800 or under $350. Uprise also offers art consultations and payments in monthly installments to make the artwork more accessible.

41. MoMA Design Store

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Klimt: The Sunflower Framed Print

MoMa Design Store

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Agapanthus Matted Print by Claude Monet

If you’re looking for high quality reproductions of some of the world’s best art, you’ll find it in the Museum of Modern Art’s Design Store. Its thoughtfully curated shop has a little bit of everything, including works of impressionism, pop art, and vintage posters.

42. Paper Collective

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Flora by Berenice Hernandez

Paper Collective

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Serious Dreamer by Loulou Avenue

Copenhagen-based e-tailer Paper Collective sells artworks with a mission. The company collaborates with artists, designers, and illustrators to create prints, posters, cards, and accessories that are certified eco-friendly with a seal from the Danish government. On top of that, a portion of the sale proceeds for each work goes to a charity of the artist’s choosing.

43. BR Home

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Dimitri Staszewski Yellowstone Bison 1

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Paper Mache Wall Art 3

If you’re after fine art photography or abstract textural pieces, BR Home’s black-and-white offerings may catch your eye. The curation is broken into a few categories: wildlife; landscapes and seascapes; architecture, objects, and figures; and geometric and 3-dimensional art. Fans of National Geographic will be super into this option.

44. Scout Design Studio

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Petite Cassette Tape

Scout Design Studio

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Cardboard Mona Lisa

The “in stock wall art” section of Scout Design Studio is a fun place to look if you don’t really know what you’re looking for. From prints featuring everyday things—like fish—to Slim Aarons pieces, it’s a total grab bag (in the best way).

45. Walker Noble

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Banff (Lake Moraine)

Walker Noble

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Monument Valley

Walker Noble Studios

Walker Noble is a design studio that has a robust collection of lush landscapes and desert-inspired art. The Saguaro Palm Springs commissioned Walker Noble to create custom pieces for its hotel, a fitting choice. In addition to desert art, Walker Noble also specializes in abstract and landscape art, as well as minimalist line drawings and nature-themed children’s art.

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The Signal Study by Flora Kirk

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Pals, Spain by Suzy Spooner

Inprnt features a carefully curated collection of artists. Its unique collections include everything from fine art and photo prints to graphic art and metal prints. It also offer illustrations, like this beautiful watercolor by Seattle-based artist Suzy Spooner . Inprnt prides itself on using top-of-the-line and gallery-quality materials, ensuring that the artwork will last a lifetime and never degrade over time.

47. National Park Posters

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Channel Islands National Park

National Park Posters

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Yosemite National Park Poster Print

As the name suggests, this online art store specializes in cool art prints that pay homage to national parks around the United States. Each poster features a vintage-style design, and is made with 100% recycled stock paper using soy-based inks. All the prints are available as both posters and canvas prints, not to mention postcards and stickers.

48. Nordic Peace

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Nature's Heart

Nordic Peace

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Vintage Matisse Still Life

Nordic Peace offers a limited collection of minimalist art prints, reproductions, and curated gallery wall sets. Its collection includes graphic art, photography, and word art. In addition to wall art, Nordic Peace also offers a variety of creative, artistic home decor (vases, trays, mirrors, and rugs), and accessories (including phone cases, jewelry, and slippers).

49. Chop Suey Club

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Peking Opera Performer, 2009-2019

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Luminous Eye by Fung Cheung

Chop Suey Club is a treasure trove of contemporary Chinese design. In addition to art, CSC sells books, tableware, incense, jewelry, accessories, and clothing—all with an eye towards promoting Chinese culture. If you want to visit CSC at its physical location, you can find the lifestyle boutique in New York’s Lower East Side.

50. Guilty By Association

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Dancing with Life

Guilty by Association

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Sue Huang & Jonah King R001

Guilty By Association is definitely one of the more expensive retailers on this list, with some pieces priced as high as $8,000. But there are a few pieces you can score for under $1,000 if you’re looking for a big splurge that doesn’t feel incredibly out of this world. It’s certainly a retailer ideal for those looking to invest in artwork they want to keep forever and ever, and—with Guilty By Association—you’re able to support work that encourages and empowers more inclusivity in art.

What should you consider when investing in art?

The first thing you should do is determine what your budget is, of course, and then decide what size art you’re looking for. Rooms with low ceiling heights can benefit from a large-format print that takes up a ton of space—it really makes a statement. Maybe a gallery wall is more your speed. This option allows you to mix and match art styles: photos, paintings, prints, and multimedia art. Throw in a photo print of your own and you have something completely unique to your space.

Another thing to keep in mind is your framing strategy. Some of the above online art stores offer matching frames with added costs, or frames that perfectly fit the size of art you’re about to purchase. You can also go rogue and check out your local thrift store for a one-of-a-kind art piece. The frame can be just as much a part of the art as, well, the art itself.

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What is a Home Abstract?

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A home's title is composed of a chain or collection of ownership documents, such as older deeds and land surveys, that trace its ownership history. The deed and title serve as proof of ownership. A home's deed is usually a single document. The documents that comprise a property's title, however, can make examining ownership difficult. You can generate a title abstract by referencing a home's title chain.

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Uses for Title Abstracts

A home abstract is also known as an "abstract of title" or "title abstract." Title deeds, mortgage notes, property tax records, property liens and land surveys may comprise a title chain. Together, these legal documents make up the home's title. A title abstract itself serves several practical purposes. As a buyer, you can use a title abstract to discover liens and undisclosed owners of a home you want to purchase

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Finding Unknown Liens

When you use a mortgage to buy a home, the lender requires a title search and reviews the title abstract before approving your loan. Title searches sometimes reveal potential problems, such as old, unpaid liens, which hinder the transfer of a clean title to the buyer. Liens on a home's title are encumbrances or "clouds." Clouds become the responsibility of the new owner, unless paid off, or cleared, before the sale is complete. An abstract lists the liens on a home's title.

Competing Ownership Claims

A home accumulates many title documents over time. Public documents that make up a home's title also may reveal competing ownership claims. A deed that grants ownership to the owner-of-record, or seller, for example, may compete with a previous quitclaim deed that transferred title to a different owner. Title abstracts list competing ownership claims, although some deeds may go unrecorded or become lost. If unrecorded, the title abstract may not fully disclose all ownership details.

Researching Title

The county recorder or county land office generally maintains the property records that make up your home's title. A home's title is also public record, which anyone can research. Real estate investors frequently conduct their own title searches and prepare title abstracts. Mortgage companies and homebuyers usually hire title companies to search titles and produce the abstract.

Title Insurance for Protection

Title abstracts aren't perfect, therefore, title insurance helps protect your home's title against competing ownership claims. As a homebuyer with financing, mortgage lenders require you to purchase owners title insurance. Owners title insurance covers you as long your or your heirs own the home. You also have to purchase a lender's title insurance policy with the lender as beneficiary. You or the seller may pay the one-time policy premium at closing.

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

What this handout is about

This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Finally, it includes a few examples of abstracts broken down into their component parts.

What is an abstract?

An abstract is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline. An abstract of a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An abstract of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.

Why write an abstract?

You may write an abstract for various reasons. The two most important are selection and indexing. Abstracts allow readers who may be interested in a longer work to quickly decide whether it is worth their time to read it. Also, many online databases use abstracts to index larger works. Therefore, abstracts should contain keywords and phrases that allow for easy searching.

Say you are beginning a research project on how Brazilian newspapers helped Brazil’s ultra-liberal president Luiz Ignácio da Silva wrest power from the traditional, conservative power base. A good first place to start your research is to search Dissertation Abstracts International for all dissertations that deal with the interaction between newspapers and politics. “Newspapers and politics” returned 569 hits. A more selective search of “newspapers and Brazil” returned 22 hits. That is still a fair number of dissertations. Titles can sometimes help winnow the field, but many titles are not very descriptive. For example, one dissertation is titled “Rhetoric and Riot in Rio de Janeiro.” It is unclear from the title what this dissertation has to do with newspapers in Brazil. One option would be to download or order the entire dissertation on the chance that it might speak specifically to the topic. A better option is to read the abstract. In this case, the abstract reveals the main focus of the dissertation:

This dissertation examines the role of newspaper editors in the political turmoil and strife that characterized late First Empire Rio de Janeiro (1827-1831). Newspaper editors and their journals helped change the political culture of late First Empire Rio de Janeiro by involving the people in the discussion of state. This change in political culture is apparent in Emperor Pedro I’s gradual loss of control over the mechanisms of power. As the newspapers became more numerous and powerful, the Emperor lost his legitimacy in the eyes of the people. To explore the role of the newspapers in the political events of the late First Empire, this dissertation analyzes all available newspapers published in Rio de Janeiro from 1827 to 1831. Newspapers and their editors were leading forces in the effort to remove power from the hands of the ruling elite and place it under the control of the people. In the process, newspapers helped change how politics operated in the constitutional monarchy of Brazil.

From this abstract you now know that although the dissertation has nothing to do with modern Brazilian politics, it does cover the role of newspapers in changing traditional mechanisms of power. After reading the abstract, you can make an informed judgment about whether the dissertation would be worthwhile to read.

Besides selection, the other main purpose of the abstract is for indexing. Most article databases in the online catalog of the library enable you to search abstracts. This allows for quick retrieval by users and limits the extraneous items recalled by a “full-text” search. However, for an abstract to be useful in an online retrieval system, it must incorporate the key terms that a potential researcher would use to search. For example, if you search Dissertation Abstracts International using the keywords “France” “revolution” and “politics,” the search engine would search through all the abstracts in the database that included those three words. Without an abstract, the search engine would be forced to search titles, which, as we have seen, may not be fruitful, or else search the full text. It’s likely that a lot more than 60 dissertations have been written with those three words somewhere in the body of the entire work. By incorporating keywords into the abstract, the author emphasizes the central topics of the work and gives prospective readers enough information to make an informed judgment about the applicability of the work.

When do people write abstracts?

  • when submitting articles to journals, especially online journals
  • when applying for research grants
  • when writing a book proposal
  • when completing the Ph.D. dissertation or M.A. thesis
  • when writing a proposal for a conference paper
  • when writing a proposal for a book chapter

Most often, the author of the entire work (or prospective work) writes the abstract. However, there are professional abstracting services that hire writers to draft abstracts of other people’s work. In a work with multiple authors, the first author usually writes the abstract. Undergraduates are sometimes asked to draft abstracts of books/articles for classmates who have not read the larger work.

Types of abstracts

There are two types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. They have different aims, so as a consequence they have different components and styles. There is also a third type called critical, but it is rarely used. If you want to find out more about writing a critique or a review of a work, see the UNC Writing Center handout on writing a literature review . If you are unsure which type of abstract you should write, ask your instructor (if the abstract is for a class) or read other abstracts in your field or in the journal where you are submitting your article.

Descriptive abstracts

A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract describes the work being abstracted. Some people consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short—100 words or less.

Informative abstracts

The majority of abstracts are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the writer presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the complete article/paper/book. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract (purpose, methods, scope) but also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is rarely more than 10% of the length of the entire work. In the case of a longer work, it may be much less.

Here are examples of a descriptive and an informative abstract of this handout on abstracts . Descriptive abstract:

The two most common abstract types—descriptive and informative—are described and examples of each are provided.

Informative abstract:

Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. The purpose of an abstract is to provide prospective readers the opportunity to judge the relevance of the longer work to their projects. Abstracts also include the key terms found in the longer work and the purpose and methods of the research. Authors abstract various longer works, including book proposals, dissertations, and online journal articles. There are two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. A descriptive abstract briefly describes the longer work, while an informative abstract presents all the main arguments and important results. This handout provides examples of various types of abstracts and instructions on how to construct one.

Which type should I use?

Your best bet in this case is to ask your instructor or refer to the instructions provided by the publisher. You can also make a guess based on the length allowed; i.e., 100-120 words = descriptive; 250+ words = informative.

How do I write an abstract?

The format of your abstract will depend on the work being abstracted. An abstract of a scientific research paper will contain elements not found in an abstract of a literature article, and vice versa. However, all abstracts share several mandatory components, and there are also some optional parts that you can decide to include or not. When preparing to draft your abstract, keep the following key process elements in mind:

  • Reason for writing: What is the importance of the research? Why would a reader be interested in the larger work?
  • Problem: What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project? What is the main argument/thesis/claim?
  • Methodology: An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in the research.
  • Results: Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more general way.
  • Implications: What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?

(This list of elements is adapted with permission from Philip Koopman, “How to Write an Abstract.” )

All abstracts include:

  • A full citation of the source, preceding the abstract.
  • The most important information first.
  • The same type and style of language found in the original, including technical language.
  • Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work.
  • Clear, concise, and powerful language.

Abstracts may include:

  • The thesis of the work, usually in the first sentence.
  • Background information that places the work in the larger body of literature.
  • The same chronological structure as the original work.

How not to write an abstract:

  • Do not refer extensively to other works.
  • Do not add information not contained in the original work.
  • Do not define terms.

If you are abstracting your own writing

When abstracting your own work, it may be difficult to condense a piece of writing that you have agonized over for weeks (or months, or even years) into a 250-word statement. There are some tricks that you could use to make it easier, however.

Reverse outlining:

This technique is commonly used when you are having trouble organizing your own writing. The process involves writing down the main idea of each paragraph on a separate piece of paper– see our short video . For the purposes of writing an abstract, try grouping the main ideas of each section of the paper into a single sentence. Practice grouping ideas using webbing or color coding .

For a scientific paper, you may have sections titled Purpose, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Each one of these sections will be longer than one paragraph, but each is grouped around a central idea. Use reverse outlining to discover the central idea in each section and then distill these ideas into one statement.

Cut and paste:

To create a first draft of an abstract of your own work, you can read through the entire paper and cut and paste sentences that capture key passages. This technique is useful for social science research with findings that cannot be encapsulated by neat numbers or concrete results. A well-written humanities draft will have a clear and direct thesis statement and informative topic sentences for paragraphs or sections. Isolate these sentences in a separate document and work on revising them into a unified paragraph.

If you are abstracting someone else’s writing

When abstracting something you have not written, you cannot summarize key ideas just by cutting and pasting. Instead, you must determine what a prospective reader would want to know about the work. There are a few techniques that will help you in this process:

Identify key terms:

Search through the entire document for key terms that identify the purpose, scope, and methods of the work. Pay close attention to the Introduction (or Purpose) and the Conclusion (or Discussion). These sections should contain all the main ideas and key terms in the paper. When writing the abstract, be sure to incorporate the key terms.

Highlight key phrases and sentences:

Instead of cutting and pasting the actual words, try highlighting sentences or phrases that appear to be central to the work. Then, in a separate document, rewrite the sentences and phrases in your own words.

Don’t look back:

After reading the entire work, put it aside and write a paragraph about the work without referring to it. In the first draft, you may not remember all the key terms or the results, but you will remember what the main point of the work was. Remember not to include any information you did not get from the work being abstracted.

Revise, revise, revise

No matter what type of abstract you are writing, or whether you are abstracting your own work or someone else’s, the most important step in writing an abstract is to revise early and often. When revising, delete all extraneous words and incorporate meaningful and powerful words. The idea is to be as clear and complete as possible in the shortest possible amount of space. The Word Count feature of Microsoft Word can help you keep track of how long your abstract is and help you hit your target length.

Example 1: Humanities abstract

Kenneth Tait Andrews, “‘Freedom is a constant struggle’: The dynamics and consequences of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1984” Ph.D. State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1997 DAI-A 59/02, p. 620, Aug 1998

This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so. The time period studied includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies. Data have been collected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports. This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi.

Now let’s break down this abstract into its component parts to see how the author has distilled his entire dissertation into a ~200 word abstract.

What the dissertation does This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so.

How the dissertation does it The time period studied in this dissertation includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies.

What materials are used Data have been collected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports.

Conclusion This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to movement demands and the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi.

Keywords social movements Civil Rights Movement Mississippi voting rights desegregation

Example 2: Science Abstract

Luis Lehner, “Gravitational radiation from black hole spacetimes” Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh, 1998 DAI-B 59/06, p. 2797, Dec 1998

The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search for and analysis of detected signals. The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm. This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.

This science abstract covers much of the same ground as the humanities one, but it asks slightly different questions.

Why do this study The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search and analysis of the detected signals.

What the study does The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm.

Results This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.

Keywords gravitational radiation (GR) spacetimes black holes

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Belcher, Wendy Laura. 2009. Writing Your Journal Article in Twelve Weeks: A Guide to Academic Publishing Success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.

Koopman, Philip. 1997. “How to Write an Abstract.” Carnegie Mellon University. October 1997. http://users.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/essays/abstract.html .

Lancaster, F.W. 2003. Indexing And Abstracting in Theory and Practice , 3rd ed. London: Facet Publishing.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Bensonhurst Cyclist Killed in Collision With Out-of-Control Elderly Driver

March 22, 2012 brooklyn eagle staff.

By Eli MacKinnon

BENSONHURST — A 62-year-old Bensonhurst cyclist is dead after being struck Wednesday by an 81-year-old driver who was speeding away from a collision with a school bus, police told the Eagle.

Guy Saladino, 81, rear-ended a school bus while heading south on 18th Avenue near 71st Street in a black Mercedes-Benz Wednesday afternoon, according to police. He then accelerated and continued south on 18th Avenue in an apparent attempt to flee the accident, slamming into the 62-year-old cyclist at 18th Avenue and 73rd Street at around 4:25 p.m.

After hitting the cyclist, who was thrown onto the windshield of a parked car before landing on the sidewalk according to the Daily News , Saladino reportedly attempted to continue his flight down 18th Avenue, coming to a stop only when he careened into a parked Range Rover.

Brooklyn Today: Daily Top News in Brooklyn Bluedot Living Brooklyn: Simple, Smart, Sustainable Stories Good Food Brooklyn: Weekly Food Reporting Daily Bulletin: Daily Legal News BKLYN Live: Weekly Arts and Culture Updates Brooklyn Space: Weekly Real Estate News

The 62-year-old victim was rushed to Maimonides Medical Center, where he died, according to police.

Saladino, who is the owner of Continental Shoes at 6210 18th Ave. in Bensonhurst, was taken to the hopsital and is in stable condition, according to police. He was arrested Wednesday night and charged with manslaughter, reckless endangerment in the second degree and numerous traffic violations.

A police source who spoke to the Eagle could not verify whether there were children in the school bus that was rear-ended, but there were no reported injuries related to the alleged hit-and-run except for those sustained by the deceased cyclist.  

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Milestones: February 27, 2024

The NRA and its executives were ordered to pay millions of dollars in fines after being found guilty of financial fraud after a jury trial wrapped up on Friday. Seen here, NRA executive Wayne La Pierre leaves State Supreme Court in Manhattan.Photo: Frank Franklin II/AP

NRA exposed as corrupt under LaPierre, ordered to pay millions in damages

The Kings County Courts Black History Month Committee hosted a Talent Show on Valentine’s Day in the state Supreme Court, where court employees got to show off a bit of their personalities. Pictured from left to right: Suzanne Neysmith, associate court clerk; Nicole B. Smith, court clerk specialist and co-chair, Subcommittee for Valentine’s Day Program; and Leah Richardson, systems engineer and co-chair of the Kings County Courts Black History Month Committee.Photos: Kimberly Castro-Oliver/Brooklyn Eagle

Courthouse talent and Black creativity on display during Valentine’s Day BHM event

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Free Abstract Generator

Make an abstract for your paper in 4 steps:

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An abstract is a brief summary of a work. Usually, it's a single paragraph containing 150 to 250 words. It describes all the key points and elements of an article, essay, or work of any other format.

Keep in mind that an abstract merely describes a text. It shouldn’t be an evaluation or an attempt to defend the paper. Instead, it’s just an overview.

Structure of an Abstract

An abstract is not a simple summary. It has a specific structure and should contain the following elements:

Remember that an abstract is separate from the rest of the paper. For the reader to get the complete picture of your research, your abstract must include everything listed above.

✍️ How to Write an Abstract

It can be tempting to go and write an abstract right away. But make sure to finish the planning of your work first. You want to write your abstract about your piece's contents, not build the contents around your abstract.

To make the writing process easier, divide it into 5 manageable steps:

  • Check the requirements. First off, you need to know how much you are allowed to write. An average abstract is about 150-250 words long, but there is often a strict limit. Make sure to stay within it!
  • Establish the goal and the problems of the research. The reader needs to know what your paper will be about right from the get-go. That’s why you need to formulate your thesis and showcase it first.
  • Establish the methods. Tell the reader how you did your research. Don’t go in too deep: simply describe the methods without unnecessary details.
  • Describe the results. Write a couple of sentences about the outcome of your investigation.
  • Write a conclusion. Address the issue you established in the second step. You might also want to mention your work’s limitations regarding your research samples or methods. Try to give the reader a clear understanding of your goal and how you achieved it.

Want to make the process even easier? Use our abstract tool! Online generators like ours will help you craft an excellent paragraph in a matter of seconds.

Abstract Writing Tips

Finally, we want to help you make your abstract truly amazing. Check out our best tips below:

  • It's best to get to the point immediately and without adding any filler or unnecessary details.
  • The less specific your abstract is, the better.
  • Check out some examples before you start writing. Sometimes the best way to learn something is to watch how everyone else does it.
  • Avoid long sentences or bizarre vocabulary to make an abstract paragraph as concise as possible.
  • It’s a great idea to single out some keywords from your outline and put them into your abstract.
  • Don't forget about formatting. Any serious academic work has its requirements. Make sure you check them before writing your piece.

Following these simple tips will make you a master of abstract writing.

✨ Free Abstract Sample

As an example, check out this abstract of the article “Bioeffcacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito” by Sarita Kumar:

The Mentha balsamea, or peppermint plant, is a result of cross-breeding between spearmint and water mint. These plants are most commonly used in the area of repelling insects. The following research revolves around peppermint oil insect repellent and its development. As a part of an experiment, we obtained 25 grams of fresh peppermint and, after grinding it, put it in a glass jar with olive oil. The jar was then left for two days in a warm temperate. Next, the oil was strained with a cheesecloth, gathered, and diluted at 70%. It then got separated into three different spray bottles. The test was to put the spray sample into a jar with mosquitoes and equate the result to the same test with a commercial repellant. Thus, we challenged the stereotype of synthetic repellents being more efficient than their analogs made from natural materials.

That will be the end of our guide on abstract writing. Thank you for reading, and make sure to try out our abstract writer tool to get the best results!

❓ Abstract Generator FAQ

❓ how do you write an abstract for a research paper.

You may use an abstract tool and make the writing process entirely automatic. If you can’t use it, write an abstract yourself by describing the following:

  • The main problem.
  • Background information.
  • The end goal.
  • Description of methods you used.
  • The results of the research.

❓ What are the 5 parts of an abstract?

Parts of an abstract depend on the contents and limitations of your research. The 5 main elements are:

  • The introduction
  • Research significance
  • Method description

❓ What makes a good abstract in a research paper?

A good abstract is one that:

  • Meets all the requirements.
  • Establishes the problem and main issues of the research.
  • Describes the methods you used during the analysis.
  • Showcases results of the study.
  • Provides a clear conclusion.

❓ How long should my abstract be?

An average abstract is about 150-250 words long. You may often get strict limits that can go above or beyond these numbers. Your supervisor should provide the exact requirements for abstract length. So, make sure to double-check them.

  • Writing an Abstract: George Mason University
  • Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper: University of Wisconsin - Madison
  • Writing an Abstract: Australian National University
  • The Abstract: The University of Toronto

Free Abstract Generator for Research Papers

  • 🚀 Meet Our Abstract Generator

📃 What Is an Abstract?

  • ✍️ How to Write an Abstract
  • 🫣 7 Mistakes You Should Avoid

🔗 References

🚀 meet our abstract generator for research papers.

The abstract provides a brief overview of the research assignment. So, this part gives a general assessment of the work and encourages the reader to explore it further. Almost every student dealt with the difficult task of condensing their research results into several hundred words. But that’s not a problem anymore!

We used artificial intelligence to make a tool that will make your academic life more enjoyable . You can get an excellent example of an abstract specifically for your research paper in minutes. To do this, you need to specify the reason for the research, the problems, and the goals. Also, we recommend mentioning the methodology and your findings to ensure the outcome is accurate. After that, the AI abstract maker will do the rest for you!

Key Reasons to Use Our Online Abstract Generator

Students juggle various assignments and obligations. Research papers are among the most challenging tasks they have to complete. What makes them so difficult is the sheer volume of information and study involved. Dealing with large amounts of material often leaves students drained and incapable of summarizing their work correctly.

Our abstract generator for research papers makes this process more straightforward thanks to several factors:

Abstracts provide short summaries of larger works, including research papers and dissertations. Readers scan them to decide whether or not they wish to continue reading the rest of the paper. In about 150–200 words, you should state the problem and provide the research goal, results, implications, and used methods.

One should write research abstracts only after the rest of the work is ironed out and ready. While this part of research may seem insignificant, students should take the time to write the abstract well. Doing so lets them identify any flaws in the research methodology and results.

Types of Research Paper Abstracts

Many students believe that abstracts come only in one type. In reality, there are several versions of summaries used in academic circles.

  • Critical Abstract . These are the most extensive abstracts, at around 450 words. Unlike other entries on this list, they encourage deep analysis: for example, a discussion about the validity or reliability of their studies. It’s mostly used in social science research .
  • Descriptive Abstract . This format is quite similar to informative abstracts but much shorter. On average, this type is only 100 words long and covers the main focus of the studies. Descriptive summaries offer no conclusions or recommendations for further research.
  • Highlight Abstract . Students rarely get to use this type, as its primary goal is to get the reader’s attention. Highlight abstracts don’t helpfully summarize papers . Instead, they concentrate on the unique parts of the research, such as its results and conclusions.
  • Informative Abstract . This is the most common type used by researchers and writers. It provides primary information about research concepts, methodology, findings, and recommendations. Sometimes, informative research abstracts have keywords listed at the bottom, but this practice is mainly reserved for professional publications.

✍️ How to Write an Abstract in 5 Steps

Despite the incredible versatility of our abstract generator, it’s still important to learn how to make abstracts on your own. We’ve dedicated this part of the guide to the five steps of writing these summaries. So, these instructions will help you create an abstract for any academic paper.

  • Write the paper . To create an abstract, you first need a research paper. Create an outline of the study detailing the problem and methods you’ll use to address it. Explain the research methodology, state what information can be extracted from it, and show how the findings apply to the overall field of study.
  • Review paper requirements . Once you’re done with the draft, review the criteria provided by the educational institution. Use the supporting documents with instructions, as they can clarify the requirements for the work's style, formatting, and length. Different disciplines require specific styles, so read this information carefully.
  • Consider the audience . When working on an abstract, it’s crucial to identify who will be reading it afterward. For example, students often adjust their language to reach the general public and not only their respective professors.
  • Write the abstract . Now, write the abstract based on the provided requirements. Use the body of the research to summarize the problem, explain the methods used in the paper , and show what their results were. Finish the summary by telling why your findings are valuable to the study field and what can be done in further research.
  • Iron it out . Like with all writing pieces, it's essential to review the abstract and check if it has all the necessary components. The text should be easy to follow, cover all points, and be informative. As the abstract creates the first impression, make it a good one.

Abstract Formats: MLA & APA Styles

Abstract types aren’t the only things students should look out for. In academic settings, several formatting styles detail how the text should look on paper. The majority of US colleges use two popular methods: MLA and APA . Here, we discuss how abstracts look in each of them.

🫣 7 Mistakes You Should Avoid When Writing an Abstract

Writing abstracts is a pretty straightforward process. But it doesn’t mean that everybody is immune from making mistakes, especially after spending days toiling away on a research paper.

There are seven common errors everybody should check before submitting an abstract.

  • Making it too long . A summary should concisely describe the whole paper. Avoid repetition and details that have little to do with the research.
  • Using chopped-up sentences . Ensure that your paper contains only complete sentences. It makes the work more professional and easier to comprehend.
  • Adding too much technical jargon . Keep things simple so that anyone reading the abstract understands what it’s about. It will also make more people check out your paper.
  • Not correcting the text . Sometimes, students want to finish a work without editing it too much. Take the time and comb the document for errors and factual mistakes.
  • Failing to explain the significance of the research . The first couple of sentences should give readers a clear understanding of why the study is essential.
  • Using the wrong tense . It’s recommended that abstracts be written in the past tense. Some academic institutions won’t accept papers with improperly written abstracts.
  • Too many adjectives and hyperboles . You aren’t writing a 19th-century novel but an academic paper. The work should reflect that, so avoid using too many literary devices .

We hope you’ve found this article interesting and helpful in your academic pursuits. We also suggest taking a look at our guide for creating an excellent research paper . If you have any more questions about the art of writing abstracts, check out the FAQ section below.

❓ Research Abstract Generator – FAQ

  • It’s written for the right audience.
  • It's in the past tense and third person.
  • Stands alone on the page.
  • Has keywords and critical references.
  • Reason for writing it and the importance of the research.
  • Problematics the work attempts to solve.
  • Methodology behind the study.
  • Results backed by specific data.
  • Practical and theoretical applications of the findings.
  • What Exactly is an Abstract? – Regents of the University of Michigan
  • Abstract and Keywords Guide. – American Psychological Association
  • Writing an Abstract. – The University of Melbourne
  • Six Steps to Write an Abstract. – The University of Alabama
  • How To Write an Abstract in 7 Steps (With an Example). – Indeed
  • MLA Formatting: How Do I Do: An Abstract. – Warner Pacific University Library
  • Abstracts. – The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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This article offers an excellent generator for students to craft compelling abstracts. Also, you can explore our guide and tips on writing an abstract for research papers. Learn how to streamline the abstract-writing process and ensure your work gets the attention it deserves.

Research Paper Abstract Generator

Writing the abstract for your research paper, dissertation, or book chapter is usually one of the final steps before you submit your work. It’s also the activity that many students and researchers find most difficult. A strong abstract must be clear, succinct and informative, but how do you decide what to include?

Structuring your abstract

Many journals require the abstract to be structured according to

whereas the abstract for your dissertation or chapter may just be a short narrative paragraph. Either way, the abstract should contain key information from the study and be easy to read. Creating an abstract is as much an art as a science.

Happily, Scholarcy can help by identifying exactly the right information to include in your abstract.

Abstract in numbers

4 steps to generate an abstract with scholarcy.

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Upload your article

Simply upload your article to Scholarcy Library to generate a summary flashcard that outlines your research and contains the information needed to create your abstract.

View Scholarcy Highlights

The Scholarcy Highlights tab contains 5-7 bullet points comprising the background to the study, the key findings, and the conclusion.

View Scholarcy Summary

If your paper contains standard IMRaD sections, then the Scholarcy Summary will automatically be structured to follow these headings and will include any study objectives that you have written.

And the Study subjects and participants tab extracts key information about study participants, interventions, and quantitative results. Perfect for your abstract!

Try Smart Synopsis

Alternatively, for your dissertation or book chapter, you can use our Smart Synopses tool to create a more naturally flowing, narrative abstract.

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FAQs about Using AI Abstract Generator

What is an abstract.

An abstract is a concise summary that provides an overview of the main points or key elements of a document, research paper, or article.

What makes a good abstract in a research paper?

A good abstract in a research paper should effectively convey the study's purpose, methodology, results, and conclusion concisely and clearly. It should provide a quick overview of the essential information.

Can ChatGPT create abstracts for documents?

ChatGPT can assist in creating abstracts for documents by summarizing text-based content. However, it has a character limit, and for longer documents, it's recommended to use specialized AI tools designed for document summarization.

Is there a free online AI tool that generates abstracts for articles?

Yes, there are free online AI tools that generate abstracts for articles. HiPDF's AI Abstract Generator is one such tool that allows users to create abstracts for articles and other written materials.

What is the best AI abstract generator?

Determining the best AI abstract generator depends on specific needs and preferences. HiPDF's AI Abstract Generator, ChatGPT, and other tools like Sharly AI are among the popular choices, each with unique features.

Is there an AI abstract generator that can craft abstracts for scanned PDFs?

Certainly! For effective abstract generation from scanned PDFs, consider tools equipped with OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and summarization capabilities. PDFelement is a reliable option, utilizing OCR to extract text from scanned documents accurately and then using AI to analyze the PDF for abstract generation. This ensures precise and meaningful abstracts from your scanned PDFs.

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  • How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples

How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples

Published on February 28, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 18, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

How to Write an Abstract

An abstract is a short summary of a longer work (such as a thesis ,  dissertation or research paper ). The abstract concisely reports the aims and outcomes of your research, so that readers know exactly what your paper is about.

Although the structure may vary slightly depending on your discipline, your abstract should describe the purpose of your work, the methods you’ve used, and the conclusions you’ve drawn.

One common way to structure your abstract is to use the IMRaD structure. This stands for:

  • Introduction

Abstracts are usually around 100–300 words, but there’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check the relevant requirements.

In a dissertation or thesis , include the abstract on a separate page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

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Table of contents

Abstract example, when to write an abstract, step 1: introduction, step 2: methods, step 3: results, step 4: discussion, tips for writing an abstract, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about abstracts.

Hover over the different parts of the abstract to see how it is constructed.

This paper examines the role of silent movies as a mode of shared experience in the US during the early twentieth century. At this time, high immigration rates resulted in a significant percentage of non-English-speaking citizens. These immigrants faced numerous economic and social obstacles, including exclusion from public entertainment and modes of discourse (newspapers, theater, radio).

Incorporating evidence from reviews, personal correspondence, and diaries, this study demonstrates that silent films were an affordable and inclusive source of entertainment. It argues for the accessible economic and representational nature of early cinema. These concerns are particularly evident in the low price of admission and in the democratic nature of the actors’ exaggerated gestures, which allowed the plots and action to be easily grasped by a diverse audience despite language barriers.

Keywords: silent movies, immigration, public discourse, entertainment, early cinema, language barriers.

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

  • Academic style
  • Vague sentences
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See an example

home abstract online

You will almost always have to include an abstract when:

  • Completing a thesis or dissertation
  • Submitting a research paper to an academic journal
  • Writing a book or research proposal
  • Applying for research grants

It’s easiest to write your abstract last, right before the proofreading stage, because it’s a summary of the work you’ve already done. Your abstract should:

  • Be a self-contained text, not an excerpt from your paper
  • Be fully understandable on its own
  • Reflect the structure of your larger work

Start by clearly defining the purpose of your research. What practical or theoretical problem does the research respond to, or what research question did you aim to answer?

You can include some brief context on the social or academic relevance of your dissertation topic , but don’t go into detailed background information. If your abstract uses specialized terms that would be unfamiliar to the average academic reader or that have various different meanings, give a concise definition.

After identifying the problem, state the objective of your research. Use verbs like “investigate,” “test,” “analyze,” or “evaluate” to describe exactly what you set out to do.

This part of the abstract can be written in the present or past simple tense  but should never refer to the future, as the research is already complete.

  • This study will investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • This study investigates the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.

Next, indicate the research methods that you used to answer your question. This part should be a straightforward description of what you did in one or two sentences. It is usually written in the past simple tense, as it refers to completed actions.

  • Structured interviews will be conducted with 25 participants.
  • Structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants.

Don’t evaluate validity or obstacles here — the goal is not to give an account of the methodology’s strengths and weaknesses, but to give the reader a quick insight into the overall approach and procedures you used.

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Next, summarize the main research results . This part of the abstract can be in the present or past simple tense.

  • Our analysis has shown a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • Our analysis shows a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • Our analysis showed a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.

Depending on how long and complex your research is, you may not be able to include all results here. Try to highlight only the most important findings that will allow the reader to understand your conclusions.

Finally, you should discuss the main conclusions of your research : what is your answer to the problem or question? The reader should finish with a clear understanding of the central point that your research has proved or argued. Conclusions are usually written in the present simple tense.

  • We concluded that coffee consumption increases productivity.
  • We conclude that coffee consumption increases productivity.

If there are important limitations to your research (for example, related to your sample size or methods), you should mention them briefly in the abstract. This allows the reader to accurately assess the credibility and generalizability of your research.

If your aim was to solve a practical problem, your discussion might include recommendations for implementation. If relevant, you can briefly make suggestions for further research.

If your paper will be published, you might have to add a list of keywords at the end of the abstract. These keywords should reference the most important elements of the research to help potential readers find your paper during their own literature searches.

Be aware that some publication manuals, such as APA Style , have specific formatting requirements for these keywords.

It can be a real challenge to condense your whole work into just a couple of hundred words, but the abstract will be the first (and sometimes only) part that people read, so it’s important to get it right. These strategies can help you get started.

Read other abstracts

The best way to learn the conventions of writing an abstract in your discipline is to read other people’s. You probably already read lots of journal article abstracts while conducting your literature review —try using them as a framework for structure and style.

You can also find lots of dissertation abstract examples in thesis and dissertation databases .

Reverse outline

Not all abstracts will contain precisely the same elements. For longer works, you can write your abstract through a process of reverse outlining.

For each chapter or section, list keywords and draft one to two sentences that summarize the central point or argument. This will give you a framework of your abstract’s structure. Next, revise the sentences to make connections and show how the argument develops.

Write clearly and concisely

A good abstract is short but impactful, so make sure every word counts. Each sentence should clearly communicate one main point.

To keep your abstract or summary short and clear:

  • Avoid passive sentences: Passive constructions are often unnecessarily long. You can easily make them shorter and clearer by using the active voice.
  • Avoid long sentences: Substitute longer expressions for concise expressions or single words (e.g., “In order to” for “To”).
  • Avoid obscure jargon: The abstract should be understandable to readers who are not familiar with your topic.
  • Avoid repetition and filler words: Replace nouns with pronouns when possible and eliminate unnecessary words.
  • Avoid detailed descriptions: An abstract is not expected to provide detailed definitions, background information, or discussions of other scholars’ work. Instead, include this information in the body of your thesis or paper.

If you’re struggling to edit down to the required length, you can get help from expert editors with Scribbr’s professional proofreading services or use the paraphrasing tool .

Check your formatting

If you are writing a thesis or dissertation or submitting to a journal, there are often specific formatting requirements for the abstract—make sure to check the guidelines and format your work correctly. For APA research papers you can follow the APA abstract format .

Checklist: Abstract

The word count is within the required length, or a maximum of one page.

The abstract appears after the title page and acknowledgements and before the table of contents .

I have clearly stated my research problem and objectives.

I have briefly described my methodology .

I have summarized the most important results .

I have stated my main conclusions .

I have mentioned any important limitations and recommendations.

The abstract can be understood by someone without prior knowledge of the topic.

You've written a great abstract! Use the other checklists to continue improving your thesis or dissertation.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text (such as a journal article or dissertation ). It serves two main purposes:

  • To help potential readers determine the relevance of your paper for their own research.
  • To communicate your key findings to those who don’t have time to read the whole paper.

Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. Since the abstract is the first thing any reader sees, it’s important that it clearly and accurately summarizes the contents of your paper.

An abstract for a thesis or dissertation is usually around 200–300 words. There’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check your university’s requirements.

The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis , dissertation or research paper .

Avoid citing sources in your abstract . There are two reasons for this:

  • The abstract should focus on your original research, not on the work of others.
  • The abstract should be self-contained and fully understandable without reference to other sources.

There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist. In general, though, don’t include citations unless absolutely necessary.

The abstract appears on its own page in the thesis or dissertation , after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, July 18). How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 26, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/abstract/

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Revolutionize your lab work with the brand-new ai abstract generator tool, mindgrasp recently released apa abstract generator, published 1/10/2023 by mindgrasp.

Big names like Chegg, ChatGPT, and Quizlet have taken loads off of students’ backs for years. We know how painful it is watching peers breeze through their homework plugging in each question and getting neat answers and examples of work.

 Finally, researchers’ calls have been answered with an abstract summary generator. The tool for simplifying the scientific writing process is here and it’s powered by Artificial Intelligence. AI has come a long way and it’s normal to be skeptical of the new technology.  We challenge you to synthesize your next report faster than Mindgrasp’s automatic abstract maker. Using state-of-the-art tech you’re able to create an abstract by pasting long text from your APA report, other online abstracts, research sources, and notes right into the software. Doing this cuts down on the countless hours spent combing through your own lab jargon to simplify and write an abstract. If you haven’t saved hours of time on your writing, we are willing to bet you couldn’t write a better summary quicker. No more stressing over plagiarism! With an abstract generator tool, you can get completely original outputs and stay on the right side of academic integrity. The text output is written at a professional academic writing level so there are also no worries a professor wouldn’t take this abstract generator’s APA citing seriously. Try out the advanced tools of the future! In just a few moments, you can save hours of work on your next report.

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Get your abstract written – skip the headache., writefull's abstract generator gives you an abstract based on your paper's content., paste in the body of your text and click 'generate abstract' . here's an example from hindawi., frequently asked questions about the abstract generator.

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This Abstract Generator is basically a guideline for writing abstracts. We have also written an article on how to write abstracts. Go through the post and use our tools to create properly formatted abstracts. Note: An abstract should be between 100 - 250 words.

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  • Evaluation of the safety, efficacy and feasibility of ‘at-home’ capsule endoscopy
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  • Ioanna Parisi 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0009-0003-7676-7304 Angelica Vania Hosea 2 ,
  • Sandro Stoffel 2 , 3 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4228-661X Martin Nemec 2 ,
  • Sohail Badat 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6626-8462 Edward Seward 1 ,
  • Aradhna Kaushal 2 ,
  • Robert Kerrison 4 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7971-0691 Christian Von Wagner 2
  • 1 Department of Gastroenterology , University College Hospital , London , UK
  • 2 Behavioural Science and Health , University College London , London , UK
  • 3 Institute of Pharmaceutical Medicine , University of Basel , Basel , Switzerland
  • 4 School of Health Sciences , University of Surrey , Surrey , UK
  • Correspondence to Dr Christian Von Wagner, Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, UK; c.wagner{at}ucl.ac.uk

Objective The role of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in diagnosing gastrointestinal diseases has long been established. Recently, colon CE (CCE) has been suggested as an alternative to colonoscopy. CE has been traditionally conducted at endoscopy units. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, a switch was made to ‘at-home CE’ (ACE) which has continued to date. This study is an evaluation of ACE, focusing on safety, efficacy, feasibility and patient perceptions.

Methods The study evaluated the performance of ACE in 105 consecutive patients, considering procedure outcomes, completion rates, complications and patient satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess perceptions and preferences of 84 ACE patients and 43 in-hospital CE patients. ACE procedure involved preassessment calls, bowel preparation, equipment setup, virtual verbal consent, capsule ingestion, booster alerts and equipment collection. Descriptive statistics and tests of independence were used for data analysis.

Results All 105 ACE patients were able to have CE at home, with completion rates for SBCE, CCE and panenteric (Crohn’s) CE at 98.3%, 75.9% and 55.6%, respectively. Patients reported low levels of pain (94.1%), embarrassment (98.8%) and anxiety (82.1%). ACE saved time and money, as 42.9% of patients were able to avoid work absence and 52.4% avoided transportation costs. ACE patients reported high satisfaction with the overall procedure (mean=8.5, SD=1.9), and 83.3% would prefer CE again at home.

Conclusion This study demonstrates that at-home CEs are clinically effective and well received by patients, providing the opportunity to conduct the test in the comfort of patients’ homes.

  • colonoscopy
  • colorectal cancer screening
  • crohn's disease

Data availability statement

No data are available. Request for additional information about the data should be made to corresponding author.

https://doi.org/10.1136/flgastro-2023-102565

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WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS TOPIC

Small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) has been consistently used for investigation of small bowel pathology. Panenteric (Crohn’s) CE is an innovative tool for investigating both the small and large intestines.

Colonoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosing colorectal cancer, but it is invasive and resource intensive. Colon CE conducted at Endoscopy Hospital units has been reported as a non-invasive alternative to triage symptomatic patients.

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS

‘At-home CE’ (ACE) is an opportunity for entirely remote gastrointestinal diagnostics of the small and large bowel. It is a feasible procedure with no additional safety concerns than the traditional CE.

Patients were satisfied with the ACE procedure, and they perceived the ACE as more convenient and cost-effective.

HOW THIS STUDY MIGHT AFFECT RESEARCH, PRACTICE OR POLICY

Advancing the development of ACE could be greatly advantageous for increasing CE uptake, particularly in certain groups who face difficulties with conventional in-hospital investigations, such as colonoscopy.

Introduction

The role of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) and its high sensitivity in identifying small bowel pathology has well been established, and particularly in patients with Crohn’s disease, it may identify active inflammation when previous imaging tests have been normal and can result in change of management in up to half of patients. 1 Panenteric (Crohn’s) CE (PCCE) is a novel diagnostic tool, which has shown superior sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing active Crohn’s disease compared with traditional ileocolonoscopy and MR enterography. 2 Colon CE (CCE) has been proposed as a way to reduce demand for colonoscopy for symptomatic patients with a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT). 3–7 Colonoscopy is the gold-standard test for diagnosing or preventing colorectal cancer (CRC), but it has disadvantages such as invasiveness, risks of complications and resource intensity. 8–10

CE involves the patients swallowing a battery-powered capsule containing a small camera which captures images of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. 11 Throughout the procedure, patients are required to wear a belt with a data recorder 12 while continuing their daily activities as usual. CE is perceived as a more comfortable and less embarrassing procedure compared with colonoscopy. 13 Both CCE and PCCE require bowel preparation, while SBCE may or not involve laxatives. CCE/PCCE requires a longer preparation period and a booster pack of laxatives to propel the capsule. 14 CCE has shown comparable accuracy to colonoscopy for polyp detection and is a useful tool for CRC screening. 15 16 National Health Service (NHS) England has allocated funding for CCE implementation, and Scotland’s Scotcap project is evaluating its utility and economic benefits. 17

During the COVID-19 pandemic, an ‘at-home capsule endoscopy’ (ACE) was developed by University College London Hospital (UCLH), allowing patients to complete all types of different capsule endoscopies entirely remotely with virtual assistance. Pillcam SB3, Pillcam Colon2 and Pillcam Crohn’s capsules (manufactured by Medtronic) were used throughout the study.

Data were collected prospectively to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this innovative approach. Specifically, we assessed the proportion of patients who would be competent to conduct the CE entirely remotely with no need to attend the hospital on any occasion and the number of significant capsule-related adverse events (eg, capsule retention or aspiration). Furthermore, we gathered data on ACE completion and insights into patient satisfaction with the procedure as a secondary endpoint.

Materials and methods

Patients and setting.

Between March 2021 and February 2022, shielding patients or patients who avoided attending the hospital due to fear of COVID-19 were offered an ACE. Subsequently, patients within a certain distance from the hospital were routinely offered ACE with the exception of individuals (1) classified as morbidly obese (body mass index 40 or higher which would require the use of a sensor array rather than the belt); (2) lack of IT infrastructure; (3) unable to complete the test from home independently or had no relative that could assist them and (4) capsule contraindications (eg, pregnant, strictures, obstructive symptoms and swallowing difficulties). The specified distance of patients’ home from the hospital was decided on courier cost, which was agreed not to overcome £50 return. Patients who had the ACE procedure between March 2021 and June 2022 were included in this analysis, yielding a sample of 105 patients out of a total number of 387 CEs conducted in this time period. ACE was an innovation within the NHS and data were collected prospectively primarily for auditing and service improvement purposes.

ACE methodology

Patients were sent an information video which explained the procedure and demonstrated the steps for applying the equipment prior to capsule ingestion. 18 If they chose to proceed, they had a preassessment call with endoscopy staff a week before their procedure. Staff confirmed preprocedure steps and checked that the patient had received the regimen to prepare their bowel ( figure 1 ).

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Flow chart of the ACE procedure at UCLH.

Preprocedure preparation

Preparation for SBCE included fasting the day before except for a light breakfast and low-fibre diet 5 days prior to the test. Patients, who had a previously failed procedure or known slow gut transit, were instructed to take 2-L polyethylene glycol as split dose prep the evening before and morning of the procedure and one tablet of metoclopramide on capsule swallow. Patients having CCE/PCCE followed the detailed bowel prep and postcapsule ingestion regimen as shown in online supplemental material 1 . Towards the end of the trial, metoclopramide was replaced by prucalopride. The day before the procedure, a courier delivered the equipment to the patient along with a patient questionnaire.

Supplemental material

Day of the procedure.

On the day of the ACE, a scheduled video call using the ‘Attend Anywhere’ application allowed consent to be taken verbally. The signed consent form was returned along with the recording device, and instructions were given about how to attach the recorder and the belt. The patient then swallowed the capsule while on the call. Patients who had a CCE/PCCE received up to three alerts from the device to remind them about the boosters (see online supplemental material 1 ). To ensure the capsule had passed in the GI tract, the patient was asked to turn the recorder to ‘real-time viewer’ for a few minutes while the member of staff was watching on the screen. The excreted capsule was disposable in the toilet. In the event of capsule aspiration, patients would be advised to come directly to the UCLH Endoscopy department for an endoscopic capsule retrieval. The rest of the equipment was collected by a courier the next day after the procedure along with the completed questionnaire.

Outcome measures for the ACE procedure

Data covered patients’ age and gender, diagnostic modality, quality of bowel preparation, ability to perform the procedure at home, completion rates, complication rates and findings. For SBCE, completion was defined as capsule reaching the caecum before the battery ended. For CCE/PCCE, completion was defined as the capsule seen excreted via the anus. The quality of bowel preparation for the CCE/PCCE was measured using the CC-CLEAR score and for the SB3 was categorised as ‘poor-fair-good-excellent’, by a nurse and a consultant.

Both remote and hospital CE patients were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about their experience and satisfaction with the procedure. The questionnaires were given between April 2021 and June 2022, and 127 patients provided responses, comprising 84 ACE and 43 patients having CE on-site.

Most questions featured 5-point Likert response options (‘to a very small extent’ until ‘to a very large extent’), while patients’ satisfaction of the procedure was measured using a scale from 1 to 10. Patients were further asked to indicate their future most preferable investigation for their bowel. Additionally, ACE patients were asked about taking time off work for the procedure, as well as their distance from the hospital, way and cost of travel if they would have had the test on-site (see online supplemental material 2 for the full version of the questionnaire).

Sample size and data analysis

Due to the exploratory nature of the study, no formal sample size was calculated beforehand. Characteristics of the study sample were described using descriptive statistics. Due to the low frequencies in some categories, the answers to all perception questions were collapsed into two categories (‘to a very small extent’, ‘to a small extent’ and ‘somewhat’ vs ‘to a large extent’ and ‘to a very large extent’). χ 2 tests of independence and Fisher’s exact tests were used for categorical variables in the univariate analyses. Statistical significance was accepted at p≤0.05. Statistical analysis was conducted with Stata V.16.0 (StataCorp).

ACE procedure data

Sample characteristics.

Between April 2021 and June 2022, 105 ACE procedures were conducted. On average, patients were 39 years old (SD=15.2), with 56.2% being females. Approximately half of the patients had a SBCE (55.2%), followed by CCE (27.6%) and PCCE (17.1%). The majority of patients had the procedure for suspicion of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (37.1%) or for IBD reassessment (30.5%). Other indications were anaemia, positive FIT, change in bowel habit, polyp surveillance and previous GI bleed (see table 1 ).

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Demographic characteristics of study participants (N=105)

Main findings

All 105 patients (100%) successfully swallowed the capsule at home without any need for ‘at-hospital’ conversion of the procedure. One patient who had CCE visited the emergency department having abdominal pain a day postprocedure, but a CT scan was normal and the capsule had been excreted. Three patients vomited the bowel preparation. There were no complications of capsule retention or aspiration nor any other significant adverse events.

57 (98.3%) SBCE procedures were complete, as opposed to 22 (75.9%) CCE and 10 (55.6%) PCCE. The observed quality of preparation for PCCE/CCE was regarded as excellent (35.3%) and good (47.1%) with a mean CC-CLEAR score of 6.6 out of 9 (median 7.0). Failed preparation was observed among 20.7% of CCE patients, 16.7% of PCCE and 5.2% of SBCE. Almost 45% of PCCE patients had an incomplete procedure which was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with SBCE (1.7%) and CCE (24.1%).

Among 47 patients who had CCE/PCCE, the clinical question was satisfied by the results of the ACE for 78.7% of the patients, hence no further investigations were needed. Only 10 patients (21.3%) who had CCE/PCCE needed a follow-up colonoscopy.

The outcome of the ACE was normal in 43.8% of patients. Normal findings were substantially lower for PCCE (33.3%) compared with SBCE and CCE (43.1% and 51.7%, respectively). PCCE had the highest rates of inflammation (50%). The rest of pathology according to the capsule ingested is shown in detail in table 2 .

Characteristics of the procedure by diagnostic modality (N=105)

Patient-reported experience data

A total of 127 satisfaction questionnaires were completed. Of these, 84 patients (66.1%) had ACE. On average, patients were 40 years old (SD=15.9, range 15–85), with 60.6% being females. Most patients (n=108) had experience of previous GI investigation (71.7% colonoscopy, 13.4% CTC). There were no differences in age, gender and previous procedures between patients that had the procedure on-site and remotely (see online supplemental material 3 ).

Patient-reported experience and satisfaction from the ACE

The results are summarised in table 3 . Almost 95% patients reported that they received sufficient support from the hospital staff to conduct the test at home. Most were also satisfied with completing the test at home (79.8%), and they would repeat the procedure at home (83.3%).

Satisfaction and opportunity costs associated with remote procedure (N=84)

42.9% of ACE patients were able to work as normal on the day of the test, while 5 respondents (5.9%) took a half day off and 26 respondents reported (31%) taking a full day off work. Most respondents said that they would have had to take a full day off at work to do the test in the hospital (48.8%) and would have spent up to £10 or more to get to the hospital and back (52.4%). ACE patients scored the procedure as 8.5/10 (see table 4 ).

Patients reported experience and satisfaction of the procedure (N=127)

Comparison with CE at the hospital

Most responses were similar between the ACE patients and the patients on-site (see table 4 ). The rates of anxiety in ACE compared with conventional CE were numerically lower but this difference was not statistically significant (16.7% vs 25.6%, p=NS). There were low levels of pain and anxiety in both groups.

Patients were asked which type of investigation they would prefer in the future for investigation of their bowel, with particular emphasis on the lower GI tract. This was because we wanted to explore a potential preference of ACE against the usual on-site GI investigations, that is, colonoscopy. Furthermore, we were aware that 71.7% of the cohort patients had previously had the experience of a colonoscopy (see online supplemental material 3 ), making them a valid sample for comparison. Patients who had capsule remotely were more likely to choose ACE compared with any other test (61.9%). By contrast, only 27.9% of the CE patients who had the test at the hospital would choose to have CE again at the hospital, suggesting that the actual home element might provide an additional advantage.

ACE is an innovation which was originally initiated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To our knowledge, no prior study has investigated the ACE. Although NHS Scotland has launched the Scotcap project to provide CCEs remotely, this was done in community centres and district general hospitals with physical supervision from trained nursing staff, 17 as opposed to ACE which requires patients to apply the equipment independently at home.

A potential alternative home delivery system exists, Capsocam, this does not involve the use of wireless belt, antenna and recorder and the data are all stored in the capsule itself. With this system, the patient needs to collect the capsule from the toilet with the use of a magnetic ‘fishing’ wand. 19 Anecdotally, most of our patients have shown to be reluctant to use Capsocam because of the requirement to retrieve the capsule from the faeces. Moreover, this system only manufactures small bowel capsules.

All ACE patients achieved the procedure without a single individual abandoning and converting to CE on-site. They were able to independently wear the belt, pair the capsule with the recorder and swallow the capsule with staff assistance being provided only via video call. There were no safety concerns and adverse events were similar to what is expected from traditional CE. Those results suggest an opportunity for entirely remote GI diagnostics without increasing the fear or risk of complications.

Although this is not a comparator study, the quality and completion rates of the ACE procedures are similar to what is recorded in published literature for traditional CE which is conducted in hospitals. Our SBCE at-home capsules, although a small overall number, were almost 100% complete, suggesting adherence to the key performance indicators by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, where caecal visualisation should be achieved in >80% of SBCE procedures. 20 The completion rates of CCE and PCCE were also similar to the published systematic review of 12 studies, between 57% and 100%, 16 and the national NHS England CCE pilot programme. 21 Towards the end of the study, metoclopramide was replaced by prucalopride which has since led to a significant improvement in completion rates of CCE/PCCE equally at on-site and at-home procedures (although these data are not included in this paper and in this particular cohort only four patients had prucalopride). Although PCCEs were associated with a lower completion rate compared with the other capsule types (55.6% vs 75.9% for CCE, 98.3% SBCE), subsequent comparisons in our prospective cohort data have not repeated this result, and considering the cleansing protocol for both colon and pan-enteric capsules is the same, we believe this difference was incidental.

The ACE procedure was well received by patients, with a median life satisfaction score of 8.5/10 and accompanied by minimal reports of pain, embarrassment or anxiety. It seemed that patients who had ACE would prefer to have ACE in the future more compared with other GI investigations, and this preference appeared more prominent in the ACE group versus the on-site. We do, however, acknowledge that this was not a comparator study and selection bias may have affected the results, particularly within the hospital cohort. As this was an audit of a new service, ACE patients were strongly and repeatedly encouraged to fill out the satisfaction surveys, as opposed to the on-site cohort where the questionnaire completion was optional. This explains the significant difference in response rates between the two groups, highlighting the need for future prospective randomised studies to identify patients’ preferences and differentiate to what extent the remote nature of the procedure provides additional advantages compared with conventional CE.

Similarly, as the focus was mainly on ACE’s safety and feasibility, there was no comparison of procedure success or outcomes between the home and hospital groups, and this will need to be investigated further. The self-reported nature of our dataset resulted in substantial missing data for certain items. Due to the anonymity of the patient surveys, it was not possible to associate preferences with clinical or procedural factors (ie, capsule type).

ACE could prove more cost-effective as patients save money but are also able to continue work as normal (half of the cohort). The courier cost is admittedly a barrier to using this service for patients who live further away from the hospital. However, with more widespread implementation the cost per patient of running the service would be reduced.

The ACE cohort’s median age 39 years might be attributed to the common indication being Crohn’s disease, which predominantly affects younger individuals. Additionally, the preference of ACE might be more pronounced among a younger population, possibly due to older patients’ limited IT knowledge.

Implications for practice and research

The fact that ACE was feasible and safe introduces the opportunity to potentially implement CE in community centres and away from tertiary hospitals, which may have financial, ecological and other benefits that would need to be researched in the future. Increased patient acceptance of ACE could bring a more important role particularly for patients who refuse investigations at the hospital or busy professionals who do not want to miss time off work. Although this study does not compare ACE with colonoscopy, given the latter has proven problematic in patients’ acceptance, 22 23 alternatives are welcome and the non-invasive a remote nature of ACE may present a promising avenue in reaching out to particular patient groups in the future.

The reading time of the captured images remains as a crucial challenge in the wider implementation of CE. Utilisation of artificial intelligence to alleviate the burden on human readers may set an entirely different scene for the use of CE in the near future.

This study shows the feasibility, safety and patient acceptance of fully remote diagnostic GI procedures through CE. Patients reported saving time and money, indicating so potential benefits over traditional GI investigations for both patients and the healthcare system.

Ethics statements

Patient consent for publication.

Not applicable.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the nurses from the Endoscopy department of UCLH for their hard work and dedication in supporting the delivery of the ACE procedure. We would also thank all the patients who dedicated their time to complete the questionnaires and for giving feedback for improving the service.

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Contributors CVW, IP and ES conceptualised the study. IP, SB and AVH acquired the data. SB, MN and SS completed further analysis of the data contained within the manuscript. SB, MN, SS, IP and AVH jointly constructed initial and final drafts. AK, RK, ES and CVW reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. IP is the guarantor of this study.

Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Competing interests None declared.

Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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    What is Writefull? At Writefull, we use AI to help you write and proofread your academic texts. Our tools revise your language, write abstracts, paraphrase texts, make your sentences academic, and more. You can download Writefull for Word and for Overleaf from our website (click the 'Get Writefull' button at the top of this page).

  24. Abstract Generator

    This Abstract Generator is basically a guideline for writing abstracts. We have also written an article on how to write abstracts. Go through the post and use our tools to create properly formatted abstracts. Note: An abstract should be between 100 - 250 words.

  25. Evaluation of the safety, efficacy and feasibility of 'at-home' capsule

    Results All 105 ACE patients were able to have CE at home, with completion rates for SBCE, CCE and panenteric (Crohn's) CE at 98.3%, 75.9% and 55.6%, respectively. Patients reported low levels of pain (94.1%), embarrassment (98.8%) and anxiety (82.1%). ACE saved time and money, as 42.9% of patients were able to avoid work absence and 52.4% avoided transportation costs.

  26. SAFAVIEH Amelia Modern Abstract Rug

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  27. Strain Regulation of Mixed‐Halide Perovskites ...

    Advanced Materials, one of the world's most prestigious journals, is the home of choice for best-in-class materials science for more than 30 years. Abstract Wide-bandgap mixed-halogen perovskite materials are widely used as top cells in tandem solar cells. However, serious open-circuit voltage (Voc) loss restricts the power conversion efficien