Thesis and Dissertation Guide

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  • Introduction
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication, Acknowledgements, Preface (optional)
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations
  • List of Abbreviations
  • List of Symbols

Non-Traditional Formats

Font type and size, spacing and indentation, tables, figures, and illustrations, formatting previously published work.

  • Internet Distribution
  • Open Access
  • Registering Copyright
  • Using Copyrighted Materials
  • Use of Your Own Previously Published Materials
  • Submission Steps
  • Submission Checklist
  • Sample Pages

Thesis and Dissertation Guide

II. Formatting Guidelines

All copies of a thesis or dissertation must have the following uniform margins throughout the entire document:

  • Left: 1″ (or 1 1/4" to ensure sufficient room for binding the work if desired)
  • Right: 1″
  • Bottom: 1″ (with allowances for page numbers; see section on Pagination )
  • Top: 1″

Exceptions : The first page of each chapter (including the introduction, if any) begins 2″ from the top of the page. Also, the headings on the title page, abstract, first page of the dedication/ acknowledgements/preface (if any), and first page of the table of contents begin 2″ from the top of the page.

Non-traditional theses or dissertations such as whole works comprised of digital, artistic, video, or performance materials (i.e., no written text, chapters, or articles) are acceptable if approved by your committee and graduate program. A PDF document with a title page, copyright page, and abstract at minimum are required to be submitted along with any relevant supplemental files.

Fonts must be 10, 11, or 12 points in size. Superscripts and subscripts (e.g., formulas, or footnote or endnote numbers) should be no more than 2 points smaller than the font size used for the body of the text.

Space and indent your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:

Spacing and Indentation with mesaurements described in surrounding text

  • The text must appear in a single column on each page and be double-spaced throughout the document. Do not arrange chapter text in multiple columns.
  • New paragraphs must be indicated by a consistent tab indentation throughout the entire document.
  • The document text must be left-justified, not centered or right-justified.
  • For blocked quotations, indent the entire text of the quotation consistently from the left margin.
  • Ensure headings are not left hanging alone on the bottom of a prior page. The text following should be moved up or the heading should be moved down. This is something to check near the end of formatting, as other adjustments to text and spacing may change where headings appear on the page.

Exceptions : Blocked quotations, notes, captions, legends, and long headings must be single-spaced throughout the document and double-spaced between items.

Paginate your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:

  • Use lower case Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.) on all pages preceding the first page of chapter one. The title page counts as page i, but the number does not appear. Therefore, the first page showing a number will be the copyright page with ii at the bottom.
  • Arabic numerals (beginning with 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) start at chapter one or the introduction, if applicable. Arabic numbers must be included on all pages of the text, illustrations, notes, and any other materials that follow. Thus, the first page of chapter one will show an Arabic numeral 1, and numbering of all subsequent pages will follow in order.
  • Do not use page numbers accompanied by letters, hyphens, periods, or parentheses (e.g., 1., 1-2, -1-, (1), or 1a).
  • Center all page numbers at the bottom of the page, 1/2″ from the bottom edge.
  • Pages must not contain running headers or footers, aside from page numbers.
  • If your document contains landscape pages (pages in which the top of the page is the long side of a sheet of paper), make sure that your page numbers still appear in the same position and direction as they do on pages with standard portrait orientation for consistency. This likely means the page number will be centered on the short side of the paper and the number will be sideways relative to the landscape page text. See these additional instructions for assistance with pagination on landscape pages in Microsoft Word .

Pagination example with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Format footnotes for your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:

Footnote spacing  with mesaurements described in surrounding text

  • Footnotes must be placed at the bottom of the page separated from the text by a solid line one to two inches long.
  • Begin at the left page margin, directly below the solid line.
  • Single-space footnotes that are more than one line long.
  • Include one double-spaced line between each note.
  • Most software packages automatically space footnotes at the bottom of the page depending on their length. It is acceptable if the note breaks within a sentence and carries the remainder into the footnote area of the next page. Do not indicate the continuation of a footnote.
  • Number all footnotes with Arabic numerals. You may number notes consecutively within each chapter starting over with number 1 for the first note in each chapter, or you may number notes consecutively throughout the entire document.
  • Footnote numbers must precede the note and be placed slightly above the line (superscripted). Leave no space between the number and the note.
  • While footnotes should be located at the bottom of the page, do not place footnotes in a running page footer, as they must remain within the page margins.

Endnotes are an acceptable alternative to footnotes. Format endnotes for your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:

Endnotes with mesaurements described in surrounding text

  • Always begin endnotes on a separate page either immediately following the end of each chapter, or at the end of your entire document. If you place all endnotes at the end of the entire document, they must appear after the appendices and before the references.
  • Include the heading “ENDNOTES” in all capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top of the first page of your endnotes section(s).
  • Single-space endnotes that are more than one line long.
  • Number all endnotes with Arabic numerals. You may number notes consecutively within each chapter starting over with number 1 for the first note in each chapter, or you may number notes consecutively throughout the entire document.
  • Endnote numbers must precede the note and be placed slightly above the line (superscripted). Leave no space between the number and the note.

Tables, figures, and illustrations vary widely by discipline. Therefore, formatting of these components is largely at the discretion of the author.

For example, headings and captions may appear above or below each of these components.

These components may each be placed within the main text of the document or grouped together in a separate section.

Space permitting, headings and captions for the associated table, figure, or illustration must be on the same page.

The use of color is permitted as long as it is consistently applied as part of the finished component (e.g., a color-coded pie chart) and not extraneous or unprofessional (e.g., highlighting intended solely to draw a reader's attention to a key phrase). The use of color should be reserved primarily for tables, figures, illustrations, and active website or document links throughout your thesis or dissertation.

The format you choose for these components must be consistent throughout the thesis or dissertation.

Ensure each component complies with margin and pagination requirements.

Refer to the List of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations section for additional information.

If your thesis or dissertation has appendices, they must be prepared following these guidelines:

Appendices with mesaurements described in surrounding text

  • Appendices must appear at the end of the document (before references) and not the chapter to which they pertain.
  • When there is more than one appendix, assign each appendix a number or a letter heading (e.g., “APPENDIX 1” or “APPENDIX A”) and a descriptive title. You may number consecutively throughout the entire work (e.g., 1, 2 or A, B), or you may assign a two-part Arabic numeral with the first number designating the chapter in which it appears, separated by a period, followed by a second number or letter to indicate its consecutive placement (e.g., “APPENDIX 3.2” is the second appendix referred to in Chapter Three).
  • Include the chosen headings in all capital letters, and center them 1″ below the top of the page.
  • All appendix headings and titles must be included in the table of contents.
  • Page numbering must continue throughout your appendix or appendices. Ensure each appendix complies with margin and pagination requirements.

You are required to list all the references you consulted. For specific details on formatting your references, consult and follow a style manual or professional journal that is used for formatting publications and citations in your discipline.

References with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Your reference pages must be prepared following these guidelines:

  • If you place references after each chapter, the references for the last chapter must be placed immediately following the chapter and before the appendices.
  • If you place all references at the end of the thesis or dissertation, they must appear after the appendices as the final component in the document.
  • Select an appropriate heading for this section based on the style manual you are using (e.g., “REFERENCES”, “BIBLIOGRAPHY”, or “WORKS CITED”).
  • Include the chosen heading in all capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top of the page.
  • References must be single-spaced within each entry.
  • Include one double-spaced line between each reference.
  • Page numbering must continue throughout your references section. Ensure references comply with margin and pagination requirements.

In some cases, students gain approval from their academic program to include in their thesis or dissertation previously published (or submitted, in press, or under review) journal articles or similar materials that they have authored. For more information about including previously published works in your thesis or dissertation, see the section on Use of Your Own Previously Published Materials and the section on Copyrighting.

If your academic program has approved inclusion of such materials, please note that these materials must match the formatting guidelines set forth in this Guide regardless of how the material was formatted for publication.

Some specific formatting guidelines to consider include:

Formatting previously published work with mesaurements described in surrounding text

  • Fonts, margins, chapter headings, citations, and references must all match the formatting and placement used within the rest of the thesis or dissertation.
  • If appropriate, published articles can be included as separate individual chapters within the thesis or dissertation.
  • A separate abstract to each chapter should not be included.
  • The citation for previously published work must be included as the first footnote (or endnote) on the first page of the chapter.
  • Do not include typesetting notations often used when submitting manuscripts to a publisher (i.e., insert table x here).
  • The date on the title page should be the year in which your committee approves the thesis or dissertation, regardless of the date of completion or publication of individual chapters.
  • If you would like to include additional details about the previously published work, this information can be included in the preface for the thesis or dissertation.

Previous: Order and Components

Next: Distribution

What font should I choose for my thesis?

This post is by DrJanene Carey, a freelance writer and editor based in Armidale NSW. She occasionally teaches academic writing at the University of New England and often edits academic theses, articles and reports. Her website is http://www.janenecarey.com

Arguably, this question is a classic time waster and the student who poses it should be told to just get on with writing up their research. But as someone who edits theses for a living, I think a bit of time spent on fonts is part of the process of buffing and polishing what is, after all, one of the most important documents you will ever produce. Just bear in mind that there is no need to immerse yourself so deeply in the topic that you start quibbling about whether it’s a font or a typeface that you are choosing .

Times New Roman is the standard choice for academic documents, and the thesis preparation guidelines of some universities stipulate its use. For many years, it was the default body text for Microsoft Word. With the release of Office 2007, the default became a sans serif typeface called Calibri. Lacking the little projecting bits (serifs) at the end of characters makes Calibri and its many friends, such as Arial, Helvetica and Verdana, look smoother and clearer on a screen, but generally makes them less readable than a serif typeface when used for printed text . The other problem with choosing a sans serif for your body text is that if you want passages in italics (for example, lengthy participant quotes) often this will be displayed as slanted letters, rather than as a true italic font.

You would like your examiners to feel as comfortable as possible while their eyes are traversing the many, many pages of your thesis, so maximising legibility and readability is a good idea. Times New Roman is ubiquitous and familiar, which means it is probably the safest option, but it does have a couple of drawbacks. Originally designed for The Times in London, its characters are slightly narrowed, so that more of them can be squished into a newspaper column. Secondly, some people intensely dislike TNR because they think it has been overused, and regard it as the font you choose when you are not choosing a font .

If you do have the luxury of choice (your university doesn’t insist you use Times New Roman, and you have defined document styles that are easy to modify, and there’s enough time left before the submission deadline) then I think it is worth considering what other typefaces might work well with your thesis. I’m not a typographical expert, but I have the following suggestions.

  • Don’t use Calibri, or any other sans serif font, for your body text, though it is fine for headings. Most people agree that dense chunks of printed text are easier to read if the font is serif, and examiners are likely to expect a typeface that doesn’t stray too far from the standard. To my eye, Calibri looks a little too casual for the body of a thesis.
  • Typefaces like Garamond, Palatino, Century Schoolbook, Georgia, Minion Pro, Cambria and Constantia are all perfectly acceptable, and they come with Microsoft Word. However, some of them (Georgia and Constantia, for example) feature non-lining numerals, which means that instead of all sitting neatly on the base line, some will stand higher or lower than others, just like letters do. This looks nice when they are integrated with the text, but it is probably not what you want for a tabular display.
  • Consider using a different typeface for your headings. It will make them more prominent, which enhances overall readability because the eye scanning the pages can quickly take in the hierarchy of ideas. The easiest way to get a good contrast with your serif body text is to have sans serif headings. Popular combinations are Garamond/Helvetica; Minion Pro/Myriad Pro; Times New Roman/Arial Narrow. But don’t create a dog’s breakfast by having more than two typefaces in your thesis – use point sizes, bold and italics for variety.

Of late, I’ve become quite fond of Constantia. It’s an attractive serif typeface that came out with Office 2007 at the same time as Calibri, and was specifically designed to look good in print and on screen. Increasingly, theses will be read in PDF rather than book format, so screen readability is an important consideration.  Asked to review Microsoft’s six new ClearType fonts prior to their release, typographer Raph Levien said Constantia was likely to be everyone’s favourite, because ‘Even though it’s a highly readable Roman font departing only slightly from the classical model, it still manages to be fresh and new.’

By default, Constantia has non-lining numerals, but from Word 2010 onwards you can set them to be lining via the advanced font/number forms option, either throughout your document or in specific sections, such as within tables.

Here is an excerpt from a thesis, shown twice with different typefaces. The first excerpt features Calibri headings with Constantia body text, and the second has that old favourite, Times New Roman. As these examples have been rendered as screenshots, you will get a better idea of how the fonts actually look if you try them on your own computer and printer.

Calibri Constantia

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Formatting requirements.

Requirements for format and final production of the dissertation and thesis, as specified below, meet UMI standards and American Library Association (ALA) suggestions for preserving archival copies of the dissertation and thesis.

1. Language

The dissertation or thesis must be written in English.

2. Page Size and Specifications

  • Page size must be 8.5 x 11 inches (or 216 x 279 millimeters), also known as “letter” size in U.S. standards. (ISO standard paper sizes, such as A4, are not allowed.)
  • The inclusion of oversized pages or sheets of paper larger than 8.5 x 11 inches (known as “foldouts”) is discouraged. When necessary, 11 x 17 inch pages may be used for large tables, illustrations, etc.
  • Text must be embedded, 11-point or larger font.
  • Smaller font size may be appropriate for footnotes or other material outside of the main text.
  • Black text is recommended; although, color may be appropriate in some limited parts of the document.
  • Font requirements apply to all text, including captions, footnotes, citations, etc.

Margins should be at least 1 inch with page numbers at least 3/4 inch from the edge of the page. The templates use 1.6 inches for the left margin and 1.1 inches for the right.

Document must be double-spaced with the exception of quotations as paragraphs, captions, lists, graphs, charts, footnotes/endnotes, bibliographic entries, items within tables, and lists in appendices.

Exceptions may include the following:

  • Quotations and footnotes may be single-spaced within each entry.
  • Lengthy tables may be single-spaced.
  • Irregular spacing may be used to accommodate poetry or other creative writing.

Tables should be consecutively numbered.

Figures should be consecutively numbered.

Format Requirements for Your Dissertation or Thesis

Main navigation.

The final dissertation or thesis manuscript must have a ready-for-publication appearance and standard features.

The Office of the University Registrar does not endorse or verify the accuracy of any dissertation or thesis formatting templates that may be available to you.

It is your student responsibility to make sure that the formatting meets these requirements. Introductory material, text, and appendices must all be clearly and consistently prepared and must meet all of the specifications outlined below.

Once you upload and submit your dissertation or thesis in Axess, and it has been approved by the university, the submission is considered final and no further changes are permitted.

The digital file of the dissertation or thesis, which is sent to Stanford Libraries for cataloging, must meet certain technical requirements to ensure that it can be easily accessed by readers now and into the future. 

Follow the specifications outlined below.

Style and Format

Word and text divisions, style guides, content and layout, special instructions for d.m.a. students, order and content, page orientation, embedded links, supplementary material and publishing, supplementary material, scholarly reference, published papers and multiple authorship, use of copyrighted material, copyrighting your dissertation, file security and file name, stanford university thesis & dissertation publication license.

Pages should be standard U.S. letter size (8.5 x 11 inches).

In order to ensure the future ability to render the document, standard fonts must be used. 

For the main text body, type size should be 10, 11, or 12 point. Smaller font sizes may be used in tables, captions, etc. 

The font color must be black. 

Font Families

Acceptable font styles include:

  • Times New Roman (preferred)
  • Courier, Courier Bold, Courier Oblique, Courier Bold-Oblique;
  • Helvetica, Helvetica Bold, Helvetica Oblique, Helvetica Bold-Oblique;
  • Times, Times Bold, Times Italic, Times Bold-Italic;
  • Computer Modern (or Computer Modern Roman).

Note: Do not use script or ornamental fonts. Do not use proprietary fonts.

If you use mathematical or other scientific notation in your dissertation or thesis using a font other than Symbol, you must embed the font into the PDF that is submitted to the university. 

Inner margins (left edge if single-sided; right edge for even-numbered pages, and left edge for odd-numbered pages if double-sided) must be 1.5 inches. All other margins must be one inch.

Pagination, headers, and/or footers may be placed within the margin, but no closer than one-half inch from the edge of the page.

For double-sided copies, 1.5 inches must be maintained as the inner margin. Margin requirements should apply to the entire document, including the title page.

The main text of the manuscript should be one-and-a-half or double-spaced lines, except where conventional usage calls for single spacing, such as footnotes, indented quotations, tables, etc.

Words should be divided correctly at the end of a line and may not be divided from one page to the next. Use a standard dictionary to determine word division. 

Avoid short lines that end a paragraph at the top of a page, and any heading or subheading at the bottom of a page that is not followed by text.

The dissertation and thesis must be in English. 

Language Exceptions for Dissertations Only

Approval for writing the dissertation in another language is normally granted only in cases where the other language or literature in that language is also the subject of the discipline. 

Exceptions are granted by the school dean upon submission of a written request from the chair of your major department. Approval is routinely granted for dissertations in the Division of Literature, Cultures, and Languages within department specifications.

Prior to submitting in Axess, you must send a copy of the approval letter (or email message chain) from the department dean to [email protected]    

Dissertations written in another language must include an extended summary in English (usually 15 to 20 pages in length). In this case, you should upload your English summary as a supplemental file, during Step 4 of the online submission process.

Select a standard style approved by your department and use it consistently. 

Some reliable style guides are:

  • K.A. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, 
  • Theses and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press), and 
  • the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Modern Language Association).

If you are a student in the Doctor of Musical Arts program, you may submit musical scores formatted at 11 x 17 inches in size. 

If you are submitting a performance as your dissertation, submit the audio file in WAV format as a supplemental file. 

Note: The maximum file size accepted for submission is 100 MB. If a performance recording exceeds the maximum file size, break the file into multiple files and submit the parts individually as supplemental files.

Your dissertation or thesis must contain the following sections. All sections must be included in a single digital file for upload.

  • Title Page — The format must be followed exactly. View these title page examples for Ph.D. Dissertation and this title page sample for an Engineer Thesis . Use uppercase letters. The title of the dissertation or thesis should be a meaningful description of the content of the manuscript. Use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, subscripts, Greek letters, etc. The month and year must be the actual month and year in which you submit your dissertation or thesis electronically to the university. (Note: A student who submits in Autumn quarter is conferred his/her degree in the following calendar year.)
  • Copyright Page — The dissertation or thesis PDF uploaded in Axess should not contain a copyright page. The copyright page will be created automatically by the online submission system and inserted into the file stored by Stanford Libraries.
  • Signature Page — The dissertation or thesis PDF uploaded in Axess should also not contain a signature page. The submission process has moved away from ink-signatures, so a digital facsimile of the signature page will be created automatically by the online submission system and inserted into the dissertation or thesis in its final format stored by Stanford Libraries.
  • Abstract — An abstract may be included in the preliminary section of the dissertation or thesis. The abstract in the body of the dissertation or thesis follows the style used for the rest of the manuscript and should be placed following the signature page. There is no maximum permissible length for the abstract in the dissertation or thesis.    Dissertation authors must enter an abstract using the online submission form for uploading the digital dissertation or thesis file to the library. This abstract, which will be indexed for online searching, must be formatted in plain text (no HTML or special formatting). It should be a pithy and succinct version of the abstract included in the dissertation or thesis itself.
  • Preface, an Acknowledgment, or a Dedication
  • Table of Contents – Include page references.
  • List of Tables –  Include titles and page references. This list is optional.
  • List of Illustrations – Include titles and page references. This list is optional
  • Introduction  
  • Main body – Include suitable, consistent headings for the larger divisions and more important sub-divisions.
  • Appendices.
  • Bibliography or List of References.

Except for the title page, which counts as 'i' but is not physically numbered, each page of the manuscript, including all blank pages, pages between chapters, pages with text, photographs, tables, figures, maps, or computer code must be assigned a number. 

Consistent placement of pagination, at least one-half inch from the paper’s edge, should be used throughout the manuscript.

Follow these pagination instructions exactly:

  • For the preliminary pages, use small Roman numerals (e.g., iv, v, vi).
  • The title page is not physically numbered, but counts as page i.
  • Keep in mind that a copyright page ii and augmented signature page iii (based off your student record) will automatically be inserted to your manuscript during submission.  This means you must ensure to remove pages ii and iii from your dissertation or thesis.
  • Failing to remove pages ii and iii is most common formatting mistake: you must remove your copyright page ii and signature page iii from the pdf file before you submit your dissertation or thesis, and begin pagination on your abstract with page number "iv". If the document is formatted for double-sided printing with each section starting on the right page, then pagination will begin on a blank page (page"iv") and the Abstract should be numbered as page "v", and so forth.
  • For the remainder of the manuscript, starting with the Introduction or Chapter 1 of the Main Body, use continuous pagination (1, 2, 3, etc) for text, illustrations, images, appendices, and the bibliography. Remember to start with Arabic numbered page 1, as this is not a continuation of the Roman numeral numbering from the preliminary pages.
  • The placement of page numbers should be consistent throughout the document.

For text, illustrations, charts, graphs, etc., printed in landscape form, the orientation should be facing away from the bound edge of the paper.

Images (color, grayscale, and monochrome) included in the dissertation or thesis should be clearly discernible both on screen and when printed. The dimensions should not exceed the size of the standard letter-size page (8.5” x 11”).

Image resolution should be 150 dots per inch (dpi), though resolutions as low as 72 dpi (and no lower) are acceptable. 

The format of images embedded in the PDF should be JPEG or EPS (the format JPEG2000 is also acceptable when it is supported in future versions of the PDF format). GIF and PNG are not preferred image file formats.

Large images, including maps and charts or other graphics that require high resolution, should not be included in the main dissertation or thesis file. Instead, they can be submitted separately as supplemental files and formatted in other formats as appropriate. 

Multimedia, such as audio, video, animation, etc., must not be embedded in the body of the dissertation or thesis. These media types add size and complexity to the digital file, introducing obstacles to users of the dissertation or thesis who wish to download and read (and “play back”) the content, and making it more difficult to preserve over time.

If you wish to include multimedia with your submission, upload the media separately as a stand-alone file in an appropriate media format. See Supplementary Material section below.

It is acceptable to include “live” (i.e., clickable) web URLs that link to online resources within the dissertation or thesis file. Spell out each URL in its entirety (e.g., http://www.stanford.edu ) rather than embedding the link in text (e.g., Stanford homepage ). By spelling out the URL, you improve a reader’s ability to understand and access the link reference.

Supplementary material may be submitted electronically with the dissertation or thesis. This material includes any supporting content that is useful for understanding the dissertation or thesis, but is not essential to the argument. It also covers core content in a form that can not be adequately represented or embedded in the PDF format, such as an audio recording of a musical performance.

Supplementary materials are submitted separately than the dissertation or thesis file, and are referred to as supplemental files.

A maximum of twenty supplemental files can be submitted. There are no restrictions on the file formats. The maximum file size is 1 GB.

You are encouraged to be judicious about the volume and quality of the supplemental files, and to employ file formats that are widely used by researchers generally, if not also by scholars of the discipline.

The following table outlines recommended file formats for different content types. By following these recommendations, the author is helping to ensure ongoing access to the material.

After uploading each supplemental file, it is important to enter a short description or label (maximum 120 characters for file name and the description). This label will be displayed to readers in a list of the contents for the entire submission.

If copyrighted material is part of the supplementary material, permission to reuse and distribute the content must be obtained from the owner of the copyright. Stanford Libraries requires copies of permission letters (in PDF format) to be uploaded electronically when submitting the files, and assumes no liability for copyright violations. View this sample permission letter .

System restrictions allow for a maximum of 10 individually uploaded permission files. If you have more than 10 permission files we recommend combining all permission letters into a single PDF file for upload.

In choosing an annotation or reference system, you should be guided by the practice of your discipline and the recommendations of your departments. In addition to the general style guides listed in the Style section above, there are specific style guides for some fields. When a reference system has been selected, it should be used consistently throughout the dissertation or thesis. The placement of footnotes is at your discretion with reading committee approval.

An important aspect of modern scholarship is the proper attribution of authorship for joint or group research. If the manuscript includes joint or group research, you must clearly identify your contribution to the enterprise in an introduction.

The inclusion of published papers in a dissertation or thesis is the prerogative of the major department. Where published papers or ready-for-publication papers are included, the following criteria must be met:

  • There must be an introductory chapter that integrates the general theme of the research and the relationship between the chapters. The introduction may also include a review of the literature relevant to the dissertation or thesis topic that does not appear in the chapters.
  • Multiple authorship of a published paper should be addressed by clearly designating, in an introduction, the role that the dissertation or thesis author had in the research and production of the published paper. The student must have a major contribution to the research and writing of papers included in the dissertation or thesis.
  • There must be adequate referencing of where individual papers have been published.
  • Written permission must be obtained for all copyrighted materials. Letters of permission must be uploaded electronically in PDF form when submitting the dissertation or thesis. 
  • The submitted material must be in a form that is legible and reproducible as required by these specifications. The Office of the University Registrar will approve a dissertation or thesis if there are no deviations from the normal specifications that would prevent proper dissemination and utilization of the dissertation or thesis. If the published material does not correspond to these standards, it will be necessary for you to reformat that portion of the dissertation or thesis.
  • Multiple authorship has implications with respect to copyright and public release of the material. Be sure to discuss copyright clearance and embargo options with your co-authors and your advisor well in advance of preparing your thesis for submission.

If copyrighted material belonging to others is used in your dissertation or thesis or is part of your supplementary materials, you must give full credit to the author and publisher of the work in all cases, and obtain permission from the copyright owner for reuse of the material unless you have determined that your use of the work is clearly fair use under US copyright law (17 USC §107). 

The statute sets out four factors that must be considered when assessing Fair Use:

  • the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purpose;
  • the nature of the copyrighted work;
  • the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  • the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

The Association of American University Presses requires permission for any quotations that are reproduced as complete units (poems, letters, short stories, essays, journal articles, complete chapters or sections of books, maps, charts, graphs, tables, drawings, or other illustrative materials). You can find this guideline and other detailed information on Fair Use at http://fairuse.stanford.edu . 

If you are in doubt, it is safest to obtain permission. Permission to use copyrighted material must be obtained from the owner of the copyright. Stanford Libraries requires copies of permission letters (in PDF format) to be uploaded electronically when submitting the dissertation or thesis, and assumes no liability for copyright violations. For reference, view this sample permission letter .

Copyright protection is automatically in effect from the time the work is in fixed form. A proper copyright statement consisting of the copyright symbol, the author’s name, year of degree conferral, and the phrase “All Rights Reserved” will be added automatically to the dissertation or thesis in its final form.

Registration of copyright is not required, but it establishes a public record of your copyright claim and enables copyright owners to litigate against infringement. You need not register your copyright with the U.S. Copyright Office at the outset, although registration must be made before the copyright may be enforced by litigation in case of infringement. 

Early registration does have certain advantages: it establishes a public record of your copyright claim, and if registration has been made prior to the infringement of your work, or within three months after its publication, qualifies you to be awarded statutory damages and attorney fees in addition to the actual damages and profits available to you as the copyright owner (should you ever have to sue because of infringement).

For more information about copyright, see the Stanford Libraries' resource on Copyright Considerations .

For further information on Registration of Copyright, see https://www.copyright.gov/registration/ .

Do not require a password to make changes to your submitted PDF file, or apply other encryption or security measures. Password-protected files will be rejected.

The file name and description will be printed on a page added to your dissertation or thesis, so choose a file name accordingly.

Important note: File names may only consist of alphanumeric characters, hyphen, underscore, at sign, space, ampersand, and comma – before the ending period and file extension.  Specifically,

  • A file name cannot start with a space, period (nor contain a period), underscore, or hyphen.
  • Files names must be 120 characters or less.

Here is an example of a filename that is allowed, including all of the possible characters:

  • A Study of Social Media with a Focus on @Twitter Accounts, Leland Student_30AUG2023.pdf

In submitting a thesis or dissertation to Stanford, the author grants The Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University (Stanford) the non-exclusive, worldwide, perpetual, irrevocable right to reproduce, distribute, display and transmit author's thesis or dissertation, including any supplemental materials (the Work), in whole or in part in such print and electronic formats as may be in existence now or developed in the future, to sub-license others to do the same, and to preserve and protect the Work, subject to any third-party release or display restrictions specified by Author on submission of the Work to Stanford.

Author further represents and warrants that Author is the copyright holder of the Work, and has obtained all necessary rights to permit Stanford to reproduce and distribute third-party materials contained in any part of the Work, including use of third-party images, text, or music, as well as all necessary licenses relating to any non-public, third-party software necessary to access, display, and run or print the Work. Author is solely responsible and will indemnify Stanford for any third party claims related to the Work as submitted for publication.

Author warrants that the Work does not contain information protected by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), confidentiality agreements, or contain Stanford Prohibited, Restricted or Confidential data described on the University IT website , or other data of a private nature.

Stanford is under no obligation to use, display or host the work in any way and may elect not to use the work for any reason including copyright or other legal concerns, financial resources, or programmatic need.

  • Formatting Your Dissertation
  • Introduction

Harvard Griffin GSAS strives to provide students with timely, accurate, and clear information. If you need help understanding a specific policy, please contact the office that administers that policy.

  • Application for Degree
  • Credit for Completed Graduate Work
  • Ad Hoc Degree Programs
  • Acknowledging the Work of Others
  • Advanced Planning
  • Dissertation Submission Checklist
  • Publishing Options
  • Submitting Your Dissertation
  • English Language Proficiency
  • PhD Program Requirements
  • Secondary Fields
  • Year of Graduate Study (G-Year)
  • Master's Degrees
  • Grade and Examination Requirements
  • Conduct and Safety
  • Financial Aid
  • Registration

On this page:

Language of the Dissertation

Page and text requirements, body of text, tables, figures, and captions, dissertation acceptance certificate, copyright statement.

  • Table of Contents

Front and Back Matter

Supplemental material, dissertations comprising previously published works, top ten formatting errors, further questions.

  • Related Contacts and Forms

When preparing the dissertation for submission, students must follow strict formatting requirements. Any deviation from these requirements may lead to rejection of the dissertation and delay in the conferral of the degree.

The language of the dissertation is ordinarily English, although some departments whose subject matter involves foreign languages may accept a dissertation written in a language other than English.

Most dissertations are 100 to 300 pages in length. All dissertations should be divided into appropriate sections, and long dissertations may need chapters, main divisions, and subdivisions.

  • 8½ x 11 inches, unless a musical score is included
  • At least 1 inch for all margins
  • Body of text: double spacing
  • Block quotations, footnotes, and bibliographies: single spacing within each entry but double spacing between each entry
  • Table of contents, list of tables, list of figures or illustrations, and lengthy tables: single spacing may be used

Fonts and Point Size

Use 10-12 point size. Fonts must be embedded in the PDF file to ensure all characters display correctly. 

Recommended Fonts

If you are unsure whether your chosen font will display correctly, use one of the following fonts: 

If fonts are not embedded, non-English characters may not appear as intended. Fonts embedded improperly will be published to DASH as-is. It is the student’s responsibility to make sure that fonts are embedded properly prior to submission. 

Instructions for Embedding Fonts

To embed your fonts in recent versions of Word, follow these instructions from Microsoft:

  • Click the File tab and then click Options .
  • In the left column, select the Save tab.
  • Clear the Do not embed common system fonts check box.

For reference, below are some instructions from ProQuest UMI for embedding fonts in older file formats:

To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2010:

  • In the File pull-down menu click on Options .
  • Choose Save on the left sidebar.
  • Check the box next to Embed fonts in the file.
  • Click the OK button.
  • Save the document.

Note that when saving as a PDF, make sure to go to “more options” and save as “PDF/A compliant”

To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2007:

  • Click the circular Office button in the upper left corner of Microsoft Word.
  • A new window will display. In the bottom right corner select Word Options . 
  • Choose Save from the left sidebar.

Using Microsoft Word on a Mac:

Microsoft Word 2008 on a Mac OS X computer will automatically embed your fonts while converting your document to a PDF file.

If you are converting to PDF using Acrobat Professional (instructions courtesy of the Graduate Thesis Office at Iowa State University):  

  • Open your document in Microsoft Word. 
  • Click on the Adobe PDF tab at the top. Select "Change Conversion Settings." 
  • Click on Advanced Settings. 
  • Click on the Fonts folder on the left side of the new window. In the lower box on the right, delete any fonts that appear in the "Never Embed" box. Then click "OK." 
  • If prompted to save these new settings, save them as "Embed all fonts." 
  • Now the Change Conversion Settings window should show "embed all fonts" in the Conversion Settings drop-down list and it should be selected. Click "OK" again. 
  • Click on the Adobe PDF link at the top again. This time select Convert to Adobe PDF. Depending on the size of your document and the speed of your computer, this process can take 1-15 minutes. 
  • After your document is converted, select the "File" tab at the top of the page. Then select "Document Properties." 
  • Click on the "Fonts" tab. Carefully check all of your fonts. They should all show "(Embedded Subset)" after the font name. 
  •  If you see "(Embedded Subset)" after all fonts, you have succeeded.

The font used in the body of the text must also be used in headers, page numbers, and footnotes. Exceptions are made only for tables and figures created with different software and inserted into the document.

Tables and figures must be placed as close as possible to their first mention in the text. They may be placed on a page with no text above or below, or they may be placed directly into the text. If a table or a figure is alone on a page (with no narrative), it should be centered within the margins on the page. Tables may take up more than one page as long as they obey all rules about margins. Tables and figures referred to in the text may not be placed at the end of the chapter or at the end of the dissertation.

  • Given the standards of the discipline, dissertations in the Department of History of Art and Architecture and the Department of Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Planning often place illustrations at the end of the dissertation.

Figure and table numbering must be continuous throughout the dissertation or by chapter (e.g., 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, etc.). Two figures or tables cannot be designated with the same number. If you have repeating images that you need to cite more than once, label them with their number and A, B, etc. 

Headings should be placed at the top of tables. While no specific rules for the format of table headings and figure captions are required, a consistent format must be used throughout the dissertation (contact your department for style manuals appropriate to the field).

Captions should appear at the bottom of any figures. If the figure takes up the entire page, the caption should be placed alone on the preceding page, centered vertically and horizontally within the margins.

Each page receives a separate page number. When a figure or table title is on a preceding page, the second and subsequent pages of the figure or table should say, for example, “Figure 5 (Continued).” In such an instance, the list of figures or tables will list the page number containing the title. The word “figure” should be written in full (not abbreviated), and the “F” should be capitalized (e.g., Figure 5). In instances where the caption continues on a second page, the “(Continued)” notation should appear on the second and any subsequent page. The figure/table and the caption are viewed as one entity and the numbering should show correlation between all pages. Each page must include a header.

Landscape orientation figures and tables must be positioned correctly and bound at the top so that the top of the figure or table will be at the left margin. Figure and table headings/captions are placed with the same orientation as the figure or table when on the same page. When on a separate page, headings/captions are always placed in portrait orientation, regardless of the orientation of the figure or table. Page numbers are always placed as if the figure were vertical on the page.

If a graphic artist does the figures, Harvard Griffin GSAS will accept lettering done by the artist only within the figure. Figures done with software are acceptable if the figures are clear and legible. Legends and titles done by the same process as the figures will be accepted if they too are clear, legible, and run at least 10 or 12 characters per inch. Otherwise, legends and captions should be printed with the same font used in the text.

Original illustrations, photographs, and fine arts prints may be scanned and included, centered between the margins on a page with no text above or below.

Use of Third-Party Content

In addition to the student's own writing, dissertations often contain third-party content or in-copyright content owned by parties other than you, the student who authored the dissertation. The Office for Scholarly Communication recommends consulting the information below about fair use, which allows individuals to use in-copyright content, on a limited basis and for specific purposes, without seeking permission from copyright holders.

Because your dissertation will be made available for online distribution through DASH , Harvard's open-access repository, it is important that any third-party content in it may be made available in this way.

Fair Use and Copyright 

What is fair use?

Fair use is a provision in copyright law that allows the use of a certain amount of copyrighted material without seeking permission. Fair use is format- and media-agnostic. This means fair use may apply to images (including photographs, illustrations, and paintings), quoting at length from literature, videos, and music regardless of the format. 

How do I determine whether my use of an image or other third-party content in my dissertation is fair use?  

There are four factors you will need to consider when making a fair use claim.

1) For what purpose is your work going to be used?

  • Nonprofit, educational, scholarly, or research use favors fair use. Commercial, non-educational uses, often do not favor fair use.
  • A transformative use (repurposing or recontextualizing the in-copyright material) favors fair use. Examining, analyzing, and explicating the material in a meaningful way, so as to enhance a reader's understanding, strengthens your fair use argument. In other words, can you make the point in the thesis without using, for instance, an in-copyright image? Is that image necessary to your dissertation? If not, perhaps, for copyright reasons, you should not include the image.  

2) What is the nature of the work to be used?

  • Published, fact-based content favors fair use and includes scholarly analysis in published academic venues. 
  • Creative works, including artistic images, are afforded more protection under copyright, and depending on your use in light of the other factors, may be less likely to favor fair use; however, this does not preclude considerations of fair use for creative content altogether.

3) How much of the work is going to be used?  

  • Small, or less significant, amounts favor fair use. A good rule of thumb is to use only as much of the in-copyright content as necessary to serve your purpose. Can you use a thumbnail rather than a full-resolution image? Can you use a black-and-white photo instead of color? Can you quote select passages instead of including several pages of the content? These simple changes bolster your fair use of the material.

4) What potential effect on the market for that work may your use have?

  • If there is a market for licensing this exact use or type of educational material, then this weighs against fair use. If however, there would likely be no effect on the potential commercial market, or if it is not possible to obtain permission to use the work, then this favors fair use. 

For further assistance with fair use, consult the Office for Scholarly Communication's guide, Fair Use: Made for the Harvard Community and the Office of the General Counsel's Copyright and Fair Use: A Guide for the Harvard Community .

What are my options if I don’t have a strong fair use claim? 

Consider the following options if you find you cannot reasonably make a fair use claim for the content you wish to incorporate:

  • Seek permission from the copyright holder. 
  • Use openly licensed content as an alternative to the original third-party content you intended to use. Openly-licensed content grants permission up-front for reuse of in-copyright content, provided your use meets the terms of the open license.
  • Use content in the public domain, as this content is not in-copyright and is therefore free of all copyright restrictions. Whereas third-party content is owned by parties other than you, no one owns content in the public domain; everyone, therefore, has the right to use it.

For use of images in your dissertation, please consult this guide to Finding Public Domain & Creative Commons Media , which is a great resource for finding images without copyright restrictions. 

Who can help me with questions about copyright and fair use?

Contact your Copyright First Responder . Please note, Copyright First Responders assist with questions concerning copyright and fair use, but do not assist with the process of obtaining permission from copyright holders.

Pages should be assigned a number except for the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate . Preliminary pages (abstract, table of contents, list of tables, graphs, illustrations, and preface) should use small Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc.). All pages must contain text or images.  

Count the title page as page i and the copyright page as page ii, but do not print page numbers on either page .

For the body of text, use Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) starting with page 1 on the first page of text. Page numbers must be centered throughout the manuscript at the top or bottom. Every numbered page must be consecutively ordered, including tables, graphs, illustrations, and bibliography/index (if included); letter suffixes (such as 10a, 10b, etc.) are not allowed. It is customary not to have a page number on the page containing a chapter heading.

  • Check pagination carefully. Account for all pages.

A copy of the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate (DAC) should appear as the first page. This page should not be counted or numbered. The DAC will appear in the online version of the published dissertation. The author name and date on the DAC and title page should be the same. 

The dissertation begins with the title page; the title should be as concise as possible and should provide an accurate description of the dissertation. The author name and date on the DAC and title page should be the same. 

  • Do not print a page number on the title page. It is understood to be page  i  for counting purposes only.

A copyright notice should appear on a separate page immediately following the title page and include the copyright symbol ©, the year of first publication of the work, and the name of the author:

© [ year ] [ Author’s Name ] All rights reserved.

Alternatively, students may choose to license their work openly under a  Creative Commons  license. The author remains the copyright holder while at the same time granting up-front permission to others to read, share, and (depending on the license) adapt the work, so long as proper attribution is given. (By default, under copyright law, the author reserves all rights; under a Creative Commons license, the author reserves some rights.)

  • Do  not  print a page number on the copyright page. It is understood to be page  ii  for counting purposes only.

An abstract, numbered as page  iii , should immediately follow the copyright page and should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. The abstract will appear in the online and bound versions of the dissertation and will be published by ProQuest. There is no maximum word count for the abstract. 

  • double-spaced
  • left-justified
  • indented on the first line of each paragraph
  • The author’s name, right justified
  • The words “Dissertation Advisor:” followed by the advisor’s name, left-justified (a maximum of two advisors is allowed)
  • Title of the dissertation, centered, several lines below author and advisor

Dissertations divided into sections must contain a table of contents that lists, at minimum, the major headings in the following order:

  • Front Matter
  • Body of Text
  • Back Matter

Front matter includes (if applicable):

  • acknowledgements of help or encouragement from individuals or institutions
  • a dedication
  • a list of illustrations or tables
  • a glossary of terms
  • one or more epigraphs.

Back matter includes (if applicable):

  • bibliography
  • supplemental materials, including figures and tables
  • an index (in rare instances).

Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the end of the dissertation in an appendix, not within or at the end of a chapter. If additional digital information (including audio, video, image, or datasets) will accompany the main body of the dissertation, it should be uploaded as a supplemental file through ProQuest ETD . Supplemental material will be available in DASH and ProQuest and preserved digitally in the Harvard University Archives.

As a matter of copyright, dissertations comprising the student's previously published works must be authorized for distribution from DASH. The guidelines in this section pertain to any previously published material that requires permission from publishers or other rightsholders before it may be distributed from DASH. Please note:

  • Authors whose publishing agreements grant the publisher exclusive rights to display, distribute, and create derivative works will need to seek the publisher's permission for nonexclusive use of the underlying works before the dissertation may be distributed from DASH.
  • Authors whose publishing agreements indicate the authors have retained the relevant nonexclusive rights to the original materials for display, distribution, and the creation of derivative works may distribute the dissertation as a whole from DASH without need for further permissions.

It is recommended that authors consult their publishing agreements directly to determine whether and to what extent they may have transferred exclusive rights under copyright. The Office for Scholarly Communication (OSC) is available to help the author determine whether she has retained the necessary rights or requires permission. Please note, however, the Office of Scholarly Communication is not able to assist with the permissions process itself.

  • Missing Dissertation Acceptance Certificate.  The first page of the PDF dissertation file should be a scanned copy of the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate (DAC). This page should not be counted or numbered as a part of the dissertation pagination.
  • Conflicts Between the DAC and the Title Page.  The DAC and the dissertation title page must match exactly, meaning that the author name and the title on the title page must match that on the DAC. If you use your full middle name or just an initial on one document, it must be the same on the other document.  
  • Abstract Formatting Errors. The advisor name should be left-justified, and the author's name should be right-justified. Up to two advisor names are allowed. The Abstract should be double spaced and include the page title “Abstract,” as well as the page number “iii.” There is no maximum word count for the abstract. 
  •  The front matter should be numbered using Roman numerals (iii, iv, v, …). The title page and the copyright page should be counted but not numbered. The first printed page number should appear on the Abstract page (iii). 
  • The body of the dissertation should be numbered using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, …). The first page of the body of the text should begin with page 1. Pagination may not continue from the front matter. 
  • All page numbers should be centered either at the top or the bottom of the page.
  • Figures and tables Figures and tables must be placed within the text, as close to their first mention as possible. Figures and tables that span more than one page must be labeled on each page. Any second and subsequent page of the figure/table must include the “(Continued)” notation. This applies to figure captions as well as images. Each page of a figure/table must be accounted for and appropriately labeled. All figures/tables must have a unique number. They may not repeat within the dissertation.
  • Any figures/tables placed in a horizontal orientation must be placed with the top of the figure/ table on the left-hand side. The top of the figure/table should be aligned with the spine of the dissertation when it is bound. 
  • Page numbers must be placed in the same location on all pages of the dissertation, centered, at the bottom or top of the page. Page numbers may not appear under the table/ figure.
  • Supplemental Figures and Tables. Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the back of the dissertation in an appendix. They should not be placed at the back of the chapter. 
  • Permission Letters Copyright. permission letters must be uploaded as a supplemental file, titled ‘do_not_publish_permission_letters,” within the dissertation submission tool.
  •  DAC Attachment. The signed Dissertation Acceptance Certificate must additionally be uploaded as a document in the "Administrative Documents" section when submitting in Proquest ETD . Dissertation submission is not complete until all documents have been received and accepted.
  • Overall Formatting. The entire document should be checked after all revisions, and before submitting online, to spot any inconsistencies or PDF conversion glitches.
  • You can view dissertations successfully published from your department in DASH . This is a great place to check for specific formatting and area-specific conventions.
  • Contact the  Office of Student Affairs  with further questions.

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KU Thesis and Dissertation Formatting: Fonts and Spacing

  • Formatting Specifics
  • Title and Acceptance Pages
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Office of Graduate Studies Thesis and Dissertation Formatting Guidelines

These rules are taken from the KU Office of Graduate Studies Thesis or Dissertation Formatting Guidelines. To see the full thesis or dissertation formatting requirements, visit https://graduate.ku.edu/submitting

  • Students should use the same font size (11- or 12-point) and style (typically Times New Roman) through the thesis, including labels and references.
  • Tables, captions, and footnotes should use the same font style but may be smaller in size (usually 10-point).
  • Chapter and section headings may be bold and no more than 2 points larger than the text size.
  • Non-standard typefaces, such as script, are generally not acceptable except for commonly used symbols.
  • The Office of Graduate Studies recommends that students get their font choice approved by their department and their graduate division before the thesis defense.
  • Lettering and symbols in tables and figures should be no less than 10 points.
  • Normally theses and dissertations use double-spaced formatting.
  • Single-spaced formatting is acceptable in the table of contents, footnotes, end notes, charts, graphs, tables, block quotations, captions, glossary, appendices and bibliography.
  • Students may use singe- or one-and-a-half-spacing for the body of the text with prior written approval of their thesis committee and graduate division.

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Dissertation layout and formatting

Published on October 21, 2015 by Koen Driessen . Revised on February 20, 2019.

The layout requirements for a dissertation are often determined by your supervisor or department. However, there are certain guidelines that are common to almost every program, such as including page numbers and a table of contents.

If you are writing a paper in the MLA citation style , you can use our  MLA format guide .

Table of contents

Font, font size, and line spacing, tables and figures, referencing, paragraph marks, headers and footers, page numbering, dissertation printing.

Use a clear and professional font. Some examples include Verdana, Times New Roman, and Calibri (which is the default font in Microsoft Word). Font size is best set to 10 or 11.

In scientific articles and theses, a line spacing of 1.15 or 1.5 is generally preferred, as it makes the document more readable and enables your supervisor to post comments between the lines of text.

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font size for thesis writing

With tables, the number and title should be placed above; with figures and all other illustrations, the number and title should be placed below.

Microsoft Word has a feature that can help you to automatically place these numbers and titles in the correct position. Select the graphic, right-click, and choose “Insert Caption…” In the dialogue box that appears, specify whether it is a table or figure and enter a title. Once you click “Okay,” the number and the title will be generated in the right place.

Another advantage of using this Word feature to label your graphics is that you will later be able to generate lists of tables and figures with a push of a button.

Different heading styles are frequently used to help the reader differentiate between chapters, sections, and subsections of your dissertation. For instance, you may choose to bold all chapter headings but to italicize all lower-level headings.

Once you decide on the scheme you will use, it is important that you apply it consistently throughout your entire dissertation. Using the “Styles” feature of Microsoft Word can be very helpful in this regard. After you have created a heading, just highlight it and select a style (such as Heading 1 or Heading 2) from the home tool bar. Keeping a list may help you keep track of what style to use when.

Citing sources in a correct and appropriate manner is crucial in a dissertation, as failing to do so can make you guilty of plagiarism . It is important that these references follow certain standards.

The APA standard is most commonly used. After realizing how difficult it is to create correctly formatted citations manually, we developed the APA Citation Generator  to assist you. You can use this free and simple tool to easily generate citations that follow the official APA style.

We also recommend that you use a plagiarism scanner to check for unintended plagiarism.

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Paragraph marks in Word

Using the “Show paragraph marks” feature can help you to avoid this scenario. To turn it on, click on the paragraph symbol in your home tool bar (as shown in the above illustration). A black paragraph symbol will then be shown after every paragraph and “hard return” in your document, which allows you to see how the layout is constructed.

This can be very helpful when you are trying to determine the cause of mysterious jumps and other problems.

Headers and footers can give your dissertation a very professional look. They also make it immediately clear to readers what document is before them.

A header or footer can be added by double-clicking respectively at the top or bottom of a page in your document. There are generally no firm rules about what you must include; the following are common choices:

  • The name/logo of your home educational institution
  • The name/logo of the company or organization where you completed a placement
  • The title of your dissertation (which may be shortened if necessary)
  • Page numbers

Page numbers are commonly placed in the lower right-hand corner of the page. They can easily be added by simply creating a footer. Bear in mind that a page number is usually not included on the title page of a dissertation.

  • To ensure that the page numbering doesn’t start on the cover page, but the numbering begins on page 1, place the cursor on the bottom of the page where you want to start with page numbering (if you want to start on page 2, click at the bottom of the first page).
  • Next go to “Page layout” and then “Breaks”. Next, choose the submenu “Next page”.
  • Switch to the side, where the numbering should begin (in this case, page 2). In the edit mode of the header or footer, choose “link to previous”, after that click on “Move to footer” and click on the “Link to previous” again.
  • Now, to add a page number, click on the “Insert” tab, then on the “Header and footer” group, and then click “Page number”. Now you can also choose where the page number should be (top of the page, bottom of the page or page margins) and you can choose a design.
  • Finally select the option “format page number” and enter the page numbers, in what page you want the numbering to begin. After you have pressed “ok”, the page number then begins with the number from the previously selected break.

A clear and well-presented title page is a nice finishing touch for your dissertation. Certain information should be included here by default. We have prepared a separate article on title pages that includes a handy checklist you can use to make sure you don’t forget anything.

Always make sure that everything in your dissertation is in the correct order and placed in the appropriate chapter. More information on how to put your document together can be found in our article on structure a dissertation .

If you are interested in seeing how other students have tackled preparing their theses, you may find it useful to check out these dissertation examples .

The last step is usually to prepare a hardcopy of your final document. There are many issues to think about, such as whether you will make it single- or double-sided.

Before you print, however, we recommend that you check one last time that your document meets all of the below requirements!

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Driessen, K. (2019, February 20). Dissertation layout and formatting. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/tips/dissertation-layout-and-formatting/

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  • Electronic Thesis Submission
  • Paper Thesis Submission
  • Formatting Overview
  • Fonts/Typeface
  • Pagination, Margins, Spacing
  • Paper Thesis Formatting
  • Preliminary Pages Overview
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication Page
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Figures (etc.)
  • Acknowledgements
  • Text and References Overview
  • Figures and Illustrations
  • Using Your Own Previously Published Materials
  • Using Copyrighted Materials by Another Author
  • Open Access and Embargoes
  • Copyright and Creative Commons
  • Ordering Print (Bound) Copies
  • Tutorials and Assistance
  • FAQ This link opens in a new window

Selecting a Font (Typeface)

Be consistent in the use of font/typeface throughout your manuscript. All text material must be in the same font/typeface; all headings and figure/table titles/captions must be in a consistent typeface.

Please select a font and size that is highly legible and will reproduce clearly. Ornate or decorative fonts such as script, calligraphy, gothic, italics, or specialized art fonts are not acceptable. For electronic submissions, embedded fonts are required.

Any symbols, equations, figures, drawings, diacritical marks, or lines that cannot be typed, and therefore are drawn, must be added in permanent black ink.

Below are suggested fonts and sizes.

Table listing permissible fonts for thesis/dissertation manuscripts. Fonts listed are Arial, Century, Courier New, Garamond, Georgia, Lucida Bright, Microsoft Sans Serif, Tahoma, Times, Times New Roman, Trebuchet MS, Verdana, and CMR for LaTex.. 11 or 12 pt font is recommended.

Establish and follow a consistent pattern for layout of all headings.  All headings should use the same font size, font weight, typeface, etc.

For example: center all major headings; place secondary headings at least two lines below major headings.

Typeface/Printing Quality (Paper Submissions Only)

If you are submitting your manuscript on paper, printer quality is critical to produce a clean, clear image. You are strongly urged to use a laser printer, as ink jet and line printers generally do not produce fully clear, legible results. Dot matrix-type printers are not acceptable.

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MIT Libraries logo MIT Libraries

Distinctive Collections

MIT Specifications for Thesis Preparation

Approved November 2022 for use in the 2022-2023 academic year. Updated March 2023 to incorporate changes to MIT Policies and Procedures 13.1.3 Intellectual Property Not Owned by MIT .

View this page as an accessible PDF .

Table of Contents

  • Thesis Preparation Checklist

Timeline for submission and publication

  • Bachelor’s degree thesis
  • Graduate degree thesis

Dual degree theses

Joint theses, what happens to your thesis, title selection, embedded links.

  • Special circumstances

Signature page

Abstract page.

  • Acknowledgments

Biographical notes

Table of contents, list of figures.

  • List of tables
  • List of supplemental material

Notes and bibliographic references

Open licensing, labeling copyright in your thesis, use of previously published material in your thesis, digital supplementary material, physical supplementary material, starting with accessible source files, file naming.

  • How to submit thesis information to the MIT Libraries

Placing a temporary hold on your thesis

Changes to a thesis after submission, permission to reuse or republish from mit theses, general information.

This guide has been prepared by the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs and the Committee on Undergraduate Program, to assist students and faculty in the preparation of theses. The Institute is committed to the preservation of each student’s thesis because it is both a requirement for the MIT degree and a record of original research that contains information of lasting value.

In this guide, “department” refers to a graduate or undergraduate program within an academic unit, and “thesis” refers to the digital copy of the written thesis. The official thesis version of record, which is submitted to the MIT Libraries, is the digital copy of the written thesis that has been approved by the thesis committee and certified by the department in fulfillment of a student’s graduation requirement.

The requirements in this guide apply to all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the care and dissemination of the thesis and to assure the preservation of the final approved document. Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements.

Before beginning your thesis research, remember that the final output of this research—your thesis document—should only include research findings that may be shared publicly, in adherence with MIT’s policy on Open Research and Free Interchange of Information . If you anticipate that your thesis will contain content that requires review by an external sponsor or agency, it is critical that you allow sufficient time for this review to take place prior to thesis submission. 

Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to the MIT Libraries ( [email protected] ).

  • Final edited and complete thesis PDF is due to your department on the date specified in the Academic Calendar.
  • Hold requests should be submitted to the Vice Chancellor for Undergraduate and Graduate Education or TLO concurrent with your thesis submission.
  • Thesis information is due to the MIT Libraries before your date of graduation.
  • Departments must transfer theses to the MIT Libraries within 30 days from the last day of class (end of term).
  • One week later (30 days from the last day of classes + 7 days) or one week after the degree award date (whichever is later) the MIT Libraries may begin publishing theses in DSpace@MIT.
  • If you have requested and received a temporary (up to 90-day) hold on the publication of your thesis from the Vice Chancellor, your thesis will be placed on hold as soon as it is received by the Libraries, and the 90-day hold will begin 30 days from the last day of class (end of term).
  • If your thesis research is included in a disclosure to the TLO, the TLO may place your thesis on temporary hold with the Libraries, as appropriate.

Submitting your thesis document to your department

Your thesis document will be submitted to your department as a PDF, formatted and including the appropriate rights statement and sections as outlined in these specifications. Your department will provide more specific guidance on submitting your files for certification and acceptance.

Your department will provide information on submitting:

  • A PDF/A-1  of your final thesis document (with no signatures)
  • Signature page (if required by your department; your department will provide specific guidance)
  • Original source files used to create the PDF of your thesis (optional, but encouraged)
  • Supplementary materials  (optional and must be approved by your advisor and program)

Degree candidates must submit their thesis to the appropriate office of the department in which they are registered on the dates specified in the Academic Calendar. ( Academic Calendar | MIT Registrar ). September, February, and May/June are the only months in which degrees are awarded.

Bachelor’s degree theses

Graduate degree theses, submitting your thesis information to the libraries.

Information about your thesis must be submitted to the Libraries thesis submission and processing system  prior to your day of graduation. The information you provide must match the title page and abstract of your thesis . See How to submit thesis information to the MIT Libraries section for more details .

The academic department is required to submit the thesis to the MIT Libraries within one month after the last day of the term in which the thesis was submitted ( Faculty Regulation 2.72 ). The thesis document becomes part of the permanent archival collection. All thesis documents that have been approved will be transferred electronically to the MIT Libraries by a department representative via the MIT Libraries thesis submission and processing system .

The full-text PDF of each thesis is made publicly available in DSpace@MIT . A bibliographic record will appear in the MIT Libraries’ catalog, as well as the OCLC database WorldCat, which is accessible to libraries and individuals worldwide. Authors may also opt-in to having their thesis made available in the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database.

Formatting specifications

Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily. Search engines use the words in the title, and sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works. Therefore,

  • Be sure to select a title that is a meaningful description of the content of your manuscript; and
  • Do: “The Effects of Ion Implantation and Annealing on the Properties of Titanium Silicide Films on Silicon Substrates”
  • Do: “Radiative Decays on the J/Psi to Two Pseudoscalar Final States”

You may include clickable links to online resources within the thesis file. Make the link self-descriptive so that it can stand on its own and is natural language that fits within the surrounding writing of your paragraph. The full URL should be included as a footnote or bibliography citation (dependent on citation style).

  • Sentence in thesis: Further information is available on the MIT Writing and Communications Center’s website . The full-text PDF of each thesis is made publicly available in DSpace@MIT .
  • Footnote or Bibliography: follow the rules of your chosen citation style and include the full website URL, in this case http://libraries.mit.edu/mit-theses

Sections of your thesis

Required (all information should be on a single page)

The title page should contain the title, name of the author (this can be the author’s preferred name), previous degrees, the degree(s) to be awarded at MIT, the date the degree(s) will be conferred (May/June, September, or February only), copyright notice (and legend, if required), and appropriate names of thesis supervisor(s) and student’s home department or program officer.

The title page should have the following fields in the following order and centered (including spacing) :

Thesis title as submitted to registrar

Author’s preferred name

Previous degree information, if applicable

Submitted to the [department name] in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree(s) of

[degree name]

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Month and year degree will be granted (May or June, September, February ONLY)

Copyright statement

This permission legend MUST follow: The author hereby grants to MIT a nonexclusive, worldwide, irrevocable, royalty-free license to exercise any and all rights under copyright, including to reproduce, preserve, distribute and publicly display copies of the thesis, or release the thesis under an open-access license.

[Insert 2 blank lines]

Note: The remaining fields are left aligned and not centered

Authored by: [Author name]

[Author’s department name] (align with the beginning of the author’s name from the previous line)

[Date thesis is to be presented to the department] (align with the beginning of the author’s name from the first line)

Certified by: [Advisor’s full name as it appears in the MIT catalog]

   [Advisor’s department as it appears in the MIT catalog] (align with the beginning of the advisor’s name from the previous line), Thesis supervisor

Accepted by: [name]

[title – line 1] (align with the beginning of the name from the previous line)

[title – line 2] (align with the beginning of the name from the first line)

Note: The name and title of this person varies in different degree programs and may vary each term; contact the departmental thesis administrator for specific information

  • Students in joint graduate programs (such as Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) should list both their MIT thesis supervisor and the supervisor from the partner academic institution.
  • The name and title of the department or the program officer varies in different degree programs and may vary each term. Contact the departmental graduate administrator for specific information.
  • For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to be awarded should appear on the title page. For candidates in dual degree programs, all degrees and departments or programs should appear on the title page, and the names of both department heads/committee chairs are required. Whenever there are co-supervisors, both names should appear on the title page.

Here are some PDF examples of title pages:

  • Bachelor’s Degree – using a Creative Commons license
  • PhD candidate – using a Creative Commons license
  • Master’s candidate – dual degrees
  • Masters’ candidates – multiple authors
  • Masters’ candidates – multiple authors with dual degrees and extra committee members
  • Bachelor’s Degree – change of thesis supervisor

Title page: Special circumstances – change of thesis supervisor

If your supervisor has recently died or is no longer affiliated with the Institute:

  • Both this person and your new supervisor should be listed on your title page
  • Under the new supervisor’s name, state that they are approving the thesis on behalf of the previous supervisor
  • An additional page should be added to the thesis, before the acknowledgments page, with an explanation about why a new supervisor is approving your thesis on behalf of your previous supervisor. You may also thank the new supervisor for acting in this capacity
  • Review this PDF example of a title page with a change in supervisor

If your supervisor is external to the Institute (such as an industrial supervisor):

  • You should acknowledge this individual on the Acknowledgements page as appropriate, but should not list this person on the thesis title page
  • The full thesis committee and thesis readers can be acknowledged on the Acknowledgements page, but should not be included on the title page

Not Required

Please consult with your department to determine if they are requiring or requesting an additional signature page.

Each thesis must include an abstract of generally no more than 500 words single-spaced. The abstract should be thought of as a brief descriptive summary, not a lengthy introduction to the thesis. The abstract should immediately follow the title page.

The abstract page should have the following fields in the following order and centered (including spacing):

  • Thesis title

Submitted to the [Department] on [date thesis will be submitted] in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of [Name of degree to be received]

[Insert 1 blank line]

Single-spaced summary; approximately 500 words or less; try not to use formulas or special characters

Thesis supervisor: [Supervisor’s name]

Title: [Title of supervisor]

The Abstract page should include the same information as on the title page. With the thesis title, author name, and submitting statement above the abstract, the word “ABSTRACT” typed before the body of the text, and the thesis supervisor’s name and title below the abstract.

Acknowledgements

An acknowledgement page may be included and is the appropriate place to include information such as external supervisor (such as an industrial advisor) or a list of the full thesis committee and thesis readers. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at DSpace@MIT , which is regularly crawled and indexed by Google and other search-engine providers.

The thesis may contain a short biography of the candidate, including institutions attended and dates of attendance, degrees and honors, titles of publications, teaching and professional experience, and other matters that may be pertinent. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at DSpace@MIT , which is regularly crawled and indexed by Google and other search-engine providers.

List of Tables

List of supplemental material.

Whenever possible, notes should be placed at the bottom of the appropriate page or in the body of the text. Notes should conform to the style appropriate to the discipline. If notes appear at the bottom of the page, they should be single-spaced and included within the specified margins.

It may be appropriate to place bibliographic references either at the end of the chapter in which they occur or at the end of the thesis.

The style of quotations, footnotes, and bibliographic references may be prescribed by your department. If your department does not prescribe a style or specify a style manual, choose one and be consistent. Further information is available on the MIT Writing and Communications Center’s website .

Ownership of copyright

The Institute’s policy concerning ownership of thesis copyright is covered in Rules and Regulations of the Faculty, 2.73 and MIT Policies and Procedures 13.1.3 . Copyright covers the intellectual property in the words and images in the thesis. If the thesis also includes patentable subject matter, students should contact the Technology Licensing Office (TLO) prior to submission of their thesis.

Under these regulations, students retain the copyright to student theses.

The student must, as a condition of a degree award, grant to MIT a nonexclusive, worldwide, irrevocable, royalty-free license to exercise any and all rights under copyright, including to reproduce, preserve, distribute and publicly display copies of the thesis, or release the thesis under an open-access license. The MIT Libraries publish the thesis on DSpace@MIT , allowing open access to the research output of MIT.

You may also, optionally, apply a Creative Commons License to your thesis. The Creative Commons License allows you to grant permissions and provide guidance on how your work can be reused by others. For more information about CC: https://creativecommons.org/about/cclicenses/ . To determine which CC license is right for you, you can use the CC license chooser .

You must include an appropriate copyright notice on the title page of your thesis. This should include the following:

  • the symbol “c” with a circle around it © and/or the word “copyright”
  • the year of publication (the year in which the degree is to be awarded)
  • the name of the copyright owner
  • the words “All rights reserved” or your chosen Creative Commons license
  • Also include the following statement below the ©“ The author hereby grants to MIT a nonexclusive, worldwide, irrevocable, royalty-free license to exercise any and all rights under copyright, including to reproduce, preserve, distribute and publicly display copies of the thesis, or release the thesis under an open-access license.”
  • Also include the following statement below the © “The author hereby grants to MIT a nonexclusive, worldwide, irrevocable, royalty-free license to exercise any and all rights under copyright, including to reproduce, preserve, distribute and publicly display copies of the thesis, or release the thesis under an open-access license.”

You are responsible for obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in your thesis. This applies to most figures, images, and excerpts of text created and published by someone else; it may also apply to your own previous work. For figures and short excerpts from academic works, permission may already be available through the MIT Libraries (see here for additional information ). Students may also rely on fair use , as appropriate. For assistance with copyright questions about your thesis, you can contact [email protected] .

When including your own previously published material in your thesis, you may also need to obtain copyright clearance. If, for example, a student has already published part of the thesis as a journal article and, as a condition of publication, has assigned copyright to the journal’s publisher, the student’s rights are limited by what the publisher allows. More information about publisher policies on reuse in theses is available here.

Students can hold onto sufficient rights to reuse published articles (or excerpts of these) in their thesis if they are covered by MIT’s open access policy. Learn more about MIT’s open access policy and opt-in here . Contact [email protected] for more information.

When including your own previously published articles in your thesis, check with your department for specific requirements, and consider the following:

  • Ensure you have any necessary copyright permissions to include previously published material in your thesis.
  • Be sure to discuss copyright clearance and embargo options with your co-authors and your advisor well in advance of preparing your thesis for submission.
  • Include citations of where portions of the thesis have been previously published.
  • When an article included has multiple authors, clearly designate the role you had in the research and production of the published paper that you are including in your thesis.

Supplemental material and research data

Supplemental material that may be submitted with your thesis is the materials that are essential to understanding the research findings of your thesis, but impossible to incorporate or embed into a PDF. Materials submitted to the MIT Libraries may be provided as supplemental digital files or in some cases physical items. All supplementary materials must be approved for submission by your advisor. The MIT Libraries can help answer questions you may have about managing the supplementary material and other research materials associated with your research.

Contact [email protected] early in your thesis writing process to determine the best way to include supplemental materials with your thesis.

You may also have other research data and outputs related to your thesis research that are not considered supplemental material and should not be submitted with your thesis. Research materials include the facts, observations, images, computer program results, recordings, measurements, or experiences on which a research output—an argument, theory, test or hypothesis, or other output—is based. These may also be termed, “research data.” This term relates to data generated, collected, or used during research projects, and in some cases may include the research output itself. Research materials should be deposited in appropriate research data repositories and cited in your thesis . You may consult the MIT Libraries’ Data Management Services website for guidance or reach out to Data Management Services (DMS)( [email protected] ), who can help answer questions you may have about managing your thesis data and choosing suitable solutions for longer term storage and access.

  • Supplementary information may be submitted with your thesis to your program after approval from your thesis advisor. 
  • Supplemental material should be mentioned and summarized in the written document, for example, using a few key frames from a movie to create a figure.
  • A list of supplementary information along with brief descriptions should be included in your thesis document. For digital files, the description should include information about the file types and any software and version needed to open and view the files.
  • Issues regarding the format of non-traditional, supplemental content should be resolved with your advisor.
  • Appendices and references are not considered supplementary information.
  • If your research data has been submitted to a repository, it should not also be submitted with your thesis.
  • Follow the required file-naming convention for supplementary files: authorLastName-kerb-degree-dept-year-type_supplemental.ext
  • Captioning ( legally required ): text versions of the audio content, synchronized with the video: ways to get your video captioned
  • Additional content, not required:
  • For video, an audio description: a separate narrative audio track that describes important visual content, making it accessible to people who are unable to see the video
  • Transcripts: should capture all the spoken audio, plus on-screen text and descriptions of key visual information that wouldn’t otherwise be accessible without seeing the video

For physical components that are integral to understanding the thesis document, and which cannot be meaningfully conveyed in a digital form, the author may submit the physical items to the MIT Libraries along with their thesis document. When photographs or a video of a physical item (such as a model) would be sufficient, the images should be included in the thesis document, and a video could be submitted as digital supplementary material.

An example of physical materials that would be approved for submission as part of the thesis would be photographs that cannot be shared digitally in our repository due to copyright restrictions. In this case, the photographs could be submitted as a physical volume that is referred to in the thesis document.

As with digital supplementary information and research materials, physical materials must be approved for submission by your advisor. Contact [email protected] early in your thesis writing process to determine if physical materials should accompany your thesis, and if so how to schedule a transfer of materials to the MIT Libraries.

Creating your thesis document/digital format

You are required to submit a PDF/A-1 formatted thesis document to your department. In addition, it is recommended that original files, or source files, (such a .doc or .tex) are submitted alongside the PDF/A-1 to better ensure long-term access to your thesis.

You should create accessible files that support the use of screen readers and make your document more easily readable by assistive technologies. This will expand who is able to access your thesis. By creating an accessible document from the beginning, there will be less work required to remediate the PDF that gets created. Most software offers a guide for creating documents that are accessible to screen readers. Review the guidelines provided by the MIT Libraries .

In general:

  • Use styles and other layout features for headings, lists, tables, etc. If you don’t like the default styles associated with the headings, you can customize them.
  • Avoid using blank lines to add visual spacing and instead increase the size of the spaces before and/or after the line.
  • Avoid using text boxes.
  • Embed URLs.
  • Anchor images to text when inserting them into a doc.
  • Add alt-text to any images or figures that convey meaning (including, math formulas).
  • Use a sans serif font.
  • Add basic embedded metadata, such as author, title, year of graduation, department, keywords etc. to your thesis via your original author tool.

Creating a PDF/A-1

PDF/A-1 (either a or b) is the more suitable format for long term preservation than a basic PDF. It ensures that the PDF format conforms to certain specifications which make it more likely to open and be viewable in the long term. It is best for static content that will not change in the future, as this is the most preservation-worthy version and does not allow for some complex elements that could corrupt or prevent the file from being viewable in the future. Guidelines on how to convert specific file types to PDF/A .

In general: (should we simplify these bullets)

  • Convert to PDF/A directly from your original files (text, Word, InDesign, LaTeX, etc.). It is much easier and better to create valid PDF/A documents from your original files than from a regular PDF. Converting directly will ensure that fonts and hyperlinks are embedded in the document.
  • Do not embed multimedia files (audio and video), scripts, executables, lab notebooks, etc. into your PDF. Still images are fine. The other formats mentioned may be able to be submitted as supplemental files.
  • Do not password protect or encrypt your PDF file.
  • Validate your PDF/A file before submitting it to your department.

All digital files must be named according to this scheme: authorLastName-kerb-degree-dept-year-type_other.ext

  • Thesis PDF: macdonald-mssimon-mcp-dusp-2023-thesis.pdf
  • Signature page: macdonald-mssimon-mcp-dusp-2023-sig.pdf
  • Original source file: macdonald-mssimon-mcp-2023-source.docx
  • Supplemental file: macdonald-mssimon-mcp-2023-supplmental_1.mov
  • Second supplemental file: macdonald-mssimon-mcp-2023-supplmental_2.mov
  • Read Me file about supplemental: macdonald-mssimon-mcp-2023-supplemental-readme.txt

How to submit thesis information to the MIT Libraries

Before your day of graduation, you should submit your thesis title page metadata to the MIT Libraries  prior to your day of graduation. The submission form requires Kerberos login.

Student submitted metadata allows for quicker Libraries processing times. It also provides a note field for you to let Libraries’ staff know about any metadata discrepancies.

The information you provide must match the title page and abstract of your thesis . Please have a copy of your completed thesis on hand to enter this information directly from your thesis. If any discrepancies are found during processing, Libraries’ staff will publish using the information on the approved thesis document. You will be asked to confirm or provide:

  • Preferred name of author(s)as they appear on the title page of the thesis
  • ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes you from every other researcher. The goal is to support the creation of a permanent, clear, and unambiguous record of scholarly communication by enabling reliable attribution of authors and contributors. Read ORCID FAQs to learn more
  • Department(s)
  • A license is optional, and very difficult to remove once published. The Creative Commons License allows you to grant permissions and provide guidance on how your work can be reused by others. Read more information about CC .
  • Thesis supervisor(s)
  • If you would like the full-text of your thesis to be made openly available in the ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Global database (PQDT), you can indicate that in the Libraries submission form.
  • Open access inclusion in PQDT is at no cost to you, and increases the visibility and discoverability of your thesis. By opting in you are granting ProQuest a license to distribute your thesis in accordance with ProQuest’s policies. Further information can be found in the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Author FAQ .
  • Full-text theses and associated supplemental files will only be sent to ProQuest once any temporary holds have been lifted, and the thesis has been published in DSpace@MIT.
  • Regardless of opting-in to inclusion in PQDT, the full text of your thesis will still be made openly available in DSpace@MIT . Doctoral Degrees: Regardless of opting-in the citation and abstract of your thesis will be included in PQDT.

Thesis research should be undertaken in light of MIT’s policy of open research and the free interchange of information . Openness requires that, as a general policy, thesis research should not be undertaken on campus when the results may not be published. From time to time, there may be a good reason for delaying the distribution of a thesis to obtain patent protection, or for reasons of privacy or security. To ensure that only those theses that meet certain criteria are withheld from distribution and that they are withheld for the minimum period, the Institute has established specific review procedures.

Written notification of patent holds and other restrictions must reach the MIT Libraries before the thesis in question is received by the MIT Libraries. Theses will not be available to the public prior to being published by the MIT Libraries. The Libraries may begin publishing theses in DSpace@MIT one month and one week from the last day of classes.

Thesis hold requests should be directed to the Technology Licensing Office (TLO) ( [email protected] ) when related to MIT-initiated patent applications (i.e., MIT holds intellectual property rights; patent application process via TLO). Requests for a thesis hold must be made jointly by the student and advisor directly to the MIT Technology Licensing Office as part of the technology disclosure process.

Thesis hold or restricted access requests should be directed to the Office of the Vice Chancellor ([email protected]) when related to:

  • Student-initiated patents (student holds intellectual property rights as previously determined by TLO) [up to 90-day hold]
  • Pursuit of business opportunities (student holds intellectual property rights as previously determined by TLO)[up to 90-day hold]
  • Government restrictions [up to 90-day hold]
  • Privacy and security [up to 90-day hold]
  • Scholarly journal articles pending publication [up to 90-day hold]
  • Book publication [up to 24-month hold]

In the unusual circumstance that a student wants to request a hold beyond the initial 90-day period, they should contact the Office of Vice President for Research , who may consult with the TLO and/or the Office of the Vice Chancellor, as appropriate to extend the hold. Such requests must be supported by evidence that explains the need for a longer period.

Find information about each type of publication hold, and to learn how to place a hold on your thesis

After publication

Your thesis will be published on DSpace@MIT . Theses are processed by the MIT Libraries and published in the order they are transferred by your department. The Libraries will begin publishing theses in DSpace@MIT one month and one week from the last day of classes.

All changes made to a thesis, after it has been submitted to the MIT Libraries by your department, must have approval from the Vice Chancellor or their designee. Thesis documents should be carefully reviewed prior to submission to ensure they do not contain misspellings or incorrect formatting. Change requests for these types of minor errors will not be approved.

There are two types of change requests that can be made:

  • Errata: When the purpose is to correct significant errors in content, the author should create an errata sheet using the form and instructions (PDF)  and obtain approval first from both the thesis supervisor or program chair, before submitting for review by the Vice Chancellor.
  • Substitution: If the purpose of the change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the author should fill out the  application form (PDF) and have the request approved first by the thesis supervisor or program chair, before submitting for review by the Vice Chancellor.

Students and supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid these scenarios whenever possible.

You are always authorized to post electronic versions of your own thesis, in whole or in part, on a website, without asking permission. If you hold the copyright in the thesis, approving and/or denying requests for permission to use portions of the thesis in third-party publications is your responsibility.

MIT Libraries Thesis Team https://libguides.mit.edu/mit-thesis-faq [email protected] | https://thesis-submit.mit.edu/

Distinctive Collections Room 14N-118 | 617-253-5690 https://libraries.mit.edu/distinctive-collections/

Technology Licensing Office [email protected] | 617-253-6966 http://tlo.mit.edu/

Office of the General Counsel [email protected]  | 617-452-2082 http://ogc.mit.edu/

Office of Graduate Education Room 3-107 | 617-253-4680 http://oge.mit.edu/ [email protected]

MIT Libraries,  Scholarly Communications https://libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/ [email protected]

Office of  the Vice Chancellor Room 7-133 | 617-253-6056 http://ovc.mit.edu [email protected]

Office of the Vice President for Research Room 3-234 | 617-253-8177 [email protected]

MIT Writing and Communications Center Room E18-233 [email protected] | https://cmsw.mit.edu/writing-and-communication-center/

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8 Best Fonts for Thesis Writing to Make It Presentable

Best Fonts for Thesis Writing

Table Of Contents

How do font plays a critical role in thesis, 8 best fonts for thesis writing, tips to choose the best font for thesis, mistakes to avoid while choosing a font, how to format your thesis perfectly.

  • Can’t Write a Thesis? Let Our Experts Do It for You

When your professor assigns you a thesis, he excepts it to be perfect at the time of submission. The textual content of the document is the utmost source of information. So, while creating content, you should take care of the font selection. Choosing the best font for the thesis provides an attractive appearance and preserves the aesthetic value of your document. Also, the font professionally presents information. Choosing font in both ways (either online or printed form) of the thesis is crucial. If you are submitting it online, then the font makes a difference in the readability. If you are providing it in the printed form, then the font reflects professionalism.

You May Like This: The Complete Guide to Breaking Down a 10000-Word Dissertation

Sometimes, it is questioned that why the font is necessary. Well, the font is as mandatory as the content. You should know that everything is in proper fonts   for the thesis.

  • To highlight headings, you can use bold and stylish fonts.
  • To highlight the subheadings, you can use italic and cursive fonts.
  • The information that you want to convey must be in a simple and decent font.

This particular formula will grab the reader’s attention to your document. If you don’t focus on the font, then your document will look imprudent. It can create a bad impact on your professor. If you don't show creativity while writing, then the reader will get bored and won’t show interest in your document. So, make sure to always use different fonts in the thesis according to the needs. Now, let’s talk about some of the most appropriate fonts included in the thesis.

This Might Be Helpful: A to Z of Assignment Writing: Everything You Need to Know About It

A thesis can look presentable if you include appropriate fonts in it. The following fonts will create a positive impression on your professor. Let’s take a look:

  • Times New Roman Times New Roman was particularly designed for Times Newspaper for London. This font has a separate and different value in a formal style. Most of the universities and colleges suggest students use this font in a document.
  • Georgia Georgia font was designed in 1883, especially for Microsoft Corporation. This is the best font for the students who want to submit the document online. It is preferred for the elegant and small appearance for low-resolution screens.
  • Serif Serif is originated from Roman from a font written on a stone. Earlier, this font was not accepted universally. The specialty of this font is that every alphabet has a small line or stroke attached to the end of the larger stroke.
  • Garamond Garamond is usually used for book printing and body text. If you want to write the main body or long paragraphs, then you can use this font. It is simple and easy to read.
  • Cambria Cambria is founded by Microsoft and later distributed with Windows and Office. This font is the easiest to read in a hurry because it contains spaces and proportions between the alphabets. This is suitable for the body and the long sentence.
  • Century Gothic Century Gothic is basically in the geometric style released in 1881. This font has a larger height instead of other fonts. If the university allows you to choose the font of your own choice, you can go for this one.
  • Palatino Linotype Palatino Linotype font is highly legible for online documents. It enhances the quality of the letter when displayed on the screen. This font is majorly used for books, periodicals, and catalogs.
  • Lucida Bright Lucida Bright has a unique quality that the text looks larger at smaller point sizes also. This font can fit words on a single line. To write a thesis, you can choose this font easily.

After getting brief knowledge about the fonts, let's now come to the tips to choose the best font for the thesis. Here are some major key points that you should follow while choosing a font.

  • Make sure your font looks attractive.
  • It should match your tone.
  • Headings and subheadings must be highlighted.
  • It should not look congested.
  • Avoid choosing complicated or fancy fonts.

Take a Look: How to Write a Good Thesis Statement for an Essay? Best Tips & Examples

Students make some mistakes while choosing a font, which the professor dislikes the most. So, to avoid those, keep the below points in mind.

  • Don’t choose fonts on your likes and dislikes.
  • Put the reader's preference first and then choose the font.
  • Avoid too many fonts as they make the work look unorganized.
  • Make sure all fonts match your document instead of making it look like a disaster.
  • Choose different fonts for titles, subtitles, paragraphs.

When preparing the thesis for submission, students must follow strict formatting requirements. Any deviations in these requirements may lead to the rejection of the thesis.

  • The language should be perfect.
  • The length of the thesis should be divided appropriately among the sections.
  • The page size, margins, and spacing on the page should be correct.
  • The font and point size should be displayed correctly.

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Thesis Writing

Thesis Format

Caleb S.

Thesis Format Essentials: Structure, Tips, and Templates

Published on: Apr 23, 2019

Last updated on: Jan 18, 2024

Thesis Format

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Are you feeling overwhelmed by the thought of formatting your thesis or dissertation? It's a common challenge that many graduate students and researchers face. 

The requirements and guidelines for thesis writing can be complex and demanding, leaving you in a state of confusion.

You may find yourself struggling with questions like:  

How do I structure my thesis properly? 

What are the formatting rules I need to follow? 

Don't worry! 

In this comprehensive blog, we will explain the thesis format step by step. 

Whether you're a graduate student or a postdoctoral researcher, our thesis format guide will assist you in academic writing.

Let's get started!

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What is a Thesis and a Dissertation? 

At some point in your academic journey, you've likely come across the terms "thesis" and "dissertation," but what exactly are they, and how do they differ? 

A thesis and a dissertation both represent substantial pieces of academic work, sharing some similarities, but they also have distinct characteristics.

A thesis is typically associated with undergraduate or master's degree programs. It represents a student's independent research and findings on a specific topic. The objective is to demonstrate a deep understanding of the subject matter and the ability to conduct research.

On the other hand,

A dissertation is commonly linked with doctoral programs. It's a more extensive and comprehensive research project that delves into a specific area of study in great detail. Doctoral candidates are expected to make an original contribution to their field of knowledge through their dissertation.

Give a read to our thesis vs dissertation blog to learn the difference!

How to Structure a Thesis - The Formatting Basics 

Structuring your thesis is a crucial aspect of academic writing. The thesis format font size and spacing follows a specific framework.

A well-organized thesis not only enhances readability but also reflects your dedication to the research process.

The structure can be divided into three main sections: Front Matter, Body, and End Matter.

Front Matter 

  • Title Page: The title page is the very first of preliminary pages of your thesis. It typically includes the thesis title, your name, the name of your institution, and the date of submission.
  • Abstract: The abstract is a concise summary of your thesis, providing readers with a brief overview of your research problem, methodology, key findings, and conclusions.
  • Table of Contents: A well-organized table of contents lists all the main sections, subsections, and corresponding page numbers within your thesis.
  • List of Figures and Tables: If your thesis contains figures and tables, create a separate list with captions and page numbers for easy reference.
  • List of Abbreviations or Acronyms: If you've used abbreviations or acronyms in your thesis, include a list to explain their meanings.
  • List of Symbols: If your research involves symbols or special characters, provide a list of these elements and their definitions.
  • Acknowledgments: In this section, you can acknowledge individuals or institutions that have supported your research and thesis writing process.
  • Dedication (Optional): Some students choose to include a dedication page to honor someone or express personal sentiments.
  • Preface (Optional): In the preface, you can explain the background and context of your research, providing additional context for the reader.
  • Introduction: The introduction sets the stage for your thesis. It introduces the research problem, its significance, research objectives, and research questions.
  • Literature Review: The literature review section provides a comprehensive review of existing literature and research related to your topic. It helps establish the context for your research.
  • Methodology: Describe the research methods and techniques you employed in your study. Explain how you collected and analyzed data.
  • Results: Present your research findings in a clear and organized manner. Use tables, figures, and charts to illustrate key points.
  • Discussion: Interpret the results and discuss their implications. Address any limitations and suggest areas for future research.
  • Conclusion: Summarize the main findings and their importance. Restate the research questions and provide a final perspective on the topic.

End Matter 

  • References: List all the sources you cited in your thesis, following a specific citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).
  • Appendices: Include any supplementary materials, such as raw data, surveys, questionnaires, or additional information that supports your research.
  • Vita (Optional): Some academic institutions require or allow a vita, which is essentially a brief academic resume or biography.

By following this structured framework for your thesis, you'll ensure that your research is presented in a clear and organized manner, meeting the formatting basics and academic standards.

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Thesis Format Guidelines 

Formatting your thesis makes your research work not just look good but also helps others understand it easily. 

These guidelines show you how to structure and organize your thesis neatly, from the title page to the reference section. 

  • Page Layout:
  • Use standard 8.5 x 11-inch paper.
  • Set 1-inch margins on all sides.
  • Use a readable and professional font such as Times New Roman, Arial, or Calibri.
  • Font size for the main text should typically be 12 points.
  • Line Spacing:
  • Use double-spacing throughout the document.
  • Exceptions include footnotes, long quotations, and the bibliography , which may be single-spaced.
  • Heading Structure:
  • Use a clear and hierarchical heading structure to organize your content.
  • Differentiate between main headings and subheadings with bold, italics, or size variations.
  • Page Numbering:
  • Page numbers are typically placed in the header or footer.
  • Number the pages consecutively throughout the document.
  • Arabic numerals or roman numerals are used for the body of the thesis.
  • Title Page:
  • The title page should include the thesis title, your name, institutional affiliation, and the date of thesis submission.
  • Follow your institution's specific guidelines for title page formatting.
  • Table of Contents:
  • Create a well-organized table of contents listing all sections and subsections with corresponding page numbers.
  • Use a clear and consistent format for this section.
  • List of Figures and Tables:
  • If applicable, provide separate lists for figures and tables, including captions and page numbers.
  • Ensure consistent formatting for these lists.
  • Present a concise summary of the thesis, highlighting the research problem, methodology , key findings, and conclusions.
  • Typically, the abstract is on a separate page immediately following the title page.
  • Citations and References:
  • Follow a specific citation style consistently throughout your thesis (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).
  • Ensure that in-text citations and references are accurate and properly formatted.
  • Page Breaks:
  • Use page breaks to separate sections properly. This ensures that your chapters and other major divisions begin on new pages.
  • Maintain the required margins (usually 1 inch) on all sides, including the top, bottom, left, and right.
  • Appendices:
  • If you include appendices, ensure they follow the same formatting rules as the main body of the thesis.

You can also refer to the below-given document to understand the format template of a thesis paper.

Thesis Format Template

Thesis Format Sample

Here are some thesis format examples to get a better understanding.

MLA Thesis Format

APA Thesis Format

Baby Thesis Format

Undergraduate Thesis Format

Master Thesis Format pdf

PhD Thesis Format Pdf

Thesis Format for Computer Science

Research Thesis Format

Thesis Paper Formatting Tips

Formatting your thesis paper correctly is not only about making it look neat and professional but also about meeting the stringent requirements set by your academic institution.

Whether you're in the early stages of writing your thesis or preparing for submission, these tips will help you in formatting.

  • Adhere to Institutional Guidelines: Follow your institution's specific formatting requirements, including thesis format margins, font styles, and citation styles.
  • Consistency in Formatting: Maintain uniform font, font size, and spacing throughout the thesis for a professional appearance.
  • Proper Page Numbering: Place page numbers correctly in the header or footer, starting with the first chapter after the front matter.
  • Title Page Accuracy: Ensure the title page contains the accurate title, your name, institutional affiliation, and submission date.
  • Organized Table of Contents: Create a well-structured table of contents listing all sections and subsections with page numbers.
  • List of Figures and Tables: Provide separate, well-labeled lists for figures and tables, including captions and page numbers.

In conclusion, this blog has provided valuable insights into the essential aspects of formatting a thesis paper.

By following these tips, students can ensure that their research is not only well-structured and polished but also meets the rigorous standards set by their academic institutions.

Formatting and writing a thesis is a challenging task for most people, as it requires a lot of time.

Instead of risking your grades, hire an expert writer who is dedicated and experienced in his work. MyPerfectWords.com is a professional paper writing service that focuses on providing high-quality standards.

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Caleb S. has been providing writing services for over five years and has a Masters degree from Oxford University. He is an expert in his craft and takes great pride in helping students achieve their academic goals. Caleb is a dedicated professional who always puts his clients first.

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Formatting your thesis: Tables, figures, illustrations

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Tables, figures, illustration requirements and tips, table specifications, figures and other image specifications, image resolution and formatting, using images and objects from other publications.

  • Include captions/titles/headings for tables, figures, and other illustrations as paragraph text. This allows captions and headings to be populated into the Table of Contents (ToC) or the lists that appear after the ToC.
  • The maximum width for objects on a portrait page is 6 inches (15.24 cm).
  • Text wrapping should be set to “In Line with Text” (no wrapping).
  • notes, if any
  • Source notes or footnotes for tables/figures/illustrations are inserted manually. Insert the note in the paragraph directly below the table or figure.
  • Font: Arial Narrow 11pt (default), Arial Narrow 10pt [minimum size].
  • To change the font or line spacing for tables see the Thesis Template Instructions .
  • Font: Text in image files should follow the overall Font Specifications and be large enough to be read when inserted into the document. The font in images should appear  to be the same size as the text in your thesis.
  • For example, an image 6 inches wide should be 1800 pixels wide to produce an equivalent resolution of 300 ppi. 6 inches X 300ppi = 1800px.
  • ​ For best results, insert images as flattened .tif, .png, or high quality .jpg files.
  • ​ Crop as closely as possible around the image to remove blank space and maximize the size. This can be done in Word or in an image editor like Photoshop or Fireworks.
  • Landscape images on a portrait page should be rotated with the top of the image to the left.

If your thesis incorporates images, photos, maps, diagrams, etc., not created by you, copyright permission must be obtained from the copyright holder of those works to use their content within your thesis.  A copy of each permission must be uploaded to the Thesis Registration System.

See  Copyright at SFU  for instructions on how to obtain copyright permissions.

FontSaga

How To Choose The Thesis Font Type For Your Dissertation – Deatils Information

Writing a dissertation is one of the most significant academic achievements you will undertake. Choosing the right font type for your thesis is essential to presenting your research professionally and elegantly.

The type of font you choose can affect your research’s readability, clarity, and overall impression. With so many font options available, deciding which font type is best suited for your research can be challenging. We’ll guide you through choosing the perfect font type for your research.

We’ll discuss key factors to consider when choosing a font, such as legibility, readability, and aesthetics, and provide practical tips to help you make an informed decision. Additionally, we will explore different font types commonly used in academic writing, including serif, sans-serif, and monospace fonts, and highlight their unique characteristics and applications. Whether you are an experienced academic writer or a novice dissertation writer, this post will equip you with knowledge and skills.

How To Choose The Thesis Font Type For Your Dissertation

Table of Contents

What Is A Thesis Font Type?

What Is A Thesis Font Type

Choosing the right font type can be an important decision when writing a thesis. The most common font types used for academic writing, including theses, are Times New Roman and Arial. Both fonts are easily read and widely accepted as appropriate for academic writing.

However, some universities or departments may have specific requirements for font type, so it is important to check with your advisor or institution before making a final decision. Ultimately, the most important thing is to choose a font that is easy to read and does not distract from the content of your thesis.

Thesis Font Choosing The Right Typeface For Your Research

When choosing the right font for your thesis, it’s important to consider both readability and professionalism. While many options are available, some fonts may not be appropriate for academic work. Here are some tips for choosing the right typeface for your research:

  • Stick with traditional fonts. Times New Roman, Arial, and Calibri are commonly used in academic papers and have a professional look.
  • Avoid decorative or script fonts . While these may be aesthetically pleasing, they can be difficult to read and may not be taken seriously by your readers.
  • Consider font size and spacing. Ensure that your chosen font is legible when printed at a small size and that there is enough spacing between lines to make reading comfortable.

Choosing the right font is an important part of presenting your research clearly and professionally. Take the time to choose a font that will enhance the readability of your work and reflect the level of professionalism expected in academic writing.

Factors To Consider When Choosing A Thesis Font

When choosing the perfect font for your thesis, there are various factors to consider. First and foremost, readability is a crucial aspect. Choosing a font that is easy on the eyes and doesn’t cause any strain is important. Additionally, professionalism is key in academic writing, so select a font that aligns with the formality required in your dissertation.

Consistency is also vital; use a single font throughout your thesis to maintain a cohesive look. Finally, accessibility should be considered to ensure that everyone can read and understand your work regardless of their visual abilities. Considering these factors, you can find the perfect thesis font type that complements your research topic and style while meeting academic requirements.

Readability

Readability

Ensuring that your dissertation is readable is crucial when selecting a font type for your thesis. A font that is too small or difficult to read can make your work less accessible and harder to understand, ultimately hindering its impact on readers.

Sans-serif fonts like Arial or Helvetica are often recommended for their clarity and legibility, while serif fonts like Times New Roman can add a more traditional touch. Additionally, it’s essential to consider the spacing between letters and lines and any special characters or symbols required in your thesis.

Legibility is a crucial factor to consider when selecting a font for your thesis. The last thing you want is to make your work less accessible and harder to comprehend by using a font that is illegible or too small in size. Stick with simple, clear fonts like Times New Roman or Arial, which are popular for academic writing due to their easy-to-read letters.

Avoid using overly intricate or decorative fonts that can detract from the legibility of your work. Be mindful of the font size and spacing between letters and lines as well, as these factors can also affect the legibility of your document.

Selecting the appropriate font size for your thesis is crucial to its readability and overall appearance. Most universities require a font size between 10 and 12 points, but it’s essential to check with your specific institution for their guidelines.

Choosing a font size that is too small can make your thesis difficult to read while selecting one that is too large can make it appear unprofessional. Consider the content of your thesis when deciding on a font size – if it contains detailed charts or diagrams, you may need a slightly larger font for optimal clarity.

Tips For Formatting Your Thesis Font

Tips For Formatting Your Thesis Font

When formatting your thesis font, following a few tips can go a long way in creating a professional-looking and readable document. First, choose a font that is easy on the eyes and appropriate for academic writing. Stick to one or two fonts throughout your thesis to maintain consistency and avoid distracting your readers.

Additionally, attention to the font size, line spacing, margins, and indentation. Ensuring that these elements are consistent and properly formatted can make a significant difference in the overall appearance of your thesis. Finally, proofread your work before submission to ensure it meets all necessary guidelines and requirements.

Margins

Properly formatted margins can make or break the appearance of your thesis, so it’s essential to get them right. Margins are crucial in improving readability and ensuring that your thesis looks professional.

The standard margin size for academic papers is 1 inch on all sides, but it’s essential to check with your institution’s guidelines as some universities may require different sizes. Paying attention to the margins can help ensure that your thesis looks polished and well put together.

Line Spacing

Effective formatting of a thesis font includes appropriate line spacing to ensure readability. Line spacing is an essential factor that impacts your thesis’s overall appearance and readability. It is important to balance too much space or too little space between each line. Single-spacing can make the text appear cramped, while double-spacing creates too much white space, making reading challenging.

Most universities require a line spacing of 1.5 or 2.0 for academic papers, but it’s crucial to check with your department or advisor for specific guidelines in your academic discipline. Proper line spacing helps improve the document’s visual appeal and makes it easier for readers to engage with the content.

Indentation

Indentation is an essential factor to consider when formatting your thesis font. It helps create a clear and organized document by separating each paragraph from the previous one. The standard indentation for academic writing is 0.5 inches or five to seven spaces.

Consistent application of indentation throughout your document, including in block quotes and reference lists, can make your thesis look more professional and easier to read. Proper use of indentation gives your work a structured appearance, making it easy for readers to navigate your document easily.

The right font choice is essential when it comes to pagination in your thesis. You want to select a legible and distinguishable font for page numbers. Arial, Times New Roman, and Calibri are popular choices for pagination in academic documents.

Additionally, consider using bold or italic formatting for page numbers to make them stand out and avoid confusion. Remember that choosing the right pagination font is just one of many factors contributing to a professional-looking and well-organized thesis.

How To Change The Thesis Font Type In Adobe Indesign?

How To Change The Thesis Font Type In Adobe Indesign

When it comes to changing the thesis font type in Adobe InDesign , there are a few things to consider. First and foremost, choosing a font that is easily readable and appropriate for academic writing is crucial. Consider the purpose of your thesis and the audience you are writing for when selecting a font.

Adobe InDesign offers a variety of font options, so take the time to explore different choices and find one that suits your needs. Once you’ve selected your font, test it on different devices and screen sizes to ensure readability. Following any specific guidelines or requirements set by your university or academic institution regarding font type and size is essential for achieving a professional-looking document.

Choosing the right font type for your dissertation can be a daunting task. However, there are some guidelines that you can follow to make the process easier. Choosing the right font for your thesis is an important aspect of your dissertation writing process. This can make or break the readability and clarity of your research paper.

Consider font size, readability, and legibility when choosing a typeface for your thesis. Ensure you maintain formatting consistency throughout the dissertation by following proper margins, line spacing, indentation, and page placement tips. Remember, the right font enhances the overall impact of your research paper.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the best font for the thesis.

Regarding fonts for a thesis, serif fonts like Times New Roman, Georgia, and Garamond are typically the best choices as they tend to be more legible in print. It’s important to choose a font that is easy on the eyes and meets the guidelines of your academic institution. Ultimately, the font choice will depend on personal preference and the specific requirements of your thesis.

What Is The Standard Font Size For The Thesis?

The standard font size for a thesis is generally 12 points, but it’s always a good idea to check with your university or department for any specific requirements. It’s essential to maintain font size consistency throughout the document. However, selecting a legible and professional font that is easy to read is more important than the size of the font.

What Font Is Used For Phd Thesis?

No specific font is required for PhD thesis writing, but most universities have font size and style guidelines. Some popular fonts for academic writing include Times New Roman, Arial, and Calibri. It is important to choose a font that is easy to read and looks professional to ensure your thesis is well-received by readers.

Can I Use Calibri For My Thesis?

Yes, Calibri is an acceptable font for a thesis. However, it’s important to follow the guidelines provided by your academic institution or advisor regarding font type and size. Other popular fonts used in academic writing include Times New Roman and Arial. Regardless of the font you choose, proofread your thesis carefully to ensure the text is clear and legible.

How Can The Font Type Affect The Readability Of My Thesis?

The font type you choose can greatly impact the readability of your thesis. Traditional serif fonts like Times New Roman are often easier to read in printed documents. In contrast, sans-serif fonts like Arial or Calibri may be better suited for on-screen reading. Choosing a font that is easy to read and aesthetically pleasing is important, as this can make a big difference in the overall impression your thesis makes on readers.

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Great fonts for a PhD thesis – and terrible ones

There are thousands of fonts out there – which one should you choose for a great-looking PhD thesis? I will explain the differences between serif and sans-serif fonts, what ligatures are and why you shouldn’t use that fun free font you found on the internet.

Great fonts for a PhD thesis: Serif vs. sans-serif

As I explained in my Ultimate Guide to preparing a PhD thesis for printing , there are two basic kinds of fonts: Serif fonts and sans-serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines – serifs – at the ends of all lines. Sans-serif fonts don’t have those lines. Compare these two, Palatino Linotype and Arial:

Great fonts for a PhD thesis

Serifs guide the reader’s eyes, making sure that they stay in the same line while reading a printed text. In turn, your reader’s brain won’t get tired so quickly and they can read for longer.

But there is another feature that many serif fonts have. Look at these three (which are all great fonts to use in your PhD thesis, btw):

Great fonts for a PhD thesis

If you look closely, you will see that serif fonts often have different stroke thicknesses within every letter. This is called “weight contrast”. A subtle weight contrast further improves legibility of a printed text. Hence, I recommend you use a serif font with a bit of a weight contrast for your main text.

Which serif font should you choose?

But whatever you do, this one thing is extremely important: Choose a font that offers all styles: regular, italics , bold , and bold italics . Since these four styles all need to be designed separately, many fonts don’t offer all of them. Especially bold italics is absent in most free internet fonts and even from many fonts that come with your operating system or word processor.

Also: In your bibliography and in-text citations (if you go with an author-year citation style) you will have to display author’s names from all over the world. Many of them will contain special letters. For example German umlauts (ä, ö, ü), accented letters used in lots of of languages, i.e. French or Spanish (à, é, ñ, etc.), and dozens of other special letters from all kinds of languages (ç, ı, ł, ø, etc.). Be aware that only a very limited number of fonts offer all of these!

If you have mathematical equations in your thesis that require more than +, – and =, your font choices are limited even further . After all, the vast majority of fonts do not offer special operators.

As you can see, these criteria severely limit your choice of font for the main text. Needless to say, they rule out free fonts you can download from dafont.com or 1001fonts.com . That is why I urge you to go with a classic font. To make things easier for you, here is a table with serif fonts that offer all the characters you could dream of:

Failsafe serif fonts for your PhD thesis

These fonts are heavily based on fonts that have been in use since the invention of the mechanical printing press in the 15th century. Hence, these types of fonts have been tried and tested for more than 500 years. Hard to argue with that!

But which of these fonts is The Best TM for a PhD thesis? That depends on how much text you have in your thesis vs. how many figures, tables, equations, etc. As I have noted in the table, fonts have different widths. Look at this image showing the same text in Times New Roman (TNR), Cambria, and Sitka Text; all at the same size:

font size for thesis writing

Hence, setting entire pages of text in TNR will make the page look quite dense and dark. So, a thesis with a lot of text and few figures is best set in a wider font like Sitka Text. On the other hand, if you have a lot of figures, tables, etc., TNR is a good choice because it keeps paragraphs of text compact and therefore the page from looking too empty. Medium-width fonts like Cambria are a good compromise between the two.

To see some of these fonts in action, check out this example PhD thesis where I show all sorts of font combinations and page layouts.

When to use a sans-serif font in your PhD thesis

This covers serif fonts. But which sans-serif fonts are great for your PhD thesis? And when do you use them?

As mentioned above, serif fonts are good for the main text of your thesis. But titles and headings are a different story. There, a sans-serif font will look very nice. Plus, using a different font in your headings than in the main text will help the reader recognize when a new section begins.

Here are some examples for good sans-serif fonts:

Great fonts for a PhD thesis - sans-serif

Each of these fonts – Futura, Franklin Gothic Book, and Gill Sans – are wonderful for headings in a PhD thesis. Why? Because they are easily readable, well-balanced and don’t call undue attention to themselves. Also, they have many options: regular, light, medium, bold, extra bold, including italics for all of them. And most operating systems or word processors have them pre-installed.

The criteria for heading fonts are not nearly as strict as those for main text fonts. If you have Latin species names in your headings, make sure the font offers (bold) italics. If you need to display Greek letters in your headings, make sure the font offers those. Done.

However, there are some criteria for headings. Just for fun, let’s have a look at some sans-serif fonts that would be a bad choice for a thesis:

Great fonts for a PhD thesis - sans-serif

I’d like to explicitly state that these are wonderful, well-designed fonts – you just shouldn’t use them in a scientific document. Heattenschweiler is too narrow, Broadway has too much weight contrast and Aspergit Light is too thin. All of these things impair readability and might make your opponents squint at your headings. Of course, you will want to do everything in your power to make the experience of reading your thesis as pleasant a possible for your opponents!

How are these fonts great for my PhD thesis? They are boring!

Why yes, they are, thanks for noticing!

Seriously though, the fonts not being interesting is the point. Your PhD thesis is a scientific document showing your expertise in your field and your ability to do independent research. The content of your thesis, the science, should be the sole focus. A PhD thesis is not the place to show off your quirky personality by way of an illegible font.

However, you can infuse your personality into your thesis cover and chapter start pages. There, you can use a fun font, since you probably don’t have to display any special characters.

Choosing the right font is too much pressure? Contact me for help with your layout!

Don’t use fonts made for non-Latin alphabets (Cyrillic, Hanzi, etc.)

Every computer nowadays comes pre-installed with a number of fonts made for displaying languages that don’t use the Latin alphabet (Latin alphabet = The alphabet in which this very article is displayed). Prominent examples for languages that don’t use the Latin alphabet are Asian languages such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, etc. Other examples include the Arabic, Brahmic, and Cyrillic script. But there are many more fonts for a myriad of non-Latin alphabets. These fonts were optimized to make the characters of their languages easily readable.

However (and this is why I’ve written this entire section) they usually also contain Latin characters to be able to display the occasional foreign word.

Hence, you might want to honour your roots by using a font in your thesis that was made for your native language, by someone from your home country. It is tempting, because all the Latin characters are there, right? I completely understand this wish, but I strongly advise against it since there are some serious drawbacks.

Don’t get me wrong, I’m not throwing shade on these fonts, they are fantastic at what they were made for. Displaying long stretches of text in the Latin alphabet, however, is not one of those things. Let me explain why.

They don’t offer all necessary characters

Firstly, fonts made to display languages with a non-Latin alphabet contain the bare minimum of Latin characters. That is, the basic letters and the most important punctuation marks. Hence, they don’t have all those math operators and special characters I talked about in the section about serif fonts.

Also, the Latin characters in these fonts are usually sans-serif, so less suitable for long text.

But let’s say the non-Latin alphabet font you chose does offer all special characters and has serifs. Unfortunately, they are still not suitable to use in your PhD thesis, for the following reasons:

They are often too small or large for use with greek letters

Do you mention β-Mercaptoethanol or α-Histidin antibodies in your Materials and Methods? Or any other Greek letter? Since Latin characters are scaled differently in fonts made for non-Latin alphabets, Greek letters will not be the same size as the rest of the text anymore. For example, look at this text, where I rendered everything (I swear!) in the specified font size:

non-latin fonts don't offer ligatures

In the first panel (Cambria), the Greek letters are the same size and weight as the main text. As I have said, Cambria is one of the fonts explicitly recommended for your thesis. If you look closely at the enlarged line on the bottom of the panel, you can see that the alpha is the same height as the lower-case letters, whereas the beta is the same height as the upper-case letters. It looks neat and tidy.

However, by using a non-Latin font for your PhD thesis, you are asking for trouble.

In the second panel, I show Cordia New, a font for Thai script. At 12 pt, it is way smaller than the Latin font. The Greek letters – which are also at 12 pt! – stand out awkwardly. Also, Cordia New produces a line distance that is larger than it should be when using it for a text in the Latin alphabet.

In the last panel I show Microsoft YaHei for displaying Hanzi characters. Here, the Latin characters are larger. This leads to the Greek letters being too small. And, as you can see in the second and third lines of the paragraph of text, the line distance is quite narrow. However, the Greek letter β requires a regular line distance. So, it pushes the following line down, making the paragraph look uneven.

They don’t offer ligatures

Now, what on earth are ligatures? I could dive into the history of book printing here but I’ll spare you those details. In essence, Ligatures are two or more letters that are printed as one single glyph. Let me show you:

what are ligatures

In the top line, you can see that the characters inside the boxes “melt” into each other. This single shape made out of several letter is called a ligature. They are mostly common with the small letter f. If you take a magnifying glass and look at the pages of a novel, you will quickly find these same ligatures. E-readers also display ligatures. Heck, even WhatsApp does it!

Ligatures also make the text easier to read. However, in order to display them, a font actually has to have the glyphs for the ligatures. And many fonts don’t. In order to find out whether a font you chose offers them, go to the character map of that font. (In Windows 10, simply click the windows logo in the corner of your screen and start typing the word “character”.) Pick a font in the drop-down menu. Now, search for the word “ligature” in the character map. If the map is empty after this, the font has no ligature glyphs.

All that being said, ligatures are not super important. I just wanted to mention them.

You can still use fonts made for non-Latin alphabets

If you want to honour your roots by way of a font, you can still do this. For example in your thesis title and/or for the chapter start pages.

In a word: Don’t go crazy with those fonts! Let your science do the talking. If you want to see what your thesis could look like with some of the fonts I recommended, check out the example PhD thesis .

Do you want to see a font combination that’s not in the example thesis? Contact me and I’ll set a few pages in your desired font, free of charge!

Click here for help with your PhD thesis layout!

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Font size for thesis writing

Font size for thesis writing hanging alone on the bottom

II. Formatting Guidelines

All copies of the thesis or dissertation should have the next uniform margins through the entire document:

  • Left: 1″ (or 1 1/4″ to make sure sufficient room for binding the job if preferred)
  • Right: 1″
  • Bottom: 1″ (with allowances for page figures see section on Pagination )
  • Top: 1″

Exceptions. Page one of every chapter (such as the introduction, or no) begins 2″ from the top page. Also, the headings around the title page, abstract, first page from the dedication/ acknowledgements/preface (or no), and first page on the table of contents begin 2″ from the top page.

Non-Traditional Formats

Non-traditional theses or dissertations for example whole works made up of digital, artistic, video, or performance materials (i.e. no written text, chapters, or articles) are acceptable if approved from your committee and graduate program. A PDF document having a title page, page, and abstract at least are needed to become posted together with any relevant supplemental files.

Font Size and type

To make sure obvious and legible text for those copies, select a TrueType font suggested by ProQuest Dissertation Publishing. A summary of suggested fonts are available on ProQuest’s site .

Fonts should be 10, 11, or 12 points in dimensions. Superscripts and subscripts (e.g. formulas, or footnote or endnote figures) should not be a greater than 2 points smaller sized compared to font size used for your system from the text.

Spacing and Indentation

Space and indent your thesis or dissertation following the following tips:

  • The written text must appear in one column on every page and become double-spaced through the document. Don’t arrange chapter text in multiple posts.
  • New sentences should be shown by a regular tab indentation through the entire document.
  • The document text should be left-justified, not centered or right-justified.
  • For blocked quotes, indent the whole text from the quotation consistently in the left margin.
  • Ensure headings aren’t left hanging alone at the base of the prior page. The written text following ought to be increased or even the heading ought to be moved lower. This really is something to check on close to the finish of formatting, as other alterations in text and spacing may change where headings show up on the page.

Font size for thesis writing posted      04-Apr-12, 15

Exceptions. Blocked quotes, notes, captions, legends, and lengthy headings should be single-spaced through the document and double-spaced between products.

Paginate your thesis or dissertation following the following tips:

  • Use lower situation Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.) on all pages preceding page one of chapter one. The title page counts as page i, however the number doesn’t appear. Therefore, page one showing several would be the page with ii at the end.
  • Arabic numerals (starting with 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) start at chapter one or even the introduction, if relevant. Arabic figures should be incorporated on all pages from the text, illustrations, notes, and then any many other materials such as the following. Thus, page one of chapter you will show an Arabic numeral 1, and numbering of subsequent pages follows so as.
  • Don’t use page figures supported by letters, hyphens, periods, or parentheses (e.g. 1. 1-2, -1-, (1), or 1a).
  • Center all page figures at the end from the page, 1/2″ in the base.
  • Pages mustn’t contain running headers or footers, apart from page figures.
  • In case your document contains landscape pages (pages by which the top page may be the lengthy side of the piece of paper), make certain that the page figures still come in exactly the same position and direction because they do on pages with standard portrait orientation for consistency. This likely means the page number is going to be dedicated to rapid side from the paper and also the number is going to be sideways in accordance with the landscape page text. Check this out site for help with landscape pages in Ms Word .

Font size for thesis writing brief search through the

Format footnotes for the thesis or dissertation following the following tips:

  • Footnotes should be placed at the end from the page separated in the text with a solid line one or two inches lengthy.
  • Can start the left page margin, underneath the solid line.
  • Single-space footnotes which are several line lengthy.
  • Include one double-spaced line in between each note.
  • Most software programs instantly space footnotes at the end from the page based on their length. It’s acceptable when the note breaks inside a sentence and carries the rest in to the footnote part of the next page. Don’t indicate the continuation of the footnote.
  • Number all footnotes with Arabic numerals. You might number notes consecutively within each chapter beginning over and done with # 1 for that first note in every chapter, or else you may number notes consecutively through the entire document.
  • Footnote figures must precede the note and become placed slightly over the line (superscripted). Leave no space between your number and also the note.
  • While footnotes ought to be located at the end from the page, don’t place footnotes inside a running page footer, because they must remain inside the page margins.

Endnotes are a suitable option to footnotes. Format endnotes for the thesis or dissertation following the following tips:

  • Always begin endnotes on the separate page either rigtht after the finish of every chapter, or in the finish of the entire document. Should you place all endnotes in the finish from the entire document, they have to appear following the appendices and prior to the references.
  • Range from the heading &#8220ENDNOTES&#8221 in most capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top first page of the endnotes section(s).
  • Single-space endnotes which are several line lengthy.
  • Number all endnotes with Arabic numerals. You might number notes consecutively within each chapter beginning over and done with # 1 for that first note in every chapter, or else you may number notes consecutively through the entire document.
  • Endnote figures must precede the note and become placed slightly over the line (superscripted). Leave no space between your number and also the note.

Tables, Figures, and Illustrations

Tables, figures, and illustrations vary broadly by discipline. Therefore, formatting of those components is basically in the discretion from the author.

For instance, headings and captions may seem below or above all these components.

These elements may each go inside the primary text from the document or manufactured inside a separate section.

Space permitting, headings and captions for that connected table, figure, or illustration should be on a single page.

Using color is allowed as lengthy because it is consistently applied included in the finished component (e.g. one-coded cake chart) and never extraneous or unprofessional (e.g. highlighting intended exclusively to attract a reader’s focus on a vital phrase). Using color ought to be reserved mainly for tables, figures, illustrations, and active website or document links during your thesis or dissertation.

The format you select of these components should be consistent through the thesis or dissertation.

Ensure each component matches margin and pagination needs.

In case your thesis or dissertation has appendices, they ought to be prepared following the following tips:

  • Appendices must appear in the finish from the document (before references) and never the chapter that they pertain.
  • When there’s several appendix, assign each appendix several or perhaps a letter heading (e.g. &#8220APPENDIX 1&#8221 or &#8220APPENDIX A&#8221) along with a descriptive title. You might number consecutively through the entire work (e.g. 1, 2 or perhaps a, B), or else you may assign a 2-part Arabic numeral using the first number designating the chapter that seems, separated with a period, adopted with a second number or letter to point its consecutive placement (e.g. &#8220APPENDIX 3.2&#8221 may be the second appendix known in Chapter Three).
  • Range from the selected headings in most capital letters, and center them 1″ below the top page.
  • All appendix headings and titles should be incorporated within the table of contents.
  • Page numbering must continue during your appendix or appendices. Ensure each appendix matches margin and pagination needs.

You’re needed to list out all of the references you consulted. For particular information on formatting your references, consult and consume a style manual or professional journal which is used for formatting publications and citations inside your discipline.

Your reference pages should be prepared following the following tips:

  • Should you place references after each chapter, the references during the last chapter should be placed rigtht after the chapter and prior to the appendices.
  • Should you place all references in the finish from the thesis or dissertation, they have to appear following the appendices because the final component within the document.
  • Select a suitable at risk of this in line with the style manual you use (e.g. &#8220REFERENCES&#8221, &#8220BIBLIOGRAPHY&#8221, or &#8220WORKS Reported&#8221).
  • Range from the selected heading in most capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top page.
  • References should be single-spaced within each entry.
  • Include one double-spaced line in between each reference.
  • Page numbering must continue during your references section. Ensure references adhere to margin and pagination needs.

Formatting Formerly Printed Work

In some instances, students gain approval using their academic program to incorporate in their thesis or dissertation formerly printed (or posted, in press, or under review) journal articles or similar materials they have authored. To learn more about including formerly printed works inside your thesis or dissertation, begin to see the section on Use of your Formerly Printed Materials and also the section on ing.

In case your academic program has approved inclusion of these materials, please be aware that this stuff must match the formatting guidelines established within this Guide it doesn’t matter how the fabric was formatted for publication.

Some specific formatting guidelines to think about include:

  • Fonts, margins, chapter headings, citations, and references must all match the formatting and site used within all of those other thesis or dissertation.
  • If appropriate, printed articles could be incorporated separate individual chapters inside the thesis or dissertation.
  • Another abstract to every chapter shouldn’t be incorporated.
  • The citation for formerly printed work should be incorporated because the first footnote (or endnote) on page one from the chapter.
  • Don’t include typesetting notations frequently used when submitting manuscripts to some writer (i.e. insert table x here).
  • The date around the title page ought to be the year by which your committee approves the thesis or dissertation, whatever the date of completion or publication of person chapters.
  • If you’d like to incorporate additional information regarding the formerly printed work, these details could be incorporated within the preface for that thesis or dissertation.

published about four years ago

Used to do a short sort through the forum for font however it does not appear such as this continues to be discussed with regards to theses before – what have you all use as the font? I am on Arial right now (I am a 1980s child) however i don’t believe my college specifies which it needs to be in, just as long as it’s obvious. I confess I’ve also lately read “Just My Type”!

So I am curious, what font are you currently on? And what is your opinion it states in regards to you?

published 04-Apr-12, 15:42

======= Date Modified 04 Apr 2012 15:42:57 ======= imo I’d opt for Occasions New Roman. I understand situations are altering but ’in general’, tmr may be the default academic font. Most (I won’t say all in situation somebody contradicts me) of journals have been in Occasions. Within my uni, the submission guidelines, together with my very own department’s guidelines stipulated Occasions.

Happy birthday Ady.

I’m an 80s child too, and my thesis is within Arial. So far as I’m able to remember, my uni mentioned it needed to be ’in a readable font, for example Arial or Occasions New Roman, no smaller sized than size 11 or 12’, or something like that along individuals lines. I selected Arial since i find TNR a little old-fashioned (no offence meant to anybody who tried on the extender!) and in some way Arial just looks a little more modern. Also, web site I made use of in my headings and things used a far more modern font (can’t remember which now, v much like Arial although not exactly) and so i wanted these to look as near as you possibly can.

published 04-Apr-12, 16:16

edited about 28 seconds later

I made use of Occasions (size 12) since the college appeared to recommend it. More generally, the subject or audience leads to the font I personally use.

Happy birthday Ady! Possess a great day.

I’m not declaring the last decade I had been born however, many years have passed since i have would be a child:$

Its difficult educational subject to go over as well as very professional however, many days before i just read book so within this i just read history about thesis font and so i tell everyone that, Thesis is really a large typeface family created by Lucas de Groot. The typefaces specified for between 1994 and 1999 to supply a modern humanist corporate font. Each typeface can be obtained in a number of weight plus italic.This can be a bio data or else you say history thesis hope everyone found this data informative.

======= Date Modified 05 Apr 2012 10:32:54 ======= My former College rules mentioned “The minimum font size ought to be 11 and no more than size 12 for that primary text. Appropriate fonts are Arial and Occasions New Roman.” Spacing ended up being to be set to at least one.5 or 2 lines. The examination / research guidelaines for the College must have similarly info clearly mentioned.

The particular guidance I received was the following:

* Occasions New Roman 12 point was for use for general text&#59

* Arial 12 point for figure or table body / content text – I’d drop figure or table text lower to 11 (or perhaps rare cases 10) basically had issues with not enough space&#59

For headers, I had been told to make use of:

* Arial Bold 14 point for primary chapter headings&#59

* Arial Bold 12 point for primary section headings (i.e 2.1, 2.2, etc.)&#59

* Occasions New Roman Bold Italic 12 point for lower level section headings (i.e. 2.3.1, 2.3.2 or 2.3.2.1, 2.3.2.2, etc.) – Irrrve never went beyond a 4th degree of header (i.e. 2.3.2.one or two.3.2.2)&#59

* For Table or Figure Headers (not body / content – see above), Time New Roman Bold 12 point (not italicised).

The Thesis front sheet was at either Arial or Occasions New Roman 24. I chosen Occasions New Roman.

I had been also told not to use greater than two fonts, thus I stuck towards the Occasions New Roman / Arial guidelines I had been given above.

Tempting ended up being use Old British Text throughout. -)

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  1. Formatting Guidelines

    Fonts must be 10, 11, or 12 points in size. Superscripts and subscripts (e.g., formulas, or footnote or endnote numbers) should be no more than 2 points smaller than the font size used for the body of the text. Spacing and Indentation Space and indent your thesis or dissertation following these guidelines:

  2. What font should I choose for my thesis?

    Popular combinations are Garamond/Helvetica; Minion Pro/Myriad Pro; Times New Roman/Arial Narrow. But don't create a dog's breakfast by having more than two typefaces in your thesis - use point sizes, bold and italics for variety. Of late, I've become quite fond of Constantia.

  3. Formatting Requirements : Graduate School

    Font Text must be embedded, 11-point or larger font. Smaller font size may be appropriate for footnotes or other material outside of the main text. Black text is recommended; although, color may be appropriate in some limited parts of the document. Font requirements apply to all text, including captions, footnotes, citations, etc. 4. Margins

  4. PDF Electronic Theses and Dissertation Formatting Guidelines

    University formatting guidelines apply to the font type and size, page margins, page numbering, page order, line spacing for the entire document and the content and formatting for the front pages. ETD Style Guides for the front pages are available by school or college on the ETD website. For the body of the document, please use the style guide ...

  5. Format Requirements for Your Dissertation or Thesis

    Page Size. Pages should be standard U.S. letter size (8.5 x 11 inches). Typeface. In order to ensure the future ability to render the document, standard fonts must be used. Font Size. For the main text body, type size should be 10, 11, or 12 point. Smaller font sizes may be used in tables, captions, etc. Font Color. The font color must be black ...

  6. What font and font size is used in APA format?

    What font and font size is used in APA format? APA Style papers should be written in a font that is legible and widely accessible. For example: Times New Roman (12pt.) Arial (11pt.) Calibri (11pt.) Georgia (11pt.) The same font and font size is used throughout the document, including the running head, page numbers, headings, and the reference page.

  7. Formatting Your Dissertation

    Check the box next to Embed fonts in the file. Click the OK button. Save the document. Note that when saving as a PDF, make sure to go to "more options" and save as "PDF/A compliant". To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2007: Click the circular Office button in the upper left corner of Microsoft Word.

  8. KU Thesis and Dissertation Formatting: Fonts and Spacing

    (785) 864-6944 Last Updated: Aug 25, 2023 10:49 AM URL: https://guides.lib.ku.edu/etd Tutorials , dissertation formatting, electronic thesis and dissertation, embedding fonts, etd, heading style, how to, long document, make, making, page numbering, table of contents, table of figures, thesis formatting, tutorial, word

  9. Dissertation layout and formatting

    Dissertation printing Font, font size, and line spacing Use a clear and professional font. Some examples include Verdana, Times New Roman, and Calibri (which is the default font in Microsoft Word). Font size is best set to 10 or 11.

  10. Fonts/Typeface

    Below are suggested fonts and sizes. Headings Establish and follow a consistent pattern for layout of all headings. All headings should use the same font size, font weight, typeface, etc. For example: center all major headings; place secondary headings at least two lines below major headings. Typeface/Printing Quality (Paper Submissions Only)

  11. Formatting your thesis: Overall layout and specifications

    File format, file size, and page size. The final copy of the thesis must be converted to .pdf (PDF/A format) for submission to the Library (maximum 400 mb). See the guide Saving your thesis in PDF/A format for instructions. Theses must be formatted for US Letter (8.5X11) pages. Landscape 8.5X11 and 11X17 pages are permitted.

  12. MIT Specifications for Thesis Preparation

    Contact [email protected] early in your thesis writing process to determine the best way to include ... Avoid using blank lines to add visual spacing and instead increase the size of the spaces before and/or after the line. ... Converting directly will ensure that fonts and hyperlinks are embedded in the document. Do not embed multimedia files ...

  13. formatting

    So far this is the formatting I used: main title "Thesis of ...": Arial 16pt. Abstract subtitle: Times New Roman 12pt. Abstract content: Times New Roman 11pt, justified. Heading 1 (main sections of the paper): Arial 14 bold. Heading 2 (sections of the paper, corresponding to Headings 1): Arial 12 bold. Content of each sections (Headings 2 ...

  14. 8 Best Fonts for Thesis Writing

    Table Of Contents How Do Font Plays a Critical Role in Thesis? 8 Best Fonts for Thesis Writing Tips to Choose the Best Font for Thesis Mistakes to Avoid While Choosing a Font How to Format Your Thesis Perfectly? Can't Write a Thesis? Let Our Experts Do It for You

  15. Thesis Format Guide

    Structuring your thesis is a crucial aspect of academic writing. The thesis format font size and spacing follows a specific framework. A well-organized thesis not only enhances readability but also reflects your dedication to the research process. The structure can be divided into three main sections: Front Matter, Body, and End Matter.

  16. PDF MANUAL For Thesis and Dissertations STYLE & FORMAT

    Your thesis or dissertation committee is responsible for reviewing both the style and the content of your manuscript. The guidelines explained here focus primarily on physical format. If you follow these guidelines, the format of your thesis or dissertation will meet the minimal requirements.

  17. Formatting your thesis: Tables, figures, illustrations

    To change the font or line spacing for tables see the Thesis Template Instructions. Figures and other image specifications. Font: Text in image files should follow the overall Font Specifications and be large enough to be read when inserted into the document. The font in images should appear to be the same size as the text in your thesis.

  18. Guidelines for the General Format of a Ph.D. Thesis

    Use the standard A4 format and set the same margins all around (e.g. 2.5 cm, top/bottom, right/left). Remember that the thesis will be printed and boud and that margins should thus be large enough. Text size and line spacing. The text should be in 11 or 12 point character and 1.5 spaced lines. Footnotes should be in 10 point character and ...

  19. PDF GUIDELINES FOR THESIS PREPARATION

    To have the thesis examined, the number of thesis copies to be submitted to the Dean of Academic Affairs should correspond to (a) the number of examiners (including thesis supervisors) for an M.Tech. degree student, and (b) the number of thesis supervisors plus five copies for a Ph.D. degree student.

  20. How To Choose The Thesis Font Type For Your Dissertation

    What Is The Standard Font Size For The Thesis? What Font Is Used For Phd Thesis? Can I Use Calibri For My Thesis? How Can The Font Type Affect The Readability Of My Thesis? What Is A Thesis Font Type? Choosing the right font type can be an important decision when writing a thesis.

  21. Great fonts for a PhD thesis

    As I explained in my Ultimate Guide to preparing a PhD thesis for printing, there are two basic kinds of fonts: Serif fonts and sans-serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines - serifs - at the ends of all lines. Sans-serif fonts don't have those lines. Compare these two, Palatino Linotype and Arial: Palatino Linotype is a serif font.

  22. Font size for thesis writing

    A summary of suggested fonts are available on ProQuest's site . Fonts should be 10, 11, or 12 points in dimensions. Superscripts and subscripts (e.g. formulas, or footnote or endnote figures) should not be a greater than 2 points smaller sized compared to font size used for your system from the text.

  23. writing

    2. Try to use the same font as what you use for image captions. Then it should be easy to read and it does not stand out in comparison with the rest of the document. For example, if your text is 12pt Times and image captions are 11pt Times, then all text in your images is 11pt Times. If both text and image captions are 12pt Times, then all text ...