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Implementation of Guidance and Counseling Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic
2022, ISSRA Journal of Education, Linguistics and Literature
This descriptive qualitative study aimed to describe how guidance and counseling services were implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted among five (5) counselors who were determined through purposive sampling. The data were gathered using a semistructured interview and analysed using a conventional qualitative content analysis. Challenges, initiatives, and insights in implementing guidance and counseling services were revealed. There were seven (7) meaningful categories taken from data transcripts. Counselors were challenged by (1) inadequate support and (2) restrictions in delivering guidance and counseling services. Their initiatives included (3) using technology-aided services, (4) conducting online activities, and (5) strengthening of school and community partnerships. The two (2) essential insights of counselors on their experience were about (6) counseling as a value-laden helping profession and (7) efficient implementation of services. Since counselors faced both personal and professional challenges highly influenced by technology during unprecedented times, their motivation to deliver guidance and counseling services comes from a genuine desire to serve the school and community. This proves that guidance and counseling is not only a profession but also a vocation.
Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal
Psychology and Education , Rama Lo R. Amedo
An increase in demand for mental health services has been prominent in recent years, and digital technology has been found to be beneficial in the delivery of mental health services. In line with this, the current study explored the experiences of 10 registered guidance counselors who integrated technology into their practice of online counseling. The main purpose of this study was to explore the counselors' experiences, feelings, challenges, coping mechanisms, and the meanings they ascribed to their experiences. To achieve these, the researchers employed a qualitative phenomenological approach using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The ten registered guidance counselors who worked in school settings were residents of the province of Antique and engaged in online counseling during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were selected through purposive and snowball sampling, and data were collected using a semistructured interview. Based on the transcripts of the participants, four major themes emerged, namely: (i) perceived benefits of online counseling, (ii) ethical issues, (iii) challenges encountered during online counseling, and (iv) ways of coping. Counselors reported online counseling to be helpful, particularly because the integration of technology could facilitate greater accessibility to services. However, due to technological disruptions and the potential blurring of professional boundaries, online counseling may involve ethical considerations that negatively impact the therapeutic relationship. The findings provide preliminary qualitative evidence that online therapy can be a useful adjunct to traditional forms of face-to-face counseling. However, counselors require more explicit training in implementing online counseling.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Research, Educational Implementation, Social Studies and History (AREISSH 2021)
Beny Arifin Efendi
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies (CJMS)
Cognizance Journal Multidisciplinary Studies
The main purpose of this study was to understand the lived experiences of guidance counselors on how they perform their job particularly providing counseling services during the COVID-19 Pandemic in selected schools in Rizal. Proposed plans and project “Let’s grow together with a theme: “Going back to basics” was the output of the study. This study utilized a qualitative analysis through the phenomenological approach utilized purposive sampling technique in the selection of participants. It included eight (8) participants from selected private schools in Rizal. All collected responses were conducted through an in-depth interview. The study revealed that guidance counselors delivered their counseling services through the integration of technology into their practice. Along the many changes brought about by the sudden transition to virtual setting, guidance counselors experienced several challenges that included personal and professional challenges. These includes; difficulty to read /interpret client’s emotions, attitude of students towards online counseling , technical challenges, lack of formal training , counselor experiencing emotional exhaustion doing virtual counseling , their level of competency in doing virtual counseling and expressed blurred work-life balance. Guidance counselors used emotion coping like watching television, walking , k drama, getting a good night sleep, eating, using humor, seeking social support from family and colleagues and having strong religious practices like praying, listening to homily and practicing mindfulness. They also engaged in problem-focused coping like exercising, engaging in sports, seeking instrumental support and learned integrating technology into the practice. Thus, the experiences of guidance counselors vis a vis the difficulties they experienced helped them manage these struggles and perform their duties over and above expectations.
European Journal of Education Studies
During the COVID-19 pandemic, guidance and counseling teachers are demanded to keep running counseling services using various alternatives of online learning applications. At the same time, parents as the main assistants in the online counseling process should actively encourage their children to have active participation. It is because the majority of parents consider that all the things related to school activities are totally teachers’ responsibility. Thus, the present study attempted to find, reveal, and describe the role of parents in the implementation of supporting technology for online counseling services during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, the researchers adopted an online survey method and cross-sectional technique to analyze the data of 350 student's parents in Semarang Regency as the respondents of this study. Generally, the findings indicated that parents with high level of understanding tend to provide great support for the online counseling services given to t...
Education, Language and Sociology Research
Ruveni Tuimavana , Prathika Gounder
The departure from traditional family structure and the evolving social trends with a breakdown in the customary support system has created a gap for fulfilling the physical, psychological and social needs of the children. The emphasis is on the need for an alternative support system to mediate the needs of them and counselling in schools is definitely the bridge that fills this gap. There is no doubt that COVID-19 pandemic and associated socio-economic factors have heightened the need for counselors in schools. This study investigates the views of school administrators, principals, head teachers and classroom teachers regarding counselling in schools. A survey research design was implemented and a survey was executed to 100 participants in the western division. 78 of them responded by returning the completed survey giving a response rate of 78%, which is acceptable for discussion. Findings reveal that Fiji has seen an increase in counselling needs after COVID-19 and subsequent lock...
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of education
Akmal Nazihah Shazli
Purpose: to explore the counsellors' online experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic that hit Brunei in August 2020 where all educators were forced to shift from physical to virtual meeting. Methodology: Semi-structured interview was conducted with six counsellors from secondary government school in Brunei Darussalam who experienced online counselling during the medium transition period. From the interview, the data was transcribed and categorised the responses in different themes. Results: Using thematic analysis, it was found that e-counselling is possible provided that counsellors are future ready, equipped with necessary skills, knowledgeable and skillful. In addition, experienced counsellors shared information on how to improve online counselling services as well as the challenges they encountered throughout carrying out the sessions online. Applications/Originality/Value: This study could be beneficial to add as a literature and useful for future researchers to conduct a similar research based on this research topic.
Journal of Positive School Psychology
The main goal of this study is to describe narrative moments of guidance counselors on transactional distance in education during COVID-19 pandemic. Sharing their stories, eight (8) participants who ventured on tele-counseling with their clients were the data source. Three variables of Transactional Distance Theory had some parallel inclinations to event structures: i. dialogue (counselor-client interaction), ii. structure (tele-counseling and communication needs), and iii. learner autonomy (client participation in distance education). These variables exemplified a community-based learner support system. Each narrative drew out a web of concerns such as limitations and practicality applying a set of guidelines in multimodal counseling sessions. Almost exclusively, the findings were contained within the structure of narratives reflecting an aghast transition to tele-counseling that demands a committed and sustainable network of learner support. Mechanisms involved foster a two-way, technology-mediated communication to achieve a collaborative learner support system between the guidance counselor and the client.
The COVID-19 global pandemic has brought about many changes to our society, which will have long-term effects for our youth and adolescents. Due to social isolation and adverse childhood experiences, there are concerns of suicidality, technology addiction, and school safety as schools attempt to transition to a state of normalcy in the months to come. This crisis will require coordinated efforts to assist students in not only getting back on track academically but also in helping students cope with the trauma they have and are continuing to experience. As a result, insights from school counselors can be used to obtain a better understanding of the social and emotional effects of COVID-19 by collaborating with administrators to emphasize using school counselors as a mental health provider in schools. The authors highlight school counselors’ mental health training and their role in combating this issue and provide practical applications that can employed to create a systemic approach ...
Counseling and Therapy - Recent Developments in Theories and Concepts [Working Title]
The outbreak of COVID-19 necessitated professional trained psychologists to offer voluntary services leading to online paradigm of counseling intervention. This chapter presents the challenges and compromises some counselors encountered when they assisted individuals who were either infected or affected by COVID-19. The chapter also presented the narratives collected from social media, personal experiences of the authors and communications with their colleagues from Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. It was realized that counselors faced challenges such as lack of experience, poor internet availability, threatened clients’ perceived privacy and data security and financial implications. Based on the challenges and compromises, the authors recommended counseling regulatory bodies within African countries should generate operative policies to guide provision of e-counseling services. It was also recommended that e-counseling be integrated into its curriculum in order to adequately prepa...
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Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Laura Casarrubios Molina
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Mario Avila Sánchez
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Sean L Moen
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Robert J. Lascano
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Contents of Guidance and Counseling Final Year Project Material PDF Document
All Guidance and counseling project topics on this website have their complete project works from chapters one to five with references and questionnaires. Each topic material comes with Proposal Samples, Abstracts, Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Tables, List of Appendices, List of Abbreviations, Introduction, Literature Review, Data Analysis and Presentation, Methodology and System Analysis, Summary, Recommendation, Conclusion, References/Bibliography, Questionnaires e.t.c .
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List of Free Guidance and Counseling Project Topics & Research Materials PDF
- The Role Of Guidance And Counselling In Obviating Suicide In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions
- Influence Of Sex Of Parent, Timing Of Loss And Age Of Child On Unresolved Grief Among Bereaved Parents
- Stealing Among Students: Causes And Remedies
- Undergraduate Students’ Concerns And Gender Preferences For Counsellors
- Moral Problems In Nigerian Educational Institutions
- Learning Disabled And Normal Achieving Students’ Causal Attributes For Their Performance Outcomes
- The Prevalence Of Occupational Stress Among Secondary School Teachers
- A STUDY OF THE DETERMINANTS OF VOCATIONAL CHOICE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
- Principals Perception Of Teachers As Facilitators
- Gender Inequality And The Status Of Widows In Nigeria: Implications For Counselling
- The Counsellor And Health Psychology
- Post-Retirement Life Styles Of Some Nigerians And The Counselling Implications
- Interpersonal Relationships Between Nigerian Mother-In=Law And Their Daughters=In-Law: Pre-Marital And Family Counselling Implications
- The Perceived Effectiveness Of Punishment Administered On Students By Secondary School Teachers
- The Cultural Influence On The Manifestation Of Depression
- Effect Of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy On The Level Of General And Examination Anxieties Among Students
- Teacher’S Attitudes Towards Females And Technical Education: Implications For Career Guidance And Counselling
- School Counsellor And Primary School Teachers’ Perception Of The Essential Requirements For The Successful Implementation Of The Universal Basic Education (Ube) Programme
- The Relationship Between The School Principal’S Leadership Behaviour And The Counsellors’ Morale
- Counselling Strategies For Addressing Militancy And Social Restiveness In Nigeria
- A PHENOMENON ON MENTAL HEALTH AS A CHALLENGE TO YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA AND ITS COUNSELING IMPLICATIONS
- Gender Differences In The Psycho-Social Adjustment Of Nigerian Single Parents
- The Relationship Between Stressful Life Events And Gender Among Nigerians
- School Counselors’ Roles In Preventing The Spread Of Hiv And Aids In Nigeria
- Using School Societies As A Means Of Vocational Development
- Counselling: A Strong Tool For Checking Examination Malpractice And Coping With Examination Anxiety
- Subject Combination/Choices And Occupational Relevance
- The Prevalence Of Unresolved Grief Among Bereaved Parents Implications For Counselling
- Guidance And Counselling: A Tool For Quality Enhancement In Secondary Schools
- Counselling For Sustainable Livelihoods With Target Clients (The Nigerian Adolescents And Youths)
- Positive Parent-Adolescent Relationship
- Adolescents Attitude To Parental Discipline
- Preference For Cyber-Counselling Among Nigerian University Students
- The Many Faces And Dangers Of Secret Cultism In Nigeria Schools
- Factors Affecting Participation In Technical Education In Nigeria
- The Effect Of Group Counselling On The Psychological Adjustment Of People Living With Hiv/Aids In Nigeria
- Peace From Home To School: Training Parents Of Children With Attention-Deficit And Hyperactivity Disorder In Behaviour Modification Skills To Motivate The Children To Learn
- Therapeutic Effects Of Group Counselling On The Study Habit Problems Of Secondary School Students
- Behaviourism, Crime Prevention And Safety Measures: The Counsellors Perspective
- Effects Of Cognitive Behaviour And Social Learning Therapies On Managing Adolescents Aggressiveness
- Cultism And It’S Attendant Consequences
- The Impact Of Group Guidance On Graduate Counselling Students Preference For The Use Of Computer Based Technology
- Counselling Training For Coping With Stress In Counselling Relationship
- The Relationship Between Peer Group Pressure And Bullying Among Adolescents In Selected Secondary Schools
- The Psycho-Socio Effects Of Single Parenthood On Adolescent Self Concept
- The Influence Of Socioeconomic Status And Peer Pressure On Adolescents’ Behavioural Patterns
- Influence Of Parental Education On Communication Pattern Of Children In Public Primary Schools
- The Effects Of Early Marriage On The Socio-Economic And Education Development Of A Child In Educational District
- The Social Problems And Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Secondary Schools
- Influence Of Parental Involvement On The Promotion Of Family Life Education
- Influence Of Hostel Squatting On Academic Performance, Interpersonal Relationship And Emotional Adjustment Of Undergraduate Students
- Impact Of Cultism On Psychosocial Adjustment Of Students In Secondary Schools
- Impact Of Broken Home On Academic Performance And Psychosocial Adjustment Of Secondary School Students
- Emotional Intelligence And Adolescents’ Behaviour Problems
- Differential Gender Perception Of Sexual Abuse Among Adolescents In Secondary Schools
- An Investigation Into The Attitudes Of Family Planning Among Health Care Users And Market Women
- Work Family Conflict, Occupational Stress And Life Satisfaction Among Married Career Women
- Effect Of Sexuality Education Among Household And Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behaviour
- Causes And Impact Of Broken Homes On Secondary School Academic Achievement Among Secondary Schools
- The Causes And Impact Of Broken Homes On Secondary School Academic Achievement Among Secondary Schools
- Social, Economic And Psychological Challenges Of Single Parent Family
- Psycho-Sociological Determinants Of Knowledge And Awareness Of Child Abuse And Neglect Among Rural Parents
- The Parental Monitoring And Religious Activities On Sexual Abstinence
- Investigating Psycho-Sociological Factors In Predicting Career Decision Among Some Selected Secondary Schools
- The Correlation Of Demographic And Psycho-Social Factors As Correlates Of Marital Adjustment Among Couples
- Problem Of Pregnancy And Abortion On Girl-Child Education In Nigeria
- Knowledge And Attitude Of Female Bankers Toward The Practice Of Exclusive Breastfeeding
- Influence Of Parenting Style On Self Esteem Of Children
- Evaluation Of Guidance And Counseling In Secondary School
- The Effect Of Broken Homes On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Nigeria
- The Need For Guidance And Counseling Services Among Nigeria University Students
- Students’ Perception Of The Role Of School Counselors In The Choice Of A Career
- The Influence Of Parenting Styles On Adolescent Juvenile Delinquency
- The Causes Of Premarital Sex Among Undergraduate Students
- Practice Of Self-Medication Among Undergraduates
- The Influence Of Socio-Cultural Variables And Marital Stability Among Couples
- Influence Of Peer Group Pressure On Adolescents Smoking Habits
- The Influence Of Communication On Marital Stability Among Couples
- The Effect Of Divorce On The Family: Implications For Counselling
- Effect Of Divorce On Scholastic Attitude Of Secondary School Students
- The Attitude Of Undergraduate Students Towards Hiv Voluntary Counseling And Testing
- Attitude Of Mother-In-Law Towards Daughter-In-Law As A Determinant Factor In Marital Stability In Some Selected Families
- Sexual Attitude Of Secondary School Students In Nigeria
- Effect Of Working Mothers On The Educational Development Of Their Children
- An Assessment Of Roles Of A Working Mother In Child Health
- Types, Prevalence And Causes Of Domestic Violence Among Selected Couples
- The Relationship Between Parental Role And Early Childhood Education And Its’ Development
- The Relationship Between Collaborative Learning Method And Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students
- Psychological Effects Of Inter Ethnic Conflicts On Social Health Workers In Nigeria
- Perception Of Undergraduate Students Towards The Use Of Contraceptives
- The Parental Status And Academic Performance In Secondary School
- Influence Of Televised Aggression And Pornography On The Social Adjustment Of Adolescents In Secondary Schools
- Influence Of Socio-Economic Status On Marital Stability Among Selected Couples
- The Influence Of Socio-Cultural Variables On Marital Stability Among Couples
- The Influence Of Social Demand, Peer Pressure And Economic Instability On Adolescents’ Behavioural Pattern
- Influence Of Social Demand, Peer Pressure And Economic Instability On Adolescents’ Behavioural Pattern
- The Influence Of Proneness To Spousal Rape On Marital Stability Among Couples
- The Influence Of Parenting Styles On Social Adjustment Among Secondary School Students
- The Influence Of Parental Value System On Success Orientation Among Adolescents
- Influence Of Need Satisfaction On Proneness To Stealing Among Female Students
- Influence Of Fathering Style On Social Adjustment Among Adolescents
- Influence Of Domestic Violence On Family Relationship Among Couples
- The Impact Of Single-Parenting On Academic Achievement Of Students In Selected Secondary Schools
- The Impact Of Differing Work-Life Balances On Marriage Stability Among Married Couples
- The Effects Of Counselling On Students’ Attitude Towards Hiv/Aids Infection
- Effect Of Information Communication Technology On Early Childhood Education Delivery
- The Effect Of Formal Education On Nigerian Women’S Attitude Towards Family Planning
- The Characteristics Of Sandwich Students: Implications For Academic Performance And Counselling
- The Attitude Of Undergraduate Sandwich Students Towards Family Planning Methods
- The Attitude Of Mother-In-Law Towards Daughter-In-Law As A Determinant Factor In Marital Stability
- Students Perception Towards The Teaching Of Sexuality Education In Secondary Schools
- Relationship Between Parental Role And Early Childhood Education And Its’ Development
- Personality Dispositions And Academic Achievement Among University Students
- Perception Of Drug Use And Abuse On Students Behaviour In Public Secondary Schools
- Parental Involvements, Successes And Challenges In Promotion Of Family Life Education
- Parental Influence And Socio-Economic Factors As Correlates Of Personality Adjustment Among Adolescents
- Parental Influence And Cultural Beliefs As Correlates Of Secondary School Girls Attitude And Achievement
- The Influence Of Parental Separation On Academic Achievement Of Secondary School Students
- Influence Of Mate Selection And Self-Disclosure On Marital Stability Among Couples
- Influence Of Child Abuse On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students
- Influence Of Adult Education On Family Planning
- Family Background As Correlate Of Child Socialization
- Effects Of Counselling On Depressed Spinal Cord Injured Patients
- Effect Of Punishment And Reward On Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students
- Effect Of Adolescents’ Perception And Awareness Of Hiv/Aids On Sexual Behaviour
- Assessment On The Level Of Awareness Of Hiv/Aids
- An Investigation Into The Attitude Of Women Towards Family Planning Programme
- Influence Of Behavioral Counseling On Deviant Behavior Among Secondary School Student In Fct Abuja
- Evaluating Teaching And Learning Of Guidance And Counseling In Colleges Of Education
- Perception Of Students On Pre-Marital Sexual Relationship Among Tertiary Students
- Instructional Needs Of Teachers For Inclusive Classroom In Primary Schools
- Factors That Are Militating Against Effective Teaching And Learning Of Subjects In Secondary School Students
- Counsellors’ Perception On The Causes Of Divorce And Its Impact On Adolescents In Educational Zone
- Causes And Consequences Of Divorce On Newly Married Couples
- Analysis Of Factors That Are Militating Against Effective Teaching And Learning Of Secondary School Students
- Theism And The Problem Of Evil: A Critical Study
- Causes Of Drug Abuse And It’S Effects Among Secondary School Students
- Attitude Of Men Towards Family Planning And Implication For Their Involvement
- A STUDY ON PUBLIC RELATIONS AS A VERITABLE TOOL FOR ERADICATING CULTISM IN NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
- Career Choice And Its Effects On Secondary School Students
- Leadership And It’S Effects On Performance, Achievement And Goal Realization
- Harmonious Religious Coexistence In The Barracks, A Model Approach For Humanity
- The Impact Of Guidance Service On The Secondary School Students
- A Phenomenon On Mental Health As A Challenge To Youth Development In Nigeria And It’s Counselling Implications
- Influence Of Guidance Programme On Academic Achievement Of Ss2 Students
- A PHENOMENON ON MENTAL HEALTH AS A CHALLENGE TO YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA AND IT’S COUNSELLING IMPLICATIONS
- A SURVEY OF TEENAGE PROBLEMS IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
- Motivational Need For Public Primary School Teachers In Nigeria
- Teenage Pregnancy And How It Affects The Educational Development Of Our Teenagers
- Strategies For Changing Undesirable Classroom Behaviour
- The Influence Of Organizational Climate And Teachers Job Satisfaction On The Teachers Job Performance In Secondary Schools
- Attitude Of Men Towards Family Planning And Implication For Their Involvement In Oghara-Efe Community
- Knowledge Practice Of Contraceptives Among Female Students
- A SURVEY OF CAREER CHOICE DETERMINANTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS
- Causes And Effects Of Marital Problems
- The Need For Guidance And Counselling Services Among Nigeria University Students
- Student’S Perception Of The Role Of School Counsellors In The Choice Of A Career
- Evaluation Of Guidance And Counselling In Secondary Schools In Nigeria
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Home » Blog » Breaking the Stigma in Counseling
Breaking the Stigma in Counseling
Writer/s: Angelica Jane Evangelista, Azie Marie Libanan Researcher/s: Alvin Joseph Mapoy, K Ballesteros Graphics: Bee Fukomoto Moderators: Angelica Jane Evangelista, Azie Marie Libanan, Alvin Joseph Mapoy
Mental illness is the third most common disability in the Philippines (Martinez, 2020). According to the Philippine World Health Organization (WHO), Special Initiative for Mental Health conducted in the early part of 2020, at least 3.6 million Filipinos suffer from one kind of mental, neurological, and substance use disorder (DOH, 2020).
On a larger scale, mental and behavioral disorders account for about 14% of the global burden of disease, which means that as many as 450 million people suffer from these illnesses worldwide (DOH, 2020).
And with a pandemic suddenly taking the whole world by storm, the mental health of groups especially the older adults, health care providers, and people with underlying health conditions have suffered further and even more gravely (DOH, 2020).
As talked about in #UsapTayo’s March 20, 2021 twitter discussions, we have seen how Burnout and Pandemic Fatigue have been relevant consequences of the current global health crisis caused by COVID-19. The global community continues to suffer sustained and heightened feelings of distress from multiple stressors for over a year now (Recovering, 2021).
Despite these reports highlighting the prevalence of Mental Health related concerns and problems, and shared pandemic fatigue, a lot of people still choose to go untreated (at least professionally). There is still a generally low percentage of Filipinos seeking professional help, and accessing mental health services in the country. Such reluctance, according to a narrative synthesis of 15 related studies, is found to be influenced heavily by various psychosocial, socio-cultural, systemic/structural, and economic factors (Martinez, 2020).
Mental Health and Policy Support
With the passage of RA No. 11036, otherwise known as the Mental Health Act, in June of 2018, after a long policy campaign, there was considerable hope that the said law will promote the importance of Mental Health to educational institutions, workplaces, and communities, and protect the rights of those who are experiencing mental health illness against discrimination. The law was also expected to guarantee access to comprehensive and integrated mental health services, particularly for the marginalized and the most vulnerable (WHO, 2018).
This was supported by the subsequent passage of the Universal Health Care Law, in February of 2019, which mandated structural and functional changes in health financing, service delivery, and governance. The Philippine UHC Law sought to address the inequities faced by the country’s health system because of fragmented service delivery and inefficient financing mechanisms (UHC, 2019).
Before these laws, the move to professionalize the Guidance & Counseling, and Psychology practice in the country has also been vigorously undertaken. The Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004 (R.A. No. 9258), and the Philippine Psychology Act of 2009 (R.A. No. 10029) recognized the important role of guidance and counselors, and psychologists in nation-building and development.
RA 10029 further acknowledged the diverse specializations of psychologists and the diverse functions specific to the varied specializations. It also recognized the significance of the psychological services that practicing psychologists provide to diverse types of clients. The act highlighted the need to protect the public by preventing inexperienced or untrained individuals from offering psychological services (Psychology, 2010).
With all of these laws in place, what and where are the gaps that are reflected in data from quantitative community studies? Said data showed that the rates of formal help-seeking behaviors among the Filipino general population only ranged from 2.2% to 17.5%. This was supported by reports from qualitative studies where participants did not seek help at all (Martinez, 2020).
The frequency of reports of formal help seeking from studies conducted in crisis centers and online counseling, however, tended to be higher . For instance, the rate of engagement in online counseling among overseas Filipinos was 10.68%, those receiving treatment in crisis centers was 39.32%, while 100% of participants who were victims of intimate partner violence were already receiving help from a women’s support agency (Martinez, 2020).
The rate of formal psychological help-seeking of Filipinos overseas ranged from 2.2% of Filipino Americans to 17.5% of Filipinos in Israel. And both local and overseas Filipinos indicated that professional help is sought only as a last resort because they were more inclined to get help from family and friends or lay network (Martinez, 2020).
According to the American Counseling Association, counseling is defined as a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals. Counseling is usually done by a mental health professional to help and guide people during difficult situations, such as the stress that comes from our daily lives (What is, n.d.).
It may also be a form of professional assistance in coping with personal problems, including emotional, behavioral, vocational, marital, educational, rehabilitation, and life-stage (e.g., retirement) problems. The counselor makes use of techniques such as active listening, guidance, advice, discussion, clarification, and the administration of tests (VandenBos, 2015).
Counseling in the Philippines
“Much like its inherent multiculturalism, counseling in the Philippines has evolved from multiple influences. Counseling encompasses a broad spectrum of disciplines (e.g., guidance and counseling, counseling/clinical psychology), and an acknowledgment of the societal context in which it occurs (e.g., poverty, physical disasters, overseas working, graft and corruption, and economic and political instability) (Tuason, 2012)”
In this case, counselors must navigate societal stigmas regarding the need for mental health assistance and widespread ignorance of the field; they also advocate for mental health and resilience in difficult life circumstances (Tuason, 2012).
At present, there is a shortage of mental health professionals in the country. The ratio of Mental health professionals is 2-3 per 100,000 population (WHO & Department of Health, 2006) and more recent data indicate that there are 1.08 mental health beds in general hospitals and 4.95 beds in psychiatric hospitals per 100 000 of the population (WHO, 2014).
There are 46 outpatient facilities (0.05/100 000 population) and 4 community residential facilities (0.02/100 000) (WHO, 2014). Also, there are only tertiary care psychiatric hospitals here in the Philippines, some of which are the National Center for Mental Health (NCMH) which is located in Mandaluyong City, and Mariveles Mental Hospital in Bataan. The others are small satellites affiliated with the National Center of Mental Health.
Barriers on Help-seeking Behaviors
Stigma regarding mental health illness, more specifically towards seeking professional help or counseling, remains among the most cited reasons why people do not seek mental health treatment (Corrigan, 2004). Stigmatic belief held by self and others may be due to a variety of reasons such as lack of knowledge about mental health, and avoidance behavior towards individuals who suffer from mental health problems. (Vogel, Wester, & Larson, 2007),
Vogel, Wade, and Hackler (2007) suggest that the fear and anxiety of the undesirable label placed on the individual who are experiencing mental health difficulties, and the strong stigma about mental health illness in general, may be the reasons one will choose to be in denial regarding their mental health issues. This in turn, prevents them from seeking professional help.
Vogel, Wade, and Hackler (2007) also state that public opinion and public stigma play a powerful role in influencing someone about the stigma and the acceptance of mental health illness in the society.
In the Philippines, themes on barriers and facilitators of formal help-seeking have been identified as:
- psychosocial barriers/ facilitators , which include social support from family and friends, perceived severity of mental illness, awareness of mental health issues, self-stigmatizing beliefs, treatment fears, and other individual concerns;
- socio-cultural barriers/facilitators, which include the perceived social norms and beliefs on mental health, social stigma, the influence of religious beliefs, and language and acculturation factors; and
- systemic/structural and economic barriers/facilitators , which include financial or employment status, the health care system and its accessibility, availability and affordability, and ethnicity, nativity, or immigration status (Martinez, 2020).
Specifically, the most commonly endorsed barriers were:
- financial constraints due to high cost of service, lack of health insurance, or precarious employment condition;
- self-stigma, with associated fear of negative judgment, sense of shame, embarrassment and being a disgrace, fear of being labeled as ‘crazy’, self-blame and concern for the loss of face; and
- social stigma that puts the family’s reputation at stake or places one’s cultural group in bad light (Martinez, 2020).
Breaking the Stigma about Counseling
A most important point to emphasize is that advocacy should be directed toward societal issues and include a social justice agenda given the prevalent poverty, the intersection of poverty with crime and trauma, the necessity of overseas working in families, the presence of street children, and child laborers. These sectors have been worst hit by the current pandemic. These issues contribute to the context of the Filipino’s environment, and importantly, set the parameters for how change happens. Of these, the most significant are poverty, overseas working, and unstable political and economic conditions (Tuason, 2012).
Social issues become counseling issues at the individual level (CIA, 2011). Hazards and disasters in the Philippines also exacerbate the impact of poverty as the country is regularly affected by typhoons, volcanoes, landslides, earthquakes, and tsunamis (Tuason, 2012).
“Sociopolitical crises due to unstable political leadership and extreme socioeconomic inequities stress Filipino families” (Carandang, 1989). Furthermore, because of rampant graft and corruption in government offices, and dishonesty in the media, a collective and personal sense of volition is difficult to achieve. One problem is that the absence of consequences makes it hard for people to be accountable and to realize the consequences of their actions . Another is that people feel helpless in the face of power inequality and inequity of rights and duties (de Guzman, 2009). Hence, the sense of control is lacking , which is a necessary variable for change in counseling (Tuason, 2012).”
However, the country is still rich in resources that play a significant role in the counseling process, which strongly contribute to healing and flourishing. These include religiousness and spirituality (Dy-Liacco, Piedmont, Murray-Swank, Rodgerson,& Sherman, 2009); engagement of family members and friends (Grimm, Church, Katigbak, & Reyes, 1999); and a strong drive for survival, hopefulness, and hardiness (Tuason, 2012).”
Counseling practices, and research, training, and supervision of future counselors, therefore, will need to focus on restructuring societal systems to be more reliable and equitable. This is necessary to address the deep conflicts perpetrated by long-standing graft and corruption, bribery, and injustices toward the citizens, the protracted conflict between Christians and Muslims (Ebal, 2006), exacerbated by intractable poverty. At the individual level, counselors will need to focus on redefining themselves within the context of the system to be empowered and to be able to create changes within their spheres of influence (Tuason, 2012).
With the indigenization of theories that started with Filipino psychology by Enriquez (1977) and phenomena of religion, consciousness, and culture by Bulatao (1992) the thrust for counseling models and theories in the future will be for specifically identifying, labeling, and using counseling models borne in Philippine society (e.g., Ramos, 2010; Tanalega, 2004).
Kapwa and Filipino help-seeking behaviors
Most of the studies identified informal help through family and friends as the most widely utilized source of support, while professional service providers were only used as a last resort (Martinez, 2020).
This is very culturally true for Filipinos. Studies have shown that reliance on, and accessibility of sympathetic, reliable and trusted family and friends may be a strong decision point in formal help-seeking behavior since professional help is sought only in the absence of this social support (Martinez, 2020).
This is consistent with the predominant cultural value that govern Filipino interpersonal relationships called “kapwa” (or shared identity) in which trusted family and friends are considered as “hindi-ibang-tao” (one-of-us/insider), while doctors or professionals are seen as “ibang-tao” (outsider) (Martinez, 2020).
Filipinos are apt to disclose and be more open and honest about their mental illness to those whom they consider as “hindi-ibang-tao” (insider) as against those who are “ibang-tao” (outsider), hence their preference for family members and close friends as a source of informal help (Martinez, 2020).
This may be a complexity in the Filipino help seeking behavior that we always need to keep in mind. Especially as we aim for the indigenization of theories and professional practice, which recognizes fully the phenomena of religion, consciousness, and culture (Martinez, 2020).
In addition, Sydney-Based Psychologist Aimee Santos, stated that some Filipino values we see as positive traits can have a counter effect on one’s mental health, especially their help seeking behavior.
One of the Filipino traits Aimee discusses is “hiya”. Many Filipinos see “hiya” as a sign of humility, but “hiya” can restrain individuals from expressing themselves and prevent them from seeking professional help. The aphorism “mahiya ka naman” (shame on you) is used to regulate behavior to become more acceptable to our family and community, which may also prevent individuals from seeking help.
So for us to be “kapwa” when a friend or relative may come to us for some form of support, here are some Active Listening Reminders that you might want to keep in mind when dealing with people especially in highly charged situations or in this pandemic in general (Basic, 2019):
Active Listening Reminders (Basic, 2019)
- Take time to listen carefully, concentrate on what is being said
- Telling their story will often help people understand, and eventually, accept the event.
- Do not hurry
- Ask questions to clarify
- Try not to interrupt until story ends
- Do ask questions to clarify
- Occasionally restate part of the story in your own words to make sure you understand
- Avoid Why/Why not?
- Don’t judge
- Avoid “I know how you feel.”
- Avoid evaluation of their experience and their reactions
- Silence is O.K.
Helping Responsibly, Four Main Points: (Basic, 2019)
- Respect safety, dignity and rights
- Adapt what you do to take account of the person’s culture
- Be aware of other emergency response measures
- Look after yourself.
What to avoid (Basic, 2019)
- Force people to share their story with you
- Tell people what they should or should not feel or think
- Minimize what they have gone through
- Automatically assume they share your religious belief
- Do not make assumptions about what survivors are experiencing or what they have been through
- Do not assume that everyone exposed to a disaster /experienced a crisis will be traumatized
- Do not pathologize
- Do not talk down or patronize
- Do not assume that all persons want to talk or need to talk to you
- Do not give promises you cannot keep
- Do not preach
- Do not judge
- Avoid taking more responsibility for the situation than seems appropriate
It is also important to Listen to what the person is NOT saying , and Provide Practical Help. And essentially, we always go back to every helping professional’s ethical compass in providing help– Primum Non Nocere: First, Do No Harm (Basic, 2019). #HelpIsHere
Here’s the link to the #MentalHealthPH Directory of Mental Health Services: https://mentalhealthph.org/directory/
Join us on our tweetchat this Tuesday, April 20. Let’s talk about breaking the stigma on counseling! Tara, #UsapTayo!
- How can we contribute to lessen the stigma surrounding counseling and seeking help from professionals?
- What are the barriers that discourage or prevent people from seeking professional help and accessing mental health services? How can we motivate people to seek help and access these services?
- What can you say to those who are hesitant/ or are unable to seek help?
An Introduction to the Philippine Universal Health Care Law. Retrieved from: https://thinkwell.global/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/PH-UHC-Law-Series_Brief-1.pdf
Basic Mental Health and Psychological First Aid in the School and Workplace. PFA notes. Retrieved from: www.argaocenter.com , www.smartereone.ph. May 2019
Lally, J., Samaniego, R.M., Tully, J. Mental health legislation in the Philippines: Philippine Mental Health Act. BJPsych Int. 16(3): 65–67. (2019). doi: 10.1192/bji.2018.33 PMCID: PMC6646847 PMID: 31385981. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6646847/
Martinez, A.B., Co, M., Lau, J. et al. Filipino help-seeking for mental health problems and associated barriers and facilitators: a systematic review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 55, 1397–1413 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01937-2
Psychology – Professional Regulation Commission. (2010) Retrieved from: https://www.prc.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Psychology%20-%20Board%20Law_0.pdf 2010
Recovering from Pandemic Burnout. (2021). Ballesteros, K., #MentalHealthPH. Retrieved from: https://mentalhealthph.org/03-20/
Tuason, M.T.G., Fernandez, K.T.G., Catipon, M.A.D.P. , Trivino‐De, L., Arellano‐Carandang, M.L. Counseling in the Philippines: Past, Present, and Future (2012). https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2012.00047.x. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263731178_Counseling_in_the_Philippines_Past_Present_and_Future
UHC Act in the Philippines: a new dawn for health care. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/philippines/news/feature-stories/detail/uhc-act-in-the-philippines-a-new-dawn-for-health-care 14 March 2019
VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2015). APA Dictionary of Psychology (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14646-000
What is Professional Counseling? Retrieved from: https://www.counseling.org/aca-community/learn-about-counseling/what-is-counseling#:~:text=Professional%20counseling%20is%20a%20professional,challenges%20that%20they%20are%20facing.
WHO congratulates the Philippines on its new Mental Health Act. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/philippines/news/detail/22-06-2018-who-congratulates-the-philippines-on-its-new-mental-health-act 22 June 2018 News release Manila, Philippines
How your Filipino Values can affect your Mental Heath. Retrived from: SBS Language | How your Filipino values can affect your mental health
Your Mind Matters: DOH Calls for unified response to Mental Health. Retrieved from: https://doh.gov.ph/press-release/YOUR-MIND-MATTERS-DOH-CALLS-FOR-UNIFIED-RESPONSE-TO-MENTAL-HEALTH Press Release | 10 October 2020
Self-Care Reminders: Someday You’ll Get There
#MentalHealthPH #Selflove #RecoverTogether Art by Nicole Ivanka How do you feel about this? 50% 50% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
DOH Launches Partnership with #MentalHealthPH for Initiatives on Mental Health
Joint Press Release | February 22, 2023 The Department of Health (DOH), through the Health Promotion Bureau (HPB), and #MentalHealthPH
#VoicesOfHope: Inhale Hope, Exhale Despair
I was born on Independence Day, a day of freedom for the rest of the Filipinos, yet ironically I spend
Tara, Usap Tayo! (July 20, 2020)
Body image is the perception that a person has of their physical self and the thoughts and feelings that results
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Benefits of Guidance Counseling Topic to Attitude of Grade 12 Humanities and Social Sciences Strand Students at Bestlink College of the Philippines
- Catherine Hamelon
- Carl Jasper Badiable
- Ma Ariane Cyril Buscas
- Mariah Jane Balisi
- Midel Mirasol
The researchers focused on the benefits of guidance counseling topic to the attitude of Grade 12 Humanities and Social Sciences Strand students at Bestlink College of the Philippines. Counseling helps an individual to discover and develop their educational, vocational, and psychological potentials to achieve an optimal level of personal happiness and social usefulness. This study would encourage students’ academic, social, emotional, and personal development. Counseling is the service offered to an individual undergoing a problem and needs professional help to overcome it. The researchers used qualitative research with a descriptive design. The researchers also utilized a survey questionnaire to gather information from 50 selected Grade 12 Humanities and Social sciences students who properly choose through random sampling technique. The results of the study in terms of data presentation, analysis, and interpretation are highly acceptable. The benefits of guidance counseling topic to the attitude of Grade 12 Humanities and Social Sciences Strand students at Bestlink College of the Philippines, wherein the assessment as to self-acceptance the average weighted for indicator “accepting your mistake” was 4.26, with the verbal interpretation of “agree.” In terms of self-awareness, the average weighted mean for indicator “awareness of thoughts and feelings” was 4.16, with the verbal interpretation of “agree.” In terms of relating to others, the average weighted mean for the indicator “improve interpersonal skills” was 4.1, with the verbal interpretation of “agree.” Those data revealed that guidance counseling topics are beneficial to grade 12 students. The researchers found out that the guidance counseling topic helped the students know their purposes and have a strong realization in life. Hence, guidance counseling topic has a strong impact on choosing the right path and making decisions and realizations based on findings. Students need guidance counseling topics as part of the school-based curriculum to prevent the negative mindset and depression of the students. This topic is beneficial to the students to have a clear perception of life.Keywords:
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