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While each industry will evolve in a unique way, an examination of the forces influencing industry structure indicates that the deployment of Internet technology will likely continue to put pressure on the profitability of many industries.

If traditional marketing is about creating exchanges that simultaneously satisfy the firm and the customer, what is Internet marketing? Internet marketing is the process of building and maintaining customer relationships through online activities to facilitate the exchange of ideas, products and services that satisfy the goals of both parties.

1. Process:

Like a traditional marketing programme, an Internet-marketing programme involves a process. The seven stages of the Internet-marketing programme process are setting corporate and business-unit strategy, framing the market opportunity, formulating the marketing strategy, designing the customer experience, designing the marketing programme. These seven stages must be coordinated and must be internally consistent. While the process can be described in a simple linear fashion, the marketing strategist often has to loop back and forth during the seven stages.

2. Building and maintaining customer relationships:

The goal of marketing is to build and create lasting customer relationships. Hence, the focal point shifts from finding customer to nurturing a sufficient number of committed, loyal customers. Successful marketing programmes move target customers through three stages of relationship building: awareness, exploration and commitment. It is important to stress that the goal of Internet marketing is not simply building relationships with online customers. Rather, the goal is to build offline (as relevant) as well as online relationships.

The Internet-marketing programme may well be part of a broader campaign to satisfy customers who use both online and offline services, which can be devised in two as described below:

Phase one: Setting corporate and business-unit strategy :

Corporate strategy addresses the interrelationship between the various business units in a firm, including decisions about which units should be kept, sold or augmented. Business- unit strategy focuses on how a particular unit in the company attacks a market to gain competitive advantage.

Phase two: framing the market opportunity :

Phase two entails an analysis of market opportunities and an initial first pass of the business concept, that is, collecting sufficient online and offline data to establish the burden of proof of opportunity assessment. A simple six-step methodology helps evaluate the attractiveness of the opportunity.

These include: seeding the opportunity, specifying unmet or undeserved customer needs, identifying the target segment, declaring the company’s resource-based opportunity for advantage, assessing opportunity attractiveness and making the final go/ no-go decision. The final go/no-go choice is often a corporate or business-unit decision.

However, it is important to stress that marketing plays a critical role in the opportunity assessment phase. Internet marketing strategy is based upon corporate, business-unit and overall marketing strategies of the firm. The marketing strategy goals, resources and sequencing of actions must be tightly aligned with the business-unit strategy. Finally, the overall marketing strategy comprises both offline and online marketing activities.

1. Stage one: designing the customer experience:

Firms must understand the type of customer experience that needs to be delivered to meet the market opportunity. The experience should correlate with the firm’s positioning and marketing strategy. Thus, the design of the customer experience constitutes a bridge between high-level marketing strategy and marketing programme tactics.

(i) Awareness:

When customers have some basic information, knowledge or attitudes about a firm or its offerings but have not initiated any communications with the firm, they are in the awareness stage. Consumers become aware of firms through a variety of sources, including word-of-mouth, traditional marketing such as television advertising and online marketing programmes such as banner ads. Awareness is the first step in a potentially deeper relationship with the firm.

(ii) Exploration:

In the exploration stage, the customer (and firm) begins to initiate communications and actions that enable an evaluation of whether or not to persue a deeper connection. This stage is also likely to include some trial on the part of the customer.

Exploration is analogous to sampling songs, going on a first date or test driving a car. In the online world, exploration may take the form of frequent site visits, some e-commerce retail exchanges and possibly even the return of merchandise. It may include phone call follow-ups on delivery times or emails about product inventory. The exploration stage may take only a few visits or perhaps years to unfold.

(iii) Commitment:

In this context, commitment involves feeling a sense of obligation or responsibility for a product or firm. When customers commit to a website, their repeated, enduring attitudes and behaviours reflect loyalty. Commitment is a state of mind as well as a pattern of behaviour.

(iv) Dissolution:

Not all customers are equally valuable to the firm. In an industrial marketing context, managers often refer to the 80/20 rule of profitability. That is, 20 per cent of customers provide 80 per cent of the profit. By implication, therefore, a large number of customers are unprofitable or cost heavy to be served. Firms should segment their customers into most valuable and less valuable customers. The most valuable customers may be identified based on profit, revenue, and/or strategic significance.

2. Stage two: the Internet marketing mix:

The traditional 4Ps of marketing are product, price, promotion and place/distribution. All four of these choices are part of the Internet mix, along with two new elements: community and branding. Community is the level of interaction that unfolds between users.

Certainly, the firm can encourage community formation and nurture community development. However, community is about user-to-user connections. Branding is a critical component of building long-term relationships on the web. Thus, rather than view branding as a sub­component of the product, it is developed here as a moderating variable upon the levers- product, pricing, communication, community and distribution.

(i) Product:

The product is the service or physical goods that a firm offers for exchange. A wide range of product forms are being offered on the Internet, including physical goods (e.g. clothing), information-intensive products (e.g. Wall Street Journal online) and services (e.g. online grocers). Frequently, the offerings are a combination of all three forms.

In the course of building customer relationships, the firm can use a variety of product levers to build enduring customer relationships. Product packaging is often used to build customer awareness, upgrades and complementary services enable customers to explore a deeper connection and customized offerings strengthen commitment. The key point is that specific product levers can be used to encourage a stronger connection.

Price is critical because it influences the perceived customer value (the complete product offering minus cost is often termed customer value). Traditional levers include such potential choices as tiered loyalty programmes, volume discounts, subscription models and targeted price promotions. The Internet has created an entirely new category of pricing tools for new-economy firms to use, including dynamic pricing strategies.

(ii) Communication:

Marketing communication can also encourage exploration, commitment and dissolution. For example, viral marketing (where one user informs another user about a site through email) often leads to exploration of a firm’s offerings by new customers. Also, permission marketing (where customers opt to receive communications from the firm) is intended to encourage commitment to the firm. Both offline and online communication levers can encourage customers to build a stronger bond with the firm and should be integrated into any marketing programme.

(iii) Community:

Community is defined as a set of interwoven relationships built upon shared interests, which satisfy members’ needs otherwise unattainable individually. One of the unique aspects of the Internet is the speed with which communicates can be formed. Equally important is the impact that these communities can have on the firm.

A critical question confronting Internet marketers is how communities should be leveraged to build deep customer relationships. Communities can be leveraged to build awareness (e.g. user-to-user communication to make others aware of a product promotion), encourage exploration (e.g. user groups discussing which automotive options to purchase or not purchase), and commitment (e.g. bonds between users lead to deepening involvement with the site.

(iv) Distribution:

The Internet is simultaneously a completely new form of commerce—a revolution in how customers and firms interact—and a distribution channel for the firm’s products. With respect to the role as a distribution channel, the Internet has the power to shift customers to a new channel or to use this channel in combination with other channels (e.g. search the Internet and then purchase at the retail store).

Distribution levers include the number of intermediaries (both online and offline), the breadth of channel coverage, and messaging from the channels. Broad levels of distribution impact both customer awareness and the potential for more customer exploration of the firm and its offerings.

(v) Branding:

Branding plays two roles in marketing strategy. First, branding is an outcome or result of the firm’s marketing activities. Marketing programmes affect how consumers perceive the brand, and hence its value. Second, branding is a part of every marketing strategy. That is, each marketing activity is enhanced if the brand is strong or suppressed if the brand is weak. Branding levers work in concert with other marketing levers to produce positive financial and/or customer results for the firm.

The first concept is individual-level marketing exchange. In addition to high levels of interactivity, customers expect to have a personal experience with the firm. Broadcast approaches send the same messages to all members of the target audience.

The Internet enables the firm to engage in customer-specific actions—a broadcast to an audience of one. Equally important, the customer can control the degree of customization by taking action to set the level of customization he or she desires. Hence, the amount of individualization can be controlled either by the firm or by the customer.

Interactivity is defined as the extent to which a two-way communication flow occurs between the firm and customers. The Internet enables a level of customer dialogue that has not previously been experienced in the history of business.

Certainly customers could have conversations with retail-store clerks, sales representatives, or managers; however, it was not possible at the scale that the Internet affords. Hence, the fundamental shift is one from broadcast media such as television, radio and newspapers to one that encourages debate, exchange and conversation.

Pricing can be both interactive and individualized—indeed, that is the essence of dynamics pricing. And market communications can be both interactive and individualized that is the purpose of real-time customer service on the web. Furthermore, products and services can be designed in real-time by the customer, maximizing both interactivity and customization. This level of dialogue has revolutionized the marketing.

3. Stage three: crafting the customer interface:

The Internet has shifted the locus of the exchange from the marketplace (i.e. face-to-face interaction) to the market space (i.e. screen-to-face interaction). The key difference is that the nature of the exchange relationship is now mediated by a technology interface. This interface can be a desktop PC, a notebook, personal digital assistant, mobile phone. Wireless Applications Protocol (WAP) device or other Internet-enabled appliance.

As this shift from people-mediated to technology-mediated interface unfolds, it is important to consider the types of interface design considerations that confront the senior management team. What is the look-and-feel or context, of the site? Should the site include commerce activities? How important are communities in the business model?

4. Stage four: evaluating the marketing programme:

This last stage involves evaluation of the overall Internet marketing programme. This includes a balanced focus on both customer and financial metrics.

Customer advocacy and insight :

An insatiable curiosity for customers and marketplaces is a necessity for today’s marketing professional. This innate curiosity is an individual’s desire to transform mounds of customer data into meaningful and actionable insights, which in turn become a platform for advocacy.

Because the Internet enables a much greater degree of interaction with customers, designing and promoting these interactions around customers’ needs and progressively gaining deeper insights are critical components of creating positive customer experience.

A true customer advocate will be looking to provide demonstrable added value to each customer interaction to form the basis for a meaningful relationship. As both customer behaviours and enabling technologies simultaneously evolve, a deep understanding of customer needs should serve as the guidepost driving marketing decisions.

Marketing professionals will need to strategically collect information from many disparate sources, create insightful customer mosaics and effectively translate them into marketing strategies and tactics. Look at the impact of Internet on marketing strategy (Figure 7.7). This summarizes the advantage of connecting to all markets.

Impact of Internet on Marketing Strategy

Integration :

The Internet represents both a new channel and a new communications medium. The new-economy marketing professional needs to have an integrated or holistic view of the customer and the enterprise in order to create a uniquely advantaged strategic plan.

In today’s multichannel environment, a consistent message and experience must be maintained across customer touch points in order to create a consistent brand image. Beyond strategy, a marketing manager must fundamentally understand how to integrate these new tools into the overall marketing mix. Managers who are able to hone their marketing plan in a highly integrated fashion are more likely to capitalize on the synergies between marketing elements and thus drive greater effectiveness.

Today’s online marketing professionals must have the basic skill set of offline marketing professionals. But they must also react more quickly and manage more information and channels in order to stay one step ahead of the competition. The skill set has not changed tremendously, but the tools need to be applied with more vigour and sometimes with greater speed. Successful Internet marketers will build their models and value propositions around a deep understanding of customer needs, not around the product.

The Internet and Industry Structure :

The Internet has created some new industries such as online auctions and digital marketplaces. However, its greatest impact has been to enable the reconfiguration of existing industries that had been constrained by high costs for communicating, gathering information, or accomplishing transactions. Distance learning, for example, has existed for decades, with about one million students enrolling in correspondence courses every year.

The Internet has the potential to greatly expand distance learning, but it did not create the industry. Similarly, the Internet proves an efficient means to order products, but catalogue retailers with toll-free numbers and automated fulfillment centres have been around for decades. The Internet only changes the front end of the process. Look at leading retailing chain Kmart transact with customers through its web portal (Figure 7.8).

Kmart's Web Portal

Whether an industry is new or old, its structural attractiveness is determined by five underlying forces of competition: the intensity of rivalry among existing competitors, the barriers to entry for new competitors, the threat of substitute produces or services, the bargaining power of supplies, and the bargaining power of buyers.

In combination, these forces determine how the economic value created by any product, service, technology, or way of competing is divided between, on the one hand, companies in an industry and, on the other, customers, suppliers, distributors, substitutes, and potential new entrants.

Although some have argued that today’s rapid pace of technological change makes industry analysis less valuable, the opposite is true. Analysing the forces illuminates an industry’s fundamental attractiveness, exposes the underlying drivers of average industry profitability, and provides insight into how profitability will evolve in the future.

The five competitive forces still determine profitability even if suppliers, channels, substitutes, or competitions change.

Since the strength of each of the five forces varies considerably from industry to industry, it would be a mistake to draw general conclusions about the impact of the Internet on long- term industry profitability; each industry is affected in different ways. Some of the trends are positive. For example, the Internet tends to dampen the bargaining power of channels by providing companies with new, more direct avenues to customers.

The Internet can also boost an industry’s efficiency in various ways, expanding the overall size of the market by improving its position relative to traditional substitutes. In 2009, corporate and SMEs understood globally that only technology-based solution through Internet helped them to tide over the recession.

But most of the trends are negative. Internet technology provides buyers with easier access to information about products and suppliers, thus bolstering buyer bargaining power. The Internet mitigates the need for such things as an established sales force or access to existing channels, reducing barriers to entry.

By enabling new approaches to meeting needs and performing functions, it creates new substitutes. Since it is an open system, companies have more difficulty maintaining proprietary offerings, thus intensifying the rivalry among competitors.

The use of the Internet also tends to expand the geographic market, bringing many more companies into competition with one another. And Internet technologies tend to reduce variable cost and tilt cost structures toward fixed cost, creating significantly greater pressure for companies to engage in destructive price competition (Figure 7.9).

The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Architecture for Wireless Internet Services to Mobile Information Appliances

The myth of the first mover :

The advantage of being ‘first’ or ‘pioneering’ the technology will not last long for an Internet based company. Take the case of tendering or sourcing supply for a company’s raw material/ accessory. Here ‘switching over’ is easy for both buyers and sellers.

On the Internet, buyers can often switch suppliers with just a few mouse clicks, and new web technologies are reducing switching costs even further. For example, companies like PayPal provide settlement services or Internet currency—so-called e-wallets—which enable customers to shop at different sites without having to enter personal information and credit card numbers.

Content-consolidation tools such as One Page allow users to avoid having to go back to sites over and over to retrieve information by enabling them to build customized web pages that draw needed information dynamically from other sites. The widespread adoption of XML standards will free companies from the need to reconfigure proprietary ordering systems and to create new procurement and logistical protocols when changing suppliers.

Internet brands have also proven difficult to build, perhaps because the lack of physical presence and direct human contract makes virtual businesses less tangible to customers than traditional businesses. Despite huge outlays for advertising, product discounts, and purchasing incentives, most dot.com brands have not approached the power of established brands, making modest achievements on brand and customer loyalty.

Another myth that has generated unfounded enthusiasm for the Internet is that partnering is a win-win means to improve industry economics. While partnering is a well-established strategy, the use of Internet technology has made it much more widespread. Partnering takes two forms. The first involves complements: products that are used in tandem with another industry’s product.

In Internet commerce, complements have proliferated as companies have sought to offer broader arrays of products, services, and information. Partnering to assemble complements, often with companies who are also competitors, has been seen as a way to speed industry growth and move away from narrow-minded, destructive competition. Look at how amazon.com transacts its business with global customers through its portal (Figure 7.10).

Amazon.com offers discounts to Lure Customers

With the Internet, widespread partnering with producers of accessories like automobile may exacerbate automobile industry’s structural problems. As partnerships proliferate, companies tend to become more alike, which heats up rivalry.

Instead of focusing on their own strategic goals, companies may forced to balance the many potentially conflicting objectives of their partners while also educating them about their business model. Rivalry often becomes unstable, and since producers of accessories can be potential competitors, the threat of entry increases.

Another common form of partnering is outsourcing. Internet technologies have made it easier for companies to coordinate with their suppliers, giving widespread currency to the notion of the ‘virtual enterprise’—a business created largely out of purchased products, components and services. While extensive outsourcing can reduce near-term costs and improve flexibility, it has a dark side when it comes to industry structure.

As competitors turn to the same vendors, purchased inputs become more homogeneous, eroding company distinctiveness and increasing price competition. Outsourcing also usually lowers barriers to entry because a new entrant need only assemble purchased inputs rather than build its own capabilities. In addition, companies lose control over important elements of their business, and crucial experience in components, assembly, or services shifts to suppliers, enhancing their power in the long run.

The future of Internet competition :

Consider the intensity of competition, for example, many dot coms went out of business in 2001 just after the dot.com crash. While some consolidation among new players is inevitable, many established companies are now more familiar with Internet technology and are rapidly deploying online applications (Figure 7.11).

Connecting Telecommunication and Mobile Technology Networks with Internet

With a combination of new and old companies and generally lower entry barriers, most industries will likely end up with a net increase in the number of competitors and fiercer rivalry than before the advent of the Internet.

The power of customers will also rise. As buyers’ initial curiosity with the web wanes and subsidies end, companies offering products or services online will be forced to provide real benefits. Already, customers appear to be losing interest in services like Priceline. Com’s reverse auctions because the savings they provide are often outweighed by the hassles involved.

As customers become more familiar with the technology, their loyalty to their initial suppliers will also decline; they will realize that the cost of switching is low. Take the case of Geojit, an online trader who is driving the business with trust and demat accounts (www (dot)geojit(dot)com). The company charges lowest brokerage of 0.03 per cent for day trading, 0.3 per cent for delivery and Rs75 per lot for F&O (futures & options).

The company handles 1, 50,000 traders everyday and managing assets under custody of over Rs6, 000 crore. Its trading portal gives a new experience to the online traders with latest technology and of course cheapest price. The company promotes its services and adds customer base under the banner ‘Fair and Transparent Trade’ through a toll-free number. Website and branches across the country.

For increasing its credibility this Kochi-based company registered itself with SEBI, NSE, BSE, and NSDL and operates its portfolio manager under INP 00000316 is really commendable. Look at how MCX is influencing the traders (Figure 7.12).

MCX: Capitalizing on Fluctuating Commodity Prices

A similar shift will affect advertising-based strategies. As it is, advertisers are becoming more discriminating, and the growth of web advertising is slowly catching the mind of Indian customers. Most banking, financial services, insurance, travel and tourism, and ticketing (air, road and train) concerns are making use of web advertisements effectively.

Advertisers can be expected to continue to exercise their bargaining power to push down rates significantly, aided and abetted by new brokers of Internet advertising. Advertisers can be expected to continue to exercise their bargaining power to push down rates significantly, aided and abetted by new brokers of Internet advertising.

Some technological advances will provide opportunities to enhance profitability. Improvements in streaming video and greater availability of low-cost bandwidth, for example, will make it easier for customer service representatives, or other company personnel, to speak directly to customers through their computers. Internet sellers will be able to better differentiate themselves and shift buyers’ focus away from price. And services such as automatic bill paying may modestly boost switching costs.

In general, however, new Internet technologies will continue to erode profitability by shifting the power to customers. To understand the importance of thinking through the longer-term structural consequences of the Internet, consider the business of digital marketplaces.

Such marketplaces automate corporate procurement by linking many buyers and suppliers electrically. The benefits to buyers include low transaction costs, easier access to price and product information, convenient purchase of associated services, and, sometimes, the ability to pool volume.

The benefits to suppliers include lower selling costs, lower transaction costs, access to wider markets, and the avoidance of powerful channels. Take the case of Dovetail, a Bangalore- based logistics company which provides composite technologies to design, build and deliver logistic solutions by following converging development and prototyping with simultaneous roll-out model (www(dot)dovetail(dot)com).

It is a true gift to SMEs to integrate technologies in their business portfolio. In India www (dot) rediff mail (dot) com makes it possible for both the rural and urban Indians to purchase the latest products by placing orders from their homes and assured delivery within a week. Here the payment mode is VPP or pay-by-cash at home. EBay is the most popular auction site in India too, with a car being purchased every nine minutes and a cell phone every minute!

From an industry structure standpoint, the attractiveness of digital marketplaces varies depending on the products involved. The most important determinant of a marketplace’s profit potential is the intrinsic power of the buyers and sellers in the particular product area. If either side is concentrated or possesses differentiated products, it will gain bargaining power over the marketplace and capture most of the value generated.

If buyers and sellers are fragmented, however, their bargaining power will be weak, and the marketplace will have a much better chance of being profitable. Another important determinant of industry structure is the threat of substitution.

If it is relatively easy for buyers and sellers to transact business directly with one another, or to set up their own dedicated markets, independent marketplaces will be unlikely to sustain high levels of profit. Finally, the ability to create barriers to entry is critical. Look at electronic platform for trading Rubber Futures Contract (Figure 7.13).

JADE. TSR 20's e-trading Platform

Today, with dozens of marketplaces and with buyers and sellers dividing their purchases or operating their own markets to prevent any one marketplace from gaining power, it is clear that entry barriers are a real challenge to profitability. Competition among digital marketplaces is in transition, and industry structure is evolving.

Much of the economic value created by marketplaces derives from the standards they establish, both in the underlying technology platform and in the protocols for connecting and exchanging information. But once these standards are put in place, the added value of the marketplace may be limited.

Anything buyers or suppliers provide to a marketplace, such as information on order specifications or inventory availability can be readily provided on their own proprietary sites. Suppliers and customers can deal directly online without the need for an intermediary. And new technologies will undoubtedly make it easier for parties to search for and exchange goods and information with one another.

In some product areas, marketplaces should enjoy ongoing advantages and attractive profitability; in fragmented industries such as real estate and furniture, for example, they could prosper. New kinds of value added services might arise that only an independent marketplace could provide.

But in many product areas, marketplaces may be superseded by direct dealing or by the unbundling or purchasing of information, financing, and logistical services. In other areas, they may be taken over by participants or industry associations as cost centres. In such cases, marketplaces will provide a valuable ‘public good’ to participants but will not likely reap any enduring benefits.

Over the long-haul, moreover, we may well see many buyers back away from open marketplaces. They may once again focus on building close, proprietary relationships with fewer suppliers using Internet technologies to gain efficiency improvements in various aspects of those relationships.

In India the model which is emerging is an integrated one, i.e. the combined world of text, visuals, videos, photos and online tours clubbed with physical examination of touch and feel of the product under consideration. Hence, Zodiac offers online dressing solutions by offering nearly 4,000 patterns and styles and inviting customers to the nearest Zodiac outlet for physical verification.

Of course, seeing is believing as far as Indians are concerned, and Zodiac’s model works well. The Future group is planning its online electronic mall NEXT, where physical verification of the inventory is made possible through physical NEXT outlets.

The largest retailer Shopper’s Stop, which touched a retail turnover of Rs 3007.2 billion in the second quarter ended September 2007, however, uses websites only for informing its customers and prospects about new arrivals and sending emails to its first citizens (loyalty card for their customers) about discounts. Shopper’s stop has 22 stores in 12 cities but has failed to get any advantage through the Internet revolution as e-campaigns fail to provide the customer with the store ambience.

Related Articles:

  • Internet Marketing: Meaning, Components and Other Details
  • Using Web as an Integral Part of Marketing Strategy for Your Business | Marketing

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4 Benefits of Enrolling in an Online Marketing Course

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  • 13 Feb 2024

Marketing has become a highly sought-after expertise with its blend of creative problem-solving and strategic thinking . It’s also growing: The digital marketing job market’s value is projected to surpass 24 billion dollars by 2028 .

To keep up with rapidly changing technologies and customer needs , one avenue to consider is enrolling in an online marketing certificate program . Beyond advancing your career , it can be a flexible, convenient way to develop your skills and build your network .

If you’re wondering whether an online marketing course is worth it, here are four benefits you could experience by enrolling in one and how to find the right fit for you.

Access your free e-book today.

1. Stay Up to Date on Market Trends

Marketers have always strived to entice customers to purchase goods and services, but how to reach those customers has drastically evolved.

“Technology completely changed the way consumers connect with brands, how they search for information, and how they buy products,” says Harvard Business School Professor Sunil Gupta, who teaches the online course Digital Marketing Strategy .

Recent marketing trends include:

  • Marketing automation
  • Influencer marketing
  • Marketing analytics

By taking an online course, you can explore these topics and how they impact your industry. For example, Digital Marketing Strategy , like all HBS Online courses, enables you to apply course concepts to real-world scenarios using the case method —in which you assume the perspectives of business experts and reflect on how you’d solve the specific challenges they face.

2. Flexibility

Another benefit of online marketing courses is that they provide the flexibility to fulfill personal and professional commitments. Many allow you to schedule your education around your career through asynchronous learning models—so you can access course materials, lectures, and assignments anytime from anywhere.

That flexibility is crucial to maintaining a healthy work-life balance . According to Georgetown University's Center on Education and the Workforce , 25 percent of all working learners are simultaneously employed and enrolled in school full time. In addition, 76 percent of graduate students work at least 30 hours a week.

Related: 5 Time Management Tips for Online Learners

3. Cost Effective

Online courses are often more affordable than in-person ones. They enable you to avoid transportation and lodging costs but also offer the aforementioned flexibility so you can still work full-time to offset the expense.

Despite their lower price tags, they can be just as rigorous as on-campus, full-time degree programs. In addition to offering challenging assignments and group projects, they require managing your time effectively to meet strict course deadlines.

Related: Should You Take an Online Class? 9 Things to Consider

4. Digital Skills Development

Online marketing courses are also an effective way to upskill and hone digital marketing skills such as:

  • Search engine optimization
  • Email marketing
  • Social media
  • Data analysis

While you can improve such skills on the job, some may require a more in-depth approach. If the latter resonates with you, an online course could be a worthwhile way to become a more strategic thinker and discover how to use the latest digital platforms and tools to advance your career.

Digital Marketing Strategy | Develop digital marketing strategies that reach and retain customers | Learn More

How to Select the Right Online Marketing Course for You

While many online marketing courses offer these benefits, you need to find the right one for you. Here are a few steps to help.

Choose a Specialization

Before choosing an online marketing course, consider your interests.

Marketing specializations you can study include:

  • Digital marketing
  • Content marketing
  • Social media marketing
  • Video marketing

By identifying your area of interest, you can choose a course that aligns with your professional development goals . Specializing also allows you to develop niche expertise, making you a more attractive candidate for a promotion or new role.

Evaluate the Curriculum

Curriculum quality is paramount because it influences how well your education prepares you for today’s business challenges.

For example, Digital Marketing Strategy includes components that make learning from HBS Online unique , such as:

  • Interactive learning exercises
  • Real-world business cases
  • Access to a global network of like-minded business professionals

Your course’s curriculum can also affect your career outcomes.

In a 2022 survey by City Square Associates , 36 percent of HBS Online learners said they changed careers after taking a course. In another survey , 85 percent said taking a course bolstered their resume, and 42 percent attracted more attention from recruiters.

Research the Faculty

Faculty form the backbone of many online courses. At HBS Online, you can learn from industry leaders that include:

  • C-suite executives
  • Entrepreneurs
  • Early- and mid-career professionals
  • HBS faculty

Digital Marketing Strategy includes real-world cases featuring OOFOS’ Head of E-Commerce Kate Laliberte, Adobe’s Chief Marketing Officer Ann Lewnes, and e.l.f. Beauty’s Chief Digital Officer Ekta Chopra.

Review Learner Testimonials

Education can be a huge time and money investment. As such, it’s critical to explore former learners' stories to ensure your course generates a positive return.

Testimonials can provide insight into a course’s:

  • Learning experience
  • Real-world application
  • Skills development
  • Career outcomes

For example, Sichao Ni , a commercial attaché at the U.S. Embassy in Singapore, enrolled in an HBS Online course to pursue his passion for learning.

"HBS Online doesn't teach you knowledge or prescribe any cookie-cutter solutions to problems,” Ni says. “Rather, it teaches you how to think about business problems and arrive at a solution yourself."

Your Guide to Online Learning Success | Download Your Free E-Book

Take Your Marketing Career to the Next Level

Among a myriad of professional development opportunities , enrolling in an online marketing course is a flexible, affordable option for advancing your skills and career.

Digital Marketing Strategy , for instance, is designed to help you use the latest marketing tactics, tools, and trends to reach and retain customers in a digital world. Through real-world cases and an interactive, online learning experience, you can learn how to develop data-driven strategies that position your organization to succeed.

Do you want to advance your marketing career? Explore Digital Marketing Strategy to discover how. If you’re interested in exploring online education but aren’t sure where to start, download our free guide to online learning success .

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A Study on The Transition of Online Marketing

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Internet marketing in the past, present, and future, internet marketing in the past, major shifts within the industry, the present internet marketing, a risk of the soaring street, the change of the market-place, idler and leaders in internet marketing, the future of internet marketing.

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The Importance of Internet Marketing

Introduction, advantages and disadvantages of internet marketing, impact on industries.

Internet marketing is also known as online marketing, Internet advertising, web marketing, or eMarketing which significantly signifies a business transaction and various marketing of products through the use of the internet. Marketing over the internet works together with the artistic and technical sense of the internet. These comprise web design, development, advertising, and sales. Internet marketing does not just mean creating a website or placing advertisements on it though. Its efficiency needs a wide-ranging strategy that will synergize the business structure of a company and attain its objectives. Considerations such as website function, its appearance, and the way it attracts website visitors should be highlighted in the determination of its successful marketing strategy (Fisk et al., 2004).

Internet is seen to be one of the major innovations when it comes to marketing and it has brought a lot of advantages in the field. Having an interactive sense of internet marketing, can give immediate responses and extract those responses as a means of a unique distribution channel. Internet marketing is sometimes taken more largely because it points out to the digital media through internet, electronic mails and wireless form of media (Kotler, 2003). However, internet marketing also involves the systems wherein electronic relationship management is applied as well as the management of digital customer data. Moreover, web marketing may also mean placing a media of the different customer relations through search engines (Lovelock and Wirtz, 2004). Advertising over the internet directory is usually non-paid and links to the business’ website directly. Giving customers the information they want from a product, will be very convenient for them to scan the web pages and save time instead of picking up the phones to ask questions about the ad (Jones and Coviello, 2005). However, one indeed does not have to create a website to market products online, but it is more advisable to own one especially for larger firms to have more efficiency in their marketing deals.

Internet marketing history began in the past decades though this seemed to be not broad and limited advertisements were only seen because of people’s unawareness of such trends. Advertising online started its consistent fame during the year 1994 and increased its worth to the industry up until 1997 and now (Jeyaraj et al., 2006). Web sites are developed for the companies in each industry with various kinds of products available for all kinds of consumers. And hence, other firms started to realize that a website should be backed up by many advertisements linked to other sites to create traffic among various sites that serve as their competitors (Houghton and Winklhofer, 2004; McFarland and Hamilton, 2006).

Looking forward with other competitors in a domestic and global sense, many firms have now emerged into the inclusion into the use of the internet in their marketing plans (McDermott and O’Connor, 2002). Just like for example the IBM Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, they are considered to be two of the most progressive technology company in the world but still, they set a lot of effort and spend millions of money for internet marketing. And this primarily applies to a business-to-business transaction. The developing technology on the internet such as Yahoo!, enabled small firms to upstart internet marketing through placing banner ads on the site and be able to promote the business. Yahoo! is just an example where various internet marketing can be visualized and its operation widely caters to the system and processes of internet marketing with its activities. This form of technology connects businesses worldwide and significantly impacts the process of selling industrial goods and services (Grandon and Pearson, 2005).

Internet marketing is not as expensive as marketing through print, TV, radio, and other forms of media. Cost can be minimized and time can be saved as well the marketer’s effort. A business-to-business transaction relatively needs this innovation to be able to promote a wide-ranging technique of communicating and selling goods and services through other business organizations (Fillis and Wagner, 2005). The nature of the medium tolerates consumers to acquire information about the product and buy products and services with no hassle. Hence, businesses get the advantage of attracting other firms to do business and bring apparent results. The impact may account for the efficiency of the business strategies and may attain the goals and manage its cost- volume- profit well.

Marketers also are seen to be advantageous through using the internet as their distribution channel and in evaluating statistics (BarNir et al., 2003). All areas of an internet marketing campaign can be managed and assessed properly. Advertisers as well can utilize different kinds of techniques such as pay per click, pay per play, and other similar terms that entail how a certain website gets compensated through the visits of other business firms and consumers (Bengston et al., 2007). In this technique, marketers can keep track of each product which businesses, in particular, are interested in. Such kind techniques can not be obtained from other kinds of media.

However, disadvantages most especially for a business-to-business transaction among marketers can cause internet marketing a way to build a non-personal relationship between buyers and sellers wherein an unsure deal may arise. This points out the gap in reality because internet marketing accounts for a process of non-personal selling. Though products and services can be seen and described over the website of a business, still it lacks the sense of touch and sometimes unsatisfactory for the products and services may largely arise and internet marketing somehow are vulnerable to different kinds of fraud. But this is just a case-to-case basis of what the real world of innovation brings (Storey, 2003).

In 2007, internet marketing grew rapidly. The exposure, response, and totality of the internet’s efficiency are seen through other forms of media. Internet marketing can provide a more sense of accountability for the advertisers and depict a B2B marketing transaction. Marketers and their clients comprehend more in evaluating the collaborative effects of marketing such as how it affects the sales of stores (Fillis et al., 2004). The impact of this multichannel marketing can be very hard to recognize but appears to be an essential part of appreciating and assessing the worth of each marketing campaign through different forms of media (Eyuboglu and Kabadayi, 2005).

Internet marketing can be viewed in various ways such as the terms e-commerce, lead-based websites, publishing, and affiliate marketing though other business models are used as a marketing campaign over the internet (Drucker, 2002). E-Commerce is the term used for the goods sold directly to the consumers or businesses (Daniel et al., 2002). Lead-based websites signify the acquisition of sales just through the websites and the sale of advertising is coined as publishing. Affiliate marketing on the other hand promotes sales through giving incentives for the visitors of the websites like the free screen savers that appear every time you click on a particular page.

The techniques of internet advertising have been drastically affected by the innovations in technology through the telecommunications industry. Some firms adapted to the new trends of telecommunications such as broadband and as simple as text ads. Advertisers can now more function well about the commitments and management of online branding with other firms. Lack of personal transaction and inability to ensure that fraud does not arise, broadband was introduced to act and do business transactions accordingly. This enables viewers to see a TV-like advertisement with just the click of a mouse and set a particular objective of reaching the target audience explicitly. In this trend, dealing with business transactions can be through a face-to-face manner though other parties are located afar. This is just one famous trend that emerges in internet marketing today. Blogs, voice broadcast, spam are just examples of terms and known trends in digital marketing. The blog is a user-generated website where most businesses start today. Various kinds of posts can be seen on blogs and is a good way of advertising and marketing a product. For an instance, an entrepreneur starts up a jewelry business and posts his or her crafts on the blog wherein visitors can be potential buyers (Cooney, 2005). In many instances, business affiliations arise in this form of advertising wherein a simple blog site turns out into a bigger business and can put up a company.

Internet marketing largely impacts many retail-oriented industries such as films, banking, telecommunication, pharmaceuticals, and advertising. Today, internet marketing in some way has replaced radio marketing about its market share. For music industries, a lot of consumers, B2B and B2C, are now into purchasing and downloading music online. Banks offered the capability of performing banking tasks online and it has increased over the years. Online banking is viewed to get the attention of consumers because it is more convenient especially for large businesses (Johnson and Bharadwaj, 2005). Fast growth in the online banking industry has emerged and almost half of the internet users transact with banking activities over the internet.

Auctions over the net have also taken their place and various items are made available specifically on eBay. E-Stores such as eBay are seen to be a result of marketing innovation where a market can execute the process of exchange through businesses to other businesses. The outcome on the advertising industry itself has been intense. For a short period, online advertising has developed to be valued like tens of billions of dollars yearly. Internet marketing has had an increasing impact on the electoral process as well. In the present year, candidates for Presidency use Internet marketing strategies to appeal to people.

In real-life situations, the impact of exchanges over the internet on business-to-business distribution provides a higher level of service and forecloses entry opportunities. In this case, the new online business firms planned to influence the ability of the internet in lessening costs and take away the inefficiencies in the conventional industrial value chains. It is more supposed that conventional channel intermediaries will be restricted in the process. In contradiction with all the suppositions, online trading exchanges still is not perfect in general. There is evidence that buyer-sponsored exchanges can be successful in assisting buyers to purchase goods and services in a B2B online exchange. However, there are lots of reasons which are highlighted because of their lack of success that comprise of inertia among the industrial buyers in utilizing new technologies for procurement, and the significance of the human touch, regulatory concerns, and the vital restrictions of existing Web technologies. In addition, it is not clear that a network focused on a distributor will refuse to accept being transformed into a series of joint trades. Still, the resistance is certainly what confused the designs of entrepreneurs who introduced internet-based transactions.

Generally, the impact of internet marketing in a B2B sense considers a wide efficiency in the market. Advantages and disadvantages it may bring but still, the overall impact benefits the business firms all over the world. Internet on domestic and global marketing and selling of industrial goods and services to businesses innovates and develops new trends in marketing. This is effective as well because all businesses are now into the use of internet marketing in small and large firms (Jones et al., 2003). This links between domestic and global areas wherein businesses around the globe are given opportunities to market products and services in all kinds of industries. It will also open new channels for the firms to distribute products and reach a worldwide market.

BarNir, A., Gallaugher, J. M. and Auger, P. (2003) ‘Business Process Digitization, Strategy, and the Impact of Firm Age and Size: The Case of the Management Publishing Industry’, Journal of Business Venturing 18(6): 789–814.

Bengston, M., Boter, H. & Vanyushyn, V. (2007). “Integrating the Internet and Marketing Operations; A Study of Antecedents in Firms of Different Size”, International Small Business Journal, Vol 25(1): 27–48.

Cooney, T. M. (2005) ‘Editorial: What is an Entrepreneurial Team?’, International Small Business Journal 23(3): 226–35.

Daniel, E., Wilson, H. and Myers, A. (2002) ‘Adoption of E-commerce by SMEs in the UK’, International Small Business Journal 20(3): 253–70.

Drucker, P. F. (2002) Innovation and Entrepreneurship . Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

Eyuboglu, N. and Kabadayi, S. (2005) ‘Dealer-Manufacturer Alienation in Multiple Channel System: The Moderating Effect of Structural Variables’, Journal of Marketing Channels 12(3): 5–27.

Fillis, I., Johansson, U. and Wagner, B. (2004) ‘A Qualitative Investigation of Smaller Firm E-business Development’, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 11(3): 349–61.

Fillis, I. and Wagner, B. (2005) ‘E-Business Development: An Exploratory Investigation of the Small Firm’, International Small Business Journal 23(6): 604–34.

Fisk, Raymond P., Stephen J. Grove, and Joby John, eds. (2004), Interactive Services Marketing, 2nd ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Grandon, E. G., and Pearson, M. J. (2004) ‘Electronic Commerce Adoption: An Empirical Study of Small and Medium US Businesses’, Information & Management 42(1): 197–216.

Houghton, K.A & Winklhofer. (2004). “The Effect of Website and E-Commerce Adaptation on the Relationship between SMEs and Their Export Intermediaries”, International Small Business Journal, 22: 369.

Jeyaraj, A., Rottman, J. W. and Lacity, M. C. (2006), ‘A Review of the Predictors, Linkages, and Biases in IT Innovation Adoption Research’, Journal of Information Technology 21(1): 1–23.

Johnson, D. S., and Bharadwaj, S. (2005) ‘Digitization of Selling Activity and SalesForce Performance: An Empirical Investigation, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 33(1): 3–18.

Jones, M. V., and Coviello, N. E. (2005) ‘Internationalisation: Conceptualising an Entrepreneurial Process of Behaviour in Time’, Journal of International Business Studies 36(3): 284–305.

Jones, C., Hecker, R. and Holland, P. (2003) ‘Small Firm Internet Adoption: Opportunities Forgone, a Journey not Begun’, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 10(3): 287–97.

Kotler, P. (2003), Marketing Management, 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lovelock, C. H., and Wirtz, J. (2004), Services Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

McDermott, C. M., and O’Connor, G. C. (2002) ‘Managing Radical Innovations: An Overview of Emergent Strategy Issues’, Journal of Product Innovation Management 19(6): 424–39.

McFarland, D. J. and Hamilton, D. (2006) ‘Adding Contextual Specificity to the Technology Acceptance Model’, Computers in Human Behavior 22(3): 427–47.

Storey, D. J. (2003) ‘Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Public Policies’, in Z. J. Acs and D. B. Audretsch (eds) Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research , pp. 473–514. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.

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essay online marketing

What is internet marketing? Essay

  • Category: Promoting
  • Words: 2426
  • Published: 01.29.20

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Internet marketing consists of advertising on the internet to sell products through digital commerce. Over advertising, internet sites of organisations allow for products to be helped bring online more quickly and less complicated which is why the electronic marketplace has developed perfectly.

Modern Advertising Modern marketing is simply the advancing of advertising in the world. Technology has evolved and fresh marketing methods have already been discovered with businesses taking the opportunity to expand their business by marketing on the net to everyone worldwide. Precisely what is marketing combine and prolonged marketing mixture? To efficiently market an item or assistance there are several things you want to get right: Product, Price, Place and Advertising. These 4 elements are known as the marketing mix or maybe the 4Ps.

The four elements should be seen as one unit and organized to support one another; Otherwise a firm’s online marketing strategy will be perplexing and uncoordinated. The original 4 P’s display as adopted: Product While the product is definitely the item being sold to the customer, those things will bring in money, the features and design will need careful consideration. If the firm can be manufacturing the product or getting the product intended for resale, they need to determine what item features is going to appeal for their target market. Value There are lots of several pricing approaches but just about every strategy must cover in least the costs unless the price will be used to attract customers for the business.

A product is only well worth as much as folks are prepared to pay it off. The amount that your marketplace are prepared to pay for your products/services depends on item features and the target market’s budget. You will also need to consider competitor costs and elements within your marketing environment. Put the Place element of the promoting place is about where the product is made, exactly where is it stored and how could it be transported to the consumer. The place for every of these points should ensure that the product reaches the right place at the best without destruction or reduction.

The ideal place will be: Convenient for the client and the business Accessible to get the customer whether it is the place where the product is sold Affordable or cost-free for the customer if it is the place where the product is offered Reasonable price to the business Apart from the initial marketing blend recently businesses have began using a prolonged version of marketing mix also referred to as the assistance marketing mixture which consists of 3 even more P’s, they are: People: Individuals are an essential ingredient in service dotacion; recruiting and training the proper staff is necessary to create a competitive advantage. Buyers make judgments about support provision and delivery based on the people addressing your company.

This is because people are one of the few portions of the service that customers can see and interact with. The praise received by the volunteers (games makers) for the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics illustrates the clear influence people can easily create during service delivery. Process: This element of the marketing mix looks at the systems used to deliver the assistance.

Imagine you walk into B and purchase a meal and you simply get it sent within a couple of minutes. The fact that was the process that allowed one to obtain a powerful service delivery? Banks that send out Charge cards automatically when ever their customer’s old one has expired once again require a powerful process to recognize expiry schedules and vitality. An efficient support that changes old bank cards will create consumer loyalty and self-confidence in the company. All services need to be underpinned by clearly defined and useful processes.

This will likely avoid confusion and enhance a consistent services. In other words techniques mean that we all know what to do and how to do it. Physical evidence: Physical evidence is around where the support is being sent from. It can be particularly tightly related to retailers operating out of shops. This kind of element of the marketing combine will identify a company from the competitors.

Physical evidence may be used to charge a premium price to get a service and establish a great experience. One example is all hotels provide a bed to sleep on but among the things affecting the retail price charged is the condition of the space (physical evidence) containing the bed. Customers could make judgments about the company based on the physical facts. For example if you walk into a restaurant you expect a clean and friendly environment, if the restaurant is smelly or grubby, customers are likely to walk out.

This is before they have even received the services. How does the net help support businesses? The net can create opportunities for better consumer services. The company could create an online site to help it is advertisement. These web sites help businesses to share relevant information while using external community, such as the services and products that they provide how they can become contacted, their very own track record and so on.

Tesco get their own website to enhance their customer satisfaction and improve on their companies in store and online. They sell a lot of their products on the web and this gives the consumer an alternative approach to shop and save time. The ability to advertise your new products on the internet is a clear opportunity to give your product a boost of promotion since several people around the world now have access to the internet it gives your product a much larger advertising audience worldwide just throughout the internet helping you save much more period.

The release of a cool product is very important mainly because it needs to be well toned into the marketplace to actually end up being brought growing your goods brand. Tesco have their individual advertisement therefore on their website they will advertise new products that have been produced or special deals which might be currently on to pull in revenue on that product. In the event Tesco set an objective that is aiming to increase sales by 15% this can be achieved through advertising their products effectively around the internet. One more may to become to gain more investors within the organization.

This makes the internet a really powerful device to businesses that want to create objectives, discharge good products and achieve targets to outcompete competitors. Will the internet offer better info on products and services? During the internet and purchasing goods there is certainly most likely to be a feedback section for the product that offers to be able to give opinions on the merchandise which can after that be looked at by some other clients to give all of them an idea if the product is ideal for them. Many if not every products advertised contain information regarding them and what they include or have. The can include anything coming from nutrition levels to what size a apparel product is.

Different services could be recognised and understood much better as most of the time the website they’re being promoted on offers details like the duration of the service if applicable. Total the internet offers a better knowledge of product than it normally would in stores. Tesco give information about most if not every their products and services into a high level of detail.

For example in their solutions section under smartphones they provide plenty of data ranging from the specifications of the phone to contract discounts available. Just how has data and telecommunications developed with time? Communication systems have developed over time providing a growing number of ways to get in touch with others around the globe.

These can range from simple messaging across internet sites to mailing videos more than app on the latest cell phones. The development and expansion of communication technologies has changed the way a simple text can show more feelings across the message. One example is a common contemporary way to message persons would be using a video chat that allows you to add a short message and send out it to multiple people. This could be utilized to send short messages of a piece of work which then contains text message asking different members inside the business their very own view.

This adds more interest to social messaging as ordinary texts may be boring which app has created a huge fan base for their first idea. Details can now be transported around effortlessly as the most up-to-date smartphones offer 4G connection and permits faster downloading and submissions which evidently speeds up communication across the world. One of developments across a business could be shown in Tesco’s as they require communications with other personnel.

ICT continues to be developed to increase the communications done within the organisation and allows the organization to work at a better speed. How does Tesco use the internet to attain their goals? Tesco has their own website and without a doubt they have their own personnel to run the site and manage what is uploaded onto the internet site and what can be visible to their consumer bottom. The website on its own allows these to reach consumers without having the physically needing to be following to them. This allows for his or her delivery service to be likely as buyers can purchase online and have their shopping to be delivered to all their door with less inconvenience.

Another feature that allows Sainsbury to achieve their very own objectives may be the ability to advertise across different websites and expand their particular customer base. How can Tesco develop relationship promoting? Relationship marketing is every time a business produces a long-term relationship with their clients. This can be carried out through rewarding them extra deals over their buys and creating bonds with customers that frequently buy from the business.

Intended for Tesco they already incentive customers with each shop they make using their ClubCard that rewards buyers back with any product that is acquired through their very own business. Another way that Tesco may prize or inspire long-term associations with their clients may be through offering a deal / percentage off the total costs on certain items to larger businesses that buy more from the business. Tesco would want to retain these customers because they purchase more from the enterprise than the normal family consumers therefore they are really scaled to get worth more over other customers in terms of devotion.

Does a better relationship with customers permit better assistance and allow Petrol station to achieve their objectives? Sainsbury can improve customer satisfaction simply by adjusting their very own company principles through all their feedback webpage. The responses page presents a simple on the net process of submitting complains or other issues arising about the companies companies. This requires very little management coming from staff members whilst also taking care of multiple people simultaneously, in addition the issues can be built 24/7 which becomes considerably more convenient intended for the customer hence the company can receive the most feedback as it should.

Put to very good use this info can then be used towards their particular objectives, for example improving staff manners, these types of objectives change from departments through the UK yet Tesco can easily focus down on the store that one of the most complaints are being made to. How does internet marketing allow corporations to gather information concerning their industry, rivals and customers? Sainsbury use website marketing to gather information on other rivals in their industry and to also use this information to adjust prices and issues that may cause them to reduce customers because of rivalry.

That they gain access to information about the current market through websites that analyse and provide usage of information to businesses which can be trying to develop on their current market rivals to influence their price range. Creating a database program allows for the business to access trends and common purchases and uses this kind of advantage to focus on and apply segmentations upon advertising based off their particular tastes. This segmentation could be 1 of 4, demographic, psychographic, economic factors and usage of particular products. Supplying deals and promotions based off these factors businesses can set up local offers based of geographical factors.

Tesco employ their database to research and gather information concerning customer’s acquisitions and with this knowledge they generate loyalty bonus deals such as get codes to get 10% of your subsequent shop. Their particular database can easily create immediate send outs to the clients address if they have usage of that form of information. Tesco club credit card can be to gain customer information while also offering rewards with their point collector greeting card that returns customers back again for buys. How offers internet utilization increased through business to business, business to client and customer to customer? (B2B) organization to organization usage has grown as contacting other businesses can be merely made with the ability to as well hold multiple business meetings.

Buying stock or supplies has turned into a simpler procedure via the internet today; placing an order for any business’s stock to be shipped can save both businesses time by robotizing the process. (B2C) Business to customer has developed massively with businesses promoting themselves above social networks and other places over the internet allow for day-to-day product purchasing while conserving time for both business as well as the customer. Customer satisfaction rates will be improved as response times to satisfaction could be made obviously and simply leading to less pressure on the business and the customer. Customer purchases can be done very easily while likewise having the ability to review products among 2 businesses.

Another profit for the consumer is the capacity to have items to be sent to your door. (C2C) Customer to customer permits more usage across the net through websites such as craigs list and Gum tree which specialise in the trade of goods from one particular customer to another based off used or new products including cars into building tools. The variety is usually endless and with delivery made easier through curriers and post office transport. C2C product sales are often performed on merchandise that are not needed anymore by the seller.

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Online Marketing, Essay Example

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A1. Two of the most important concepts I have learnt in the course that will help me devise an effective plan for my career are SWOT analysis (MindTools) and marketing mix or 4Ps (MindTools). One of the reasons I have chosen business major is to learn about different operational aspects of an organization since my goal is to eventually become an entrepreneur and manage my own company. I am aware of the fact that most new business fails, thus, in order to build a strong foundation, I aim to work at a multinational company for few years before venturing out on my own. But the competition for jobs is tough and it is especially true at multinational companies. In order to increase my chances of getting into a dream company, I will first have to evaluate myself so that I can plan to exploit my strengths and work on weaknesses. This is why I have chosen SWOT analysis as one of the tools to plan my career path. After reading Appendix B, I spent about half an hour on personal SWOT analysis and have already gotten a good idea of my strengths that may provide me a competitive edge against other candidates and weaknesses that I need to work on.

One of my strengths is communication skills including cross-cultural communication skills and it is one of the major soft skills desired by most employers now. My strengths also include analytical and critical thinking skills because I read on a wide range of subject matters and often engage in discussions with people from diverse backgrounds. This has helped me advance my perspectives and become better aware of prejudice and stereotypes. My strengths also include time management skills which help me become more efficient at managing various tasks. As well as my weaknesses are concerned, I am a perfectionist which may create conflicts with those who take things in a relatively relaxed manner. Similarly, I am always pushing myself to the limits and may assume more responsibilities than I can handle at times and which does negatively affect my performance to some extent.

Marketing mix or 4Ps is also a great strategy that will help me plan my first job more effectively. As far as product is concerned, the product will be me or an undergraduate with business degree who has strong communication skills, cross cultural skills, analytical skills, and critical thinking skills. My price will be the compensation package and in order to make sure I negotiate a reasonable price, I will thoroughly research salary data online. I will promote myself in a variety of ways including social media such as LinkedIn, personal contacts such as friends, family members, and my parents’ acquaintances, internet job search websites such as Monster.com, and job hunting agencies that work with multinational firms. As far as place is concerned, I will enhance my attractiveness to potential employer by willing to relocate anywhere. In fact, one of my priorities at first job will be to take assignments in a wide variety of places, both local and international, to truly prepare myself for success in a global environment.

A2. Cloud computing, social media, mobile devices, and mobile applications (apps) make me realize that there is arguably no profession or industry that has not been shaped by internet-enabled technologies to some extent. The popularity of these technologies and devices has for the first time challenged the supremacy of traditional print and electronic media and this change has mostly been good for both marketers and consumers. As far as marketers are concerned, they have more control over their marketing activities in addition to low costs and now they can communicate with consumers both ways as opposed to traditional media in which the communication is usually one way, i.e. from marketer to consumers only. Similarly, marketers can now reach their consumers literally anywhere because internet provides instant connectivity and in addition, internet-enabled technologies now exist in the palm of our hands. As far as consumers are concerned, they have more power because they can directly let marketers know what they want or need and social media has also enabled consumers to employ word-of-mouth marketing with greater impact. Not surprisingly, companies try to respond to negative social media feedback and comments on a priority basis. In other words, internet-enabled technologies have provided more options to marketers and have enabled them to achieve more with low marketing budgets but at the same time, these technologies have also given more voice and power to consumers. Businesses are really being forced to be consumer-focused now.

I don’t think they replace traditional sites because each marketing channel has its own strengths and weaknesses. One of the concerns about internet marketing has been privacy issues and reputed websites can help ease privacy concerns due to better security measures. In addition, visitors to certain websites have quite similar characteristics, thus, they may appeal to marketers targeting certain market segments. In addition, websites often have valuable data on consumer behavior that marketers can use. There is a reason why Google earns billions of dollars in revenues.

As far as desktop is concerned, I prefer to use the term ‘evolution’ in place of ‘death’. Instead of saying desktop computer or laptop computer, I prefer the term ‘computing device’. The trend from desktop computer to laptop computer to tablet devices now is nothing but the fact that computing devices are becoming more powerful and smaller at the same time for the sake of convenience. After tablet devices, the next shape of computing technology may be something like Google Glass and I would not be surprised if computing technology takes the shape of contact lens one day. One of the things I have learnt in this course is that products and services should be evaluated on the basis of needs and wants they meet. Desktop computer, laptop computer, and tablets devices basically meet same needs but later devices offer better value due to convenience and other features that enhance overall user experience. One of the facts has been established that marketers and consumers will now be connected to each other round-the-clock 7 days a week and 365 days a year. The only thing that will change are marketing strategies as consumers’ tastes and lifestyle needs evolve over time.

A3. My favorite thing in the course was class discussions because it really helped me better understand course concepts and also benefit from others’ observations in the real world that I missed out. There is one recommendation I would like to make which is to invite speakers from different industries so that they help us better understand the trends in the real world. This will also help us develop more realistic expectations of what real world is like and plan our career path accordingly.

MindTools. (n.d.). SWOT Analysis . Retrieved December 17, 2013, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_05.htm

MindTools. (n.d.). The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps . Retrieved Deember 17, 2013, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_94.htm

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  • Essay on Business

Internet and Marketing Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Business , Communication , Relationships , Internet , Marketing , Products , Development , Customers

Words: 3250

Published: 11/27/2019

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Internet and Marketing

Marketing is a process that is used when determining the kinds of services and products that are interesting to customers, as well as the strategy that should be used in communications, sales and business development (Kotler et al., 2008). Marketing defines the strategy for sales and is always one of the main constituents of the companies’ success. It is possible to build efficient customer relationships only if the company has well-developed marketing strategy and employs professionals. Throughout the history of marketing, its foundations were evolving and changing. Its development before the 20th century is rather obscure due to the lack of information, but for the purposes of this research development of marketing in the previous and this centuries are of major importance. Before the 1950s marketing was oriented on production, which means that its primary concern was on the issues related to manufacturing (Adcock et al., 2001). In that period of time, people believed that supply created the demand, i.e. if someone makes a product, it will be bought by someone else. This approach was justified in the environment of manufactured goods shortage, as people didn’t have another option than to buy what was offered to them. In other words, production orientation can function when there is a high demand for the product, and it is not going to change in the short time. Between 1950s and 1960s there was product orientation in the sphere of marketing. Companies were first of all concerned with the quality of the products they offered (Kent & Taylor, 1998). It was considered that if the product was manufactured with high quality, people were eager to buy it. In the same period of time there was marketing trend oriented on the selling methods (Adcock et al., 2001). Companies that chose it were focused on promotion and selling of a product, while not determining the desires of customers. In the contemporary approaches to marketing a lot has changed, and especially its basis, as the focus on customer relationships emerged, which has also been developing up to the present day. The history of relationship marketing began in 1960s (Valentin, 1996). In it the main focus is on the relationships between suppliers and customers, especially on the ways to build up customer loyalty and binding. The principles and characteristics of the relationship marketing will be provided in a separate subsection below. Apart from the relationship marketing, there are also such approaches as industrial and social. The first started in 1980s and is oriented towards industrial or capital goods instead of the consumer products. Social marketing emerged in 1990s, and according to it, marketing is oriented towards the benefit to society (Valentin, 1996). The new approaches to marketing now employ all the benefits offered by the modern technologies. One of the most important developments that considerably changed the marketing practice is the Internet. Today practically no company can succeed without employing internet marketing into its practice, and the tendency is likely to develop in the same way (Charlesworth, 2009). So, what are the major differences between traditional marketing and its new form? And what are the main constituents of success in the internet marketing? In general, internet marketing deals with promotion of services and products over the internet. It is broad in scope, and covered technical and creative aspects of the web. Among the forms that are widespread and topical today there are search engine optimization, search engine marketing, email marketing and others (Sinisalo, J. et al., 2007). The main differences in the traditional and internet marketing are the following: 1. In both marketing forms it is necessary to have leads to make it work. The peculiarity of the internet marketing is the fact that the leads have other forms – names, phone numbers, emails, instead of personal presence. 2. In both forms it is necessary to have something to offer to customers – either goods or services (Hoffman & Novak, 1997). In internet marketing the peculiarity is that customers have lower attention span, which is why it is necessary to have a stack of continually higher margin items, which should be offered to the customers after the actual purchase, or the other action expected from them. 3. Customers always need information from the company to stay interested in its products. In traditional marketing with brick and mortar business the possibilities in this field are rather limited, while on the web there are different strategies that can be employed to make customers loyal to the business (Yoon & Kim, 2001). So, it is clear that with advent of the internet marketing gained much more possibilities than it used to have before. Today practically anyone can advertise their products on the web (Sinisalo, J. et al., 2007). There are several important aspects of internet marketing that should be taken into account: Good website. While in the past it was necessary to rely on the physical locations, today in order to achieve success in business it is necessary to have well-designed website that should look professional and be user-oriented (Dyche, 2001). In the case of electronic magazines, it is of the highest importance to create such a website that people would find convenient and with relevant content. Otherwise, it will be impossible to attract customers and make them loyal. Market research. In the sphere of internet marketing this aspect is also essential (Madu, C. & Madu, A., 2002). It is necessary to always be aware of what the other people are selling and what customers are looking for. E-magazines should be well suited for customers so as to have permanent number of visitors. Without constant market research it is impossible to achieve the necessary number of visitors, and consequently, get profit from attracting advertisers. Audience. It is necessary to constantly attract visitors and maintain high traffic indicators. For electronic magazine it is an aspect that defined the whole success of the product. There are different business models commonly applied in the internet marketing. The most popular of them are: publishing, e-commerce, affiliate marketing and lead-based websites (Charlesworth, 2009). Publishing is one of the most valuable business models, and in this sphere (to which e-magazines pertain) very much depends on the relevance of content. If it is chosen successfully and is regularly updated, it is possible to get considerable revenue from advertisers. E-commerce deals with services and goods that are sold to the customers (Coltman, 2007). Affiliate marketing represents a model, in which services and products are developed by one person and are sold by someone else for profits percentage. Lead-based websites get profit for selling leads, which is often a part of Internet marketing campaigns of other websites (Stewart & Zhao, 2000). Among the advantages of internet marketing there is its comparatively low cost, if the ratio between cost and reach of the target audience is taken into account. Besides, for customers it is convenient and easy to make use of the services available online. It is convenient to make purchases from home, as well as to get access to all the necessary information in electronic magazines (Gallagher et al., 2001). Thus, this medium can demonstrate considerable results in short period of time. These results can easily be evaluated and analyzed, as there are various statistical tools available for people for small amount of money (Coltman, 2007). Another advantage is that practically all the aspect of internet marketing campaigns can be easily traced and measured. Limitations related to internet marketing are mostly related to the e-commerce, as there is no possibility to touch and see the products before the purchase. In the case of e-magazines there are practically no limitations, as information in them is convenient to read and it is easy to find exactly what you are looking for, especially if the magazine is well-developed.

Relationship Marketing

Relationship marketing started its development in the second half of the XX century and since that time it became one of the leading approaches in marketing. It differs from the other forms of marketing in the fact that it is focused on the long-term value of relationships with customers and it seeks to extend communication beyond advertising (Blois, 1996). Morgan and Hunt (1994) defined this type of marketing as a combination of activities dedicated to formation, development and maintenance of successful relational exchanges. In the model developed by these scientists the key constituents of success are trust and commitment. Among 10 forms of relationships described by Morgan and Hunt (1994), 8 are appropriate for the communication between companies and their suppliers, partners, functional units, etc. The other two deal with customers – communication between them and service providers and long-term relationships between them and service firms. Whether only these two contexts are appropriate for relationship marketing was researched by Iacobucci and Hibbard (1999). They defined 3 relationships types – interpersonal commercial relationships, business marketing relationships and business to customer ones. Business marketing relationships are the most described ones in the marketing theory and are focused on intense, long-term and close relations among symmetric (by power) partners. Iacobucci and Hibbard (1999) emphasize the importance of trust and commitment in this kind of relationships. In Table 1 the most essential factors of these relationships are presented.

Table 1. Business marketing relationship factors.

Factor Definition Conflict resolution Effective and creative partnerships are facilitated by dispute resolution functionality. Cooperation A set of actions taken by companies that are complementary coordinated or similar and are aimed at achievement of mutual outcomes.

Ability of a party to make another party do something that the latter subject wouldn’t normally do. Trust The belief of a party that its needs will be met by another party. Balance of power It represents symmetric power, which is opposed to hierarchical one. Communication Sharing of information, both informal and formal, between companies. Interdependence Mutual dependence. Commitment Explicit or implicit pledge of relational continuity between parties. Control The result of power exerted by one party towards another one. Isiosyncratic investments Irrecoverable costs in the case of termination. Interpersonal relationship marketing represents interactions between service providers and final customers. Among the factors of this relationship type there are: absence of conflict (ability to resolve conflicts), similarities of shared belief systems, communication and competence and personal factors. The third relationship described by Iacobucci and Hibbard (1999) is business-to-customer one. They represent interactions driven by technology. Before introduction of eCRM there were certain difficulties with introduction of interactivity into the CRM practice, which threatened it to a considerable extent (Fournier et al., 1998). The problem was that communication often ended up to be one-way – from organization to the customer. To solve this problem, the scientists offer to make use of the marriage and social forms of relationships. According to them, businesses should focus on six factors that help build successful relationships with customers: partner equality, interdependence, intimacy, attachment, commitment and love. If these factors are taken into account, it is possible to establish long-term relationships with customers .

Communication

Communication today is one of the fundamental concepts in marketing. The main aim of the marketing communication is to reach some audience and affect the behavior by persuading and informing. Thus, new customers are attracted with the help of building awareness, which is achieved by the same marketing communication (Dyche, 2001). Apart from this function, communication in marketing serves to keep the existing customers by the way of keeping them informed about the latest company’s news. Another goal is to establish long-lasting relationships with customers and stakeholders (Rowley, 2001). According to Duncan and Moriarty (1998), there are certain elements of interception between communication and marketing theory. They offer a managing relationships’ marketing model that has communication in its basis. They show the similarity of the basic communication model and the basic marketing model (Figure 1).

Figure 1. The similarities between the basic communication model and basic marketing model (Duncan and Moriarty, 1998).

The scientists also develop a model depicting why communication (instead of persuasion) should be true foundation of marketing efforts (Figure 2). The recent increase in the interactivity importance makes communication the most worthwhile element of marketing that causes the brand relationships that eventually drive value of brand.

Figure 2. Marketing and communication in an intersection model developed by Duncan and Moriarty (1998).

There are the following elements marketing communication involves: public relations, advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, and personal selling (Harris, 1998). Internet is one of the most important tools for reaching target audience. In order to make marketing communication successful, it is necessary to make effective management decisions, especially in the sphere of balancing the above listed elements (Schultz &Bailey, 2000). In order to do it, a new perspective emerged in 1990s – integrated marketing communication, which offers new and effective ways of reaching customers.

Interactivity

Interactivity today is one of the most important aspects in marketing. It allows customers to get involved in the process of building image of brands (Weiss, 1999). Owing to the possibility of customers to participate in the communications of the companies, the products and services offered to them can be made more interesting to them. Those organizations that choose to establish only one-way communication can lose their customers and it is really hard to turn them into loyal ones (Deighton, 1996). Especially today, when internet offers enormous possibilities to establish interactive relations, it became a must for the companies to develop this feature properly. On the web there are vast possibilities to make personal connections with the audience. Today the times when it was necessary to search for customers and get their feedback via telephone or seeking personal contacts, to which not many people agreed, became a history. Now it is possible to attract visitors from blogs and websites if proper techniques are used, and then to earn their loyalty if eCRM strategies are realized (Coviello et al., 2001). In them interactivity should always play a significant role, as today it is possible to communicate with customers in many different ways, such as forums, webinars, emails, etc. As soon as the customer gets to the website, it is necessary to offer him some interactivity options. A very simple way is allowing comments to the posts or articles (it is convenient in the case of e-magazines), as in this way they get a feeling that their point of view is interesting to you. Forum is a perfect place for the visitors to exchange their ideas considering the resource or products that the companies offer (Holland & Baker, 2001). If the forum is administered properly and has interesting topics, it is likely to attract many visitors. Another convenient feature is a signup form, in which visitors can leave their emails so as you could send the latest news and information to them. In this way they will also get the necessary attention and there is a good chance that they will be loyal to the company. Thus, interactivity on the web is certainly an important feature that should get proper attention from marketing experts. In the e-magazines context it is very important, as in this way it is possible to gain the necessary loyalty and binding,

Marketing industry was considerably influenced by the advent of the Internet. This technology brought a lot of possibilities for the marketing specialists, as well as introduced important changes that have to be taken into account. Electronic magazines are now fast developing and the marketing principles allow to get profit from them, although for customers they are offered for free. With the help of internet marketing it becomes possible to attract a considerable number of visitors to the website, and if the proper eCRM strategy is realized, they can find exactly what they want at the website and become loyal to it. In order to do it, e-magazines should make use of the interactivity features that modern technologies offer so as to understand what kind of content their visitors require and to make their content customized to their needs. In this way, they can gain favor of a large audience, which will be interesting to advertisers. Thus, they get interested in placing their ads in the e-magazines and the owners get profit in this way.

Adcock, D., Bradfield, R., & Halborg, A. (2001). Marketing Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Blois, K.J. (1996). Relationship marketing in organisational markets: when is it appropriate? Journal of Marketing Management, 12(2), 161-73. Charlesworth, A. (2009). Internet marketing: a practical approach. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Coltman, T. (2007). Why build a customer relationship management capability? Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 16, 301-320. Coviello, N., Milley, R., & Marcolin, B. (2001). Understanding IT-Enabled Interactivity in Contemporary Marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(4), 18-33. Deighton, J. (1996, November-December). The future of interactive marketing. Harvard Business Review. Duncan, T, & Moriarty, S. (1998). A communication-based marketing model for managing relationships. Journal of Marketing, 62, 1-13. Dyche, J. (2001). The CRM handbook: a Business Guide to CRM. Boston: Addison Wiley. Fournier, S., Dobsha, S., & Mick, D.G. (1998). Preventing the Premature Death of Relationship Marketing. Harvard Business Review, 76, 42-50. Gallagher, K., Foster, K.D., & Parsons, J. (2001). The Medium Is Not the Message: Advertising Effectiveness and Content Evaluation in Print and on the Web. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(4), 57-70. Harris, T.L. (1998). Value-Added Public Relations: The Secret Weapon in Integrated Marketing. Chicago: NTC Books. Hoffman, D, & Novak, T. (1997). A new marketing paradigm for electronic commerce. The Information Society, special issue on electronic commerce, 13, 43-54. Holland, J., & Baker, S.M. (2001), Customer Participation in Creating Site Brand Loyalty. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(4), 34-45. Iacobucci, D., and Hibbard, J. (1999). Toward an Encompassing Theory of Business Marketing Relationships and Interpersonal Commercial Relationships: An Empirical Generalization. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 13, 13-33. Kent, M.L., & Taylor, M. (1998). Building Dialogic Relationships through the World Wide Web. Public Relations Review, 24(3), 321-344. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong, V., & Saunders, J. (2008). Principles of marketing (5th ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Madu, C., & Madu, A. (2002). Dimensions of e-quality. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 19(3): 246-258. Morgan, R., & Hunt, S. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20-38. Rowley, J. (2001). Remodelling marketing communications in an Internet environment. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 11(3), 203-212. Schultz, D.E., & Bailey, S.E. (2000). Customer/Brand Loyalty in an Interactive Marketplace. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(3), 41-52. Sinisalo, J. et al. (2007). Mobile customer relationship management: underlying issues and challenges. Business Process Management Journal, 13(6), 772. Stewart, D.W., & Zhao, Q. (2000). Internet Marketing, Business Models, and Public Policy. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 19(2), 287-296. Valentin, E. (1996). The marketing concept and the conceptualization of marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 8, 16-27. Weiss, T.J. (1999). Cyber-relationships and brand building. Integrated Marketing Communications Research Journal, 5, 19–22. Yoon, S.-J., & Kim, J.-H. (2001). Is the Internet More Effective than Traditional Media? Factors Affecting the Choice of Media. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(6), 53-60.

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What is a Marketing Plan & How to Write One [+Examples]

Clifford Chi

Published: December 27, 2023

For a while now, you've been spearheading your organization's content marketing efforts, and your team's performance has convinced management to adopt the content marketing strategies you’ve suggested.

marketing plan and how to write one

Now, your boss wants you to write and present a content marketing plan, but you‘ve never done something like that before. You don't even know where to start.

Download Now: Free Marketing Plan Template [Get Your Copy]

Fortunately, we've curated the best content marketing plans to help you write a concrete plan that's rooted in data and produces results. But first, we'll discuss what a marketing plan is and how some of the best marketing plans include strategies that serve their respective businesses.

What is a marketing plan?

A marketing plan is a strategic roadmap that businesses use to organize, execute, and track their marketing strategy over a given period. Marketing plans can include different marketing strategies for various marketing teams across the company, all working toward the same business goals.

The purpose of a marketing plan is to write down strategies in an organized manner. This will help keep you on track and measure the success of your campaigns.

Writing a marketing plan will help you think of each campaign‘s mission, buyer personas, budget, tactics, and deliverables. With all this information in one place, you’ll have an easier time staying on track with a campaign. You'll also discover what works and what doesn't. Thus, measuring the success of your strategy.

Featured Resource: Free Marketing Plan Template

HubSpot Mktg plan cover

Looking to develop a marketing plan for your business? Click here to download HubSpot's free Marketing Plan Template to get started .

To learn more about how to create your marketing plan, keep reading or jump to the section you’re looking for:

How to Write a Marketing Plan

Types of marketing plans, marketing plan examples, marketing plan faqs, sample marketing plan.

Marketing plan definition graphic

If you're pressed for time or resources, you might not be thinking about a marketing plan. However, a marketing plan is an important part of your business plan.

Marketing Plan vs. Business Plan

A marketing plan is a strategic document that outlines marketing objectives, strategies, and tactics.

A business plan is also a strategic document. But this plan covers all aspects of a company's operations, including finance, operations, and more. It can also help your business decide how to distribute resources and make decisions as your business grows.

I like to think of a marketing plan as a subset of a business plan; it shows how marketing strategies and objectives can support overall business goals.

Keep in mind that there's a difference between a marketing plan and a marketing strategy.

essay online marketing

Free Marketing Plan Template

Outline your company's marketing strategy in one simple, coherent plan.

  • Pre-Sectioned Template
  • Completely Customizable
  • Example Prompts
  • Professionally Designed

You're all set!

Click this link to access this resource at any time.

Marketing Strategy vs. Marketing Plan

A marketing strategy describes how a business will accomplish a particular goal or mission. This includes which campaigns, content, channels, and marketing software they'll use to execute that mission and track its success.

For example, while a greater plan or department might handle social media marketing, you might consider your work on Facebook as an individual marketing strategy.

A marketing plan contains one or more marketing strategies. It's the framework from which all of your marketing strategies are created and helps you connect each strategy back to a larger marketing operation and business goal.

For example, suppose your company is launching a new software product, and it wants customers to sign up. The marketing department needs to develop a marketing plan that'll help introduce this product to the industry and drive the desired signups.

The department decides to launch a blog dedicated to this industry, a new YouTube video series to establish expertise, and an account on Twitter to join the conversation around this subject. All this serves to attract an audience and convert this audience into software users.

To summarize, the business's marketing plan is dedicated to introducing a new software product to the marketplace and driving signups for that product. The business will execute that plan with three marketing strategies : a new industry blog, a YouTube video series, and a Twitter account.

Of course, the business might consider these three things as one giant marketing strategy, each with its specific content strategies. How granular you want your marketing plan to get is up to you. Nonetheless, every marketing plan goes through a particular set of steps in its creation.

Learn what they are below.

  • State your business's mission.
  • Determine the KPIs for this mission.
  • Identify your buyer personas.
  • Describe your content initiatives and strategies.
  • Clearly define your plan's omissions.
  • Define your marketing budget.
  • Identify your competition.
  • Outline your plan's contributors and their responsibilities.

1. State your business's mission.

Your first step in writing a marketing plan is to state your mission. Although this mission is specific to your marketing department, it should serve your business‘s main mission statement.

From my experience, you want to be specific, but not too specific. You have plenty of space left in this marketing plan to elaborate on how you'll acquire new customers and accomplish this mission.

mission-statement-examples

Need help building your mission statement? Download this guide for examples and templates and write the ideal mission statement.

2. Determine the KPIs for this mission.

Every good marketing plan describes how the department will track its mission‘s progress. To do so, you need to decide on your key performance indicators (KPIs) .

KPIs are individual metrics that measure the various elements of a marketing campaign. These units help you establish short-term goals within your mission and communicate your progress to business leaders.

Let's take our example of a marketing mission from the above step. If part of our mission is “to attract an audience of travelers,” we might track website visits using organic page views. In this case, “organic page views” is one KPI, and we can see our number of page views grow over time.

These KPIs will come into the conversation again in step 4.

3. Identify your buyer personas.

A buyer persona is a description of who you want to attract. This can include age, sex, location, family size, and job title. Each buyer persona should directly reflect your business's current and potential customers. So, all business leaders must agree on your buyer personas.

buyer-persona-templates

Create your buyer personas with this free guide and set of buyer persona templates.

4. Describe your content initiatives and strategies.

Here's where you'll include the main points of your marketing and content strategy. Because there's a laundry list of content types and channels available to you today, you must choose wisely and explain how you'll use your content and channels in this section of your marketing plan.

When I write this section , I like to stipulate:

  • Which types of content I'll create. These might include blog posts, YouTube videos, infographics, and ebooks.
  • How much of it I'll create. I typically describe content volume in daily, weekly, monthly, or even quarterly intervals. It all depends on my workflow and the short-term goals for my content.
  • The goals (and KPIs) I'll use to track each type. KPIs can include organic traffic, social media traffic, email traffic, and referral traffic. Your goals should also include which pages you want to drive that traffic to, such as product pages, blog pages, or landing pages.
  • The channels on which I'll distribute my content. Popular channels include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and Instagram.
  • Any paid advertising that will take place on these channels.

Build out your marketing plan with this free template.

Fill out this form to access the template., 5. clearly define your plan's omissions..

A marketing plan explains the marketing team's focus. It also explains what the marketing team will not focus on.

If there are other aspects of your business that you aren't serving in this particular plan, include them in this section. These omissions help to justify your mission, buyer personas, KPIs, and content. You can’t please everyone in a single marketing campaign, and if your team isn't on the hook for something, you need to make it known.

In my experience, this section is particularly important for stakeholders to help them understand why certain decisions were made.

6. Define your marketing budget.

Whether it's freelance fees, sponsorships, or a new full-time marketing hire, use these costs to develop a marketing budget and outline each expense in this section of your marketing plan.

marketing-budget-templates

You can establish your marketing budget with this kit of 8 free marketing budget templates .

7. Identify your competition.

Part of marketing is knowing whom you're marketing against. Research the key players in your industry and consider profiling each one.

Keep in mind not every competitor will pose the same challenges to your business. For example, while one competitor might be ranking highly on search engines for keywords you want your website to rank for, another competitor might have a heavy footprint on a social network where you plan to launch an account.

competitive-analysis-templates

Easily track and analyze your competitors with t his collection of ten free competitive analysis templates .

8. Outline your plan's contributors and their responsibilities.

With your marketing plan fully fleshed out, it's time to explain who’s doing what. I don't like to delve too deeply into my employees’ day-to-day projects, but I know which teams and team leaders are in charge of specific content types, channels, KPIs, and more.

Now that you know why you need to build an effective marketing plan, it’s time to get to work. Starting a plan from scratch can be overwhelming if you haven't done it before. That’s why there are many helpful resources that can support your first steps. We’ll share some of the best guides and templates that can help you build effective results-driven plans for your marketing strategies.

Ready to make your own marketing plan? Get started using this free template.

Depending on the company you work with, you might want to create various marketing plans. We compiled different samples to suit your needs:

1. Quarterly or Annual Marketing Plans

These plans highlight the strategies or campaigns you'll take on in a certain period.

marketing plan examples: forbes

Forbes published a marketing plan template that has amassed almost 4 million views. To help you sculpt a marketing roadmap with true vision, their template will teach you how to fill out the 15 key sections of a marketing plan, which are:

  • Executive Summary
  • Target Customers
  • Unique Selling Proposition
  • Pricing & Positioning Strategy
  • Distribution Plan
  • Your Offers
  • Marketing Materials
  • Promotions Strategy
  • Online Marketing Strategy
  • Conversion Strategy
  • Joint Ventures & Partnerships
  • Referral Strategy
  • Strategy for Increasing Transaction Prices
  • Retention Strategy
  • Financial Projections

If you're truly lost on where to start with a marketing plan, I highly recommend using this guide to help you define your target audience, figure out how to reach them, and ensure that audience becomes loyal customers.

2. Social Media Marketing Plan

This type of plan highlights the channels, tactics, and campaigns you intend to accomplish specifically on social media. A specific subtype is a paid marketing plan, which highlights paid strategies, such as native advertising, PPC, or paid social media promotions.

Shane Snow's Marketing Plan for His Book Dream Team is a great example of a social media marketing plan:

Contently's content strategy waterfall.

When Shane Snow started promoting his new book, "Dream Team," he knew he had to leverage a data-driven content strategy framework. So, he chose his favorite one: the content strategy waterfall. The content strategy waterfall is defined by Economic Times as a model used to create a system with a linear and sequential approach.

Snow wrote a blog post about how the waterfall‘s content strategy helped him launch his new book successfully. After reading it, you can use his tactics to inform your own marketing plan. More specifically, you’ll learn how he:

  • Applied his business objectives to decide which marketing metrics to track.
  • Used his ultimate business goal of earning $200,000 in sales or 10,000 purchases to estimate the conversion rate of each stage of his funnel.
  • Created buyer personas to figure out which channels his audience would prefer to consume his content.
  • Used his average post view on each of his marketing channels to estimate how much content he had to create and how often he had to post on social media.
  • Calculated how much earned and paid media could cut down the amount of content he had to create and post.
  • Designed his process and workflow, built his team, and assigned members to tasks.
  • Analyzed content performance metrics to refine his overall content strategy.

I use Snow's marketing plan to think more creatively about my content promotion and distribution plan. I like that it's linear and builds on the step before it, creating an air-tight strategy that doesn't leave any details out.

→ Free Download: Social Media Calendar Template [Access Now]

3. Content Marketing Plan

This plan could highlight different strategies, tactics, and campaigns in which you'll use content to promote your business or product.

HubSpot's Comprehensive Guide for Content Marketing Strategy is a strong example of a content marketing plan:

marketing plan examples: hubspot content marketing plan

At HubSpot, we‘ve built our marketing team from two business school graduates working from a coffee table to a powerhouse of hundreds of employees. Along the way, we’ve learned countless lessons that shaped our current content marketing strategy. So, we decided to illustrate our insights in a blog post to teach marketers how to develop a successful content marketing strategy, regardless of their team's size.

Download Now: Free Content Marketing Planning Templates

In this comprehensive guide for modern marketers, you'll learn:

  • What exactly content marketing is.
  • Why your business needs a content marketing strategy.
  • Who should lead your content marketing efforts?
  • How to structure your content marketing team based on your company's size.
  • How to hire the right people for each role on your team.
  • What marketing tools and technology you'll need to succeed.
  • What type of content your team should create, and which employees should be responsible for creating them.
  • The importance of distributing your content through search engines, social media, email, and paid ads.
  • And finally, the recommended metrics each of your teams should measure and report to optimize your content marketing program.

This is fantastic resource for content teams of any size — whether you're a team of one or 100. It includes how to hire and structure a content marketing team, what marketing tools you'll need, what type of content you should create, and even recommends what metrics to track for analyzing campaigns.

4. New Product Launch Marketing Plan

This will be a roadmap for the strategies and tactics you‘ll implement to promote a new product. And if you’re searching for an example, look no further than Chief Outsiders' Go-To-Market Plan for a New Product :

marketing plan examples: chief outsiders

After reading this plan, you'll learn how to:

  • Validate a product
  • Write strategic objectives
  • Identify your market
  • Compile a competitive landscape
  • Create a value proposition for a new product
  • Consider sales and service in your marketing plan

If you're looking for a marketing plan for a new product, the Chief Outsiders template is a great place to start. Marketing plans for a new product will be more specific because they target one product versus its entire marketing strategy.

5. Growth Marketing Plan

Growth marketing plans use experimentation and data to drive results, like we see in Venture Harbour’s Growth Marketing Plan Template :

marketing plan examples: venture harbour

Venture Harbour's growth marketing plan is a data-driven and experiment-led alternative to the more traditional marketing plan. Their template has five steps intended for refinement with every test-measure-learn cycle. The five steps are:

  • Experiments

Download Now: Free Growth Strategy Template

I recommend this plan if you want to experiment with different platforms and campaigns. Experimentation always feels risky and unfamiliar, but this plan creates a framework for accountability and strategy.

  • Louisville Tourism
  • University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
  • Visit Oxnard
  • Safe Haven Family Shelter
  • Wright County Economic Development
  • The Cultural Council of Palm Beach County
  • Cabarrus County Convention and Visitors Bureau
  • Visit Billings

1. Louisville Tourism

Louisville Tourism Marketing Plan

It also divides its target market into growth and seed categories to allow for more focused strategies. For example, the plan recognizes Millennials in Chicago, Atlanta, and Nashville as the core of it's growth market, whereas people in Boston, Austin, and New York represent seed markets where potential growth opportunities exist. Then, the plan outlines objectives and tactics for reaching each market.

Why This Marketing Plan Works

  • The plan starts with a letter from the President & CEO of the company, who sets the stage for the plan by providing a high-level preview of the incoming developments for Louisville's tourism industry
  • The focus on Louisville as "Bourbon City" effectively leverages its unique cultural and culinary attributes to present a strong brand
  • Incorporates a variety of data points from Google Analytics, Arrivalist, and visitor profiles to to define their target audience with a data-informed approach

2. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

University Illinois

For example, students who become prospects as freshman and sophomore will receive emails that focus on getting the most out of high school and college prep classes. Once these students become juniors and seniors — thus entering the consideration stage — the emails will focus more on the college application process and other exploratory content.

  • The plan incorporates competitive analysis, evaluation surveys, and other research to determine the makeup of its target audience
  • The plan lists each marketing program (e.g., direct mail, social media, email etc.) and supplements it with examples on the next page
  • Each marketing program has its own objectives, tactics, and KPIs for measuring success

3. Visit Oxnard

This marketing plan by Visit Oxnard, a convention and visitors bureau, is packed with all the information one needs in a marketing plan: target markets, key performance indicators, selling points, personas, marketing tactics by channel, and much more.

It also articulates the organization’s strategic plans for the upcoming fiscal year, especially as it grapples with the aftereffects of the pandemic. Lastly, it has impeccable visual appeal, with color-coded sections and strong branding elements.

  • States clear and actionable goals for the coming year
  • Includes data and other research that shows how their team made their decisions
  • Outlines how the team will measure the success of their plan

4. Safe Haven Family Shelter

marketing plan examples: safe haven family shelter

This marketing plan by a nonprofit organization is an excellent example to follow if your plan will be presented to internal stakeholders at all levels of your organization. It includes SMART marketing goals , deadlines, action steps, long-term objectives, target audiences, core marketing messages , and metrics.

The plan is detailed, yet scannable. By the end of it, one can walk away with a strong understanding of the organization’s strategic direction for its upcoming marketing efforts.

  • Confirms ongoing marketing strategies and objectives while introducing new initiatives
  • Uses colors, fonts, and formatting to emphasize key parts of the plan
  • Closes with long-term goals, key themes, and other overarching topics to set the stage for the future

5. Wright County Economic Development

marketing plan examples: wright county

Wright County Economic Development’s plan drew our attention because of its simplicity, making it good inspiration for those who’d like to outline their plan in broad strokes without frills or filler.

It includes key information such as marketing partners, goals, initiatives, and costs. The sections are easy to scan and contain plenty of information for those who’d like to dig into the details. Most important, it includes a detailed breakdown of projected costs per marketing initiative — which is critical information to include for upper-level managers and other stakeholders.

  • Begins with a quick paragraph stating why the recommended changes are important
  • Uses clear graphics and bullet points to emphasize key points
  • Includes specific budget data to support decision-making

6. The Cultural Council of Palm Beach County

marketing plan examples: cultural council of palm beach county

This marketing plan presentation by a cultural council is a great example of how to effectively use data in your plan, address audiences who are new to the industry, and offer extensive detail into specific marketing strategies.

For instance, an entire slide is dedicated to the county’s cultural tourism trends, and at the beginning of the presentation, the organization explains what an arts and culture agency is in the first place.

That’s a critical piece of information to include for those who might not know. If you’re addressing audiences outside your industry, consider defining terms at the beginning, like this organization did.

  • Uses quality design and images to support the goals and priorities in the text
  • Separate pages for each big idea or new strategy
  • Includes sections for awards and accomplishments to show how the marketing plan supports wider business goals
  • Defines strategies and tactics for each channel for easy skimming

7. Cabarrus County Convention & Visitors Bureau

marketing plan examples: carrabus county

Cabarrus County’s convention and visitors bureau takes a slightly different approach with its marketing plan, formatting it like a magazine for stakeholders to flip through. It offers information on the county’s target audience, channels, goals, KPIs, and public relations strategies and initiatives.

We especially love that the plan includes contact information for the bureau’s staff members, so that it’s easy for stakeholders to contact the appropriate person for a specific query.

  • Uses infographics to expand on specific concepts, like how visitors benefit a community
  • Highlights the team members responsible for each initiative with a photo to emphasize accountability and community
  • Closes with an event calendar for transparency into key dates for events

8. Visit Billings

marketing plan examples: visit billings

Visit Billing’s comprehensive marketing plan is like Cabarrus County’s in that it follows a magazine format. With sections for each planned strategy, it offers a wealth of information and depth for internal stakeholders and potential investors.

We especially love its content strategy section, where it details the organization’s prior efforts and current objectives for each content platform.

At the end, it includes strategic goals and budgets — a good move to imitate if your primary audience would not need this information highlighted at the forefront.

  • Includes a section on the buyer journey, which offers clarity on the reasoning for marketing plan decisions
  • Design includes call-outs for special topics that could impact the marketing audience, such as safety concerns or "staycations"
  • Clear headings make it easy to scan this comprehensive report and make note of sections a reader may want to return to for more detail

What is a typical marketing plan?

In my experience, most marketing plans outline the following aspects of a business's marketing:

  • Target audience

Each marketing plan should include one or more goals, the path your team will take to meet those goals, and how you plan to measure success.

For example, if I were a tech startup that's launching a new mobile app, my marketing plan would include:

  • Target audience or buyer personas for the app
  • Outline of how app features meet audience needs
  • Competitive analysis
  • Goals for conversion funnel and user acquisition
  • Marketing strategies and tactics for user acquisition

Featured resource : Free Marketing Plan Template

What should a good marketing plan include?

A good marketing plan will create a clear roadmap for your unique marketing team. This means that the best marketing plan for your business will be distinct to your team and business needs.

That said, most marketing plans will include sections for one or more of the following:

  • Clear analysis of the target market
  • A detailed description of the product or service
  • Strategic marketing mix details (such as product, price, place, promotion)
  • Measurable goals with defined timelines

This can help you build the best marketing plan for your business.

A good marketing plan should also include a product or service's unique value proposition, a comprehensive marketing strategy including online and offline channels, and a defined budget.

Featured resource : Value Proposition Templates

What are the most important parts of a marketing plan?

When you‘re planning a road trip, you need a map to help define your route, step-by-step directions, and an estimate of the time it will take to get to your destination. It’s literally how you get there that matters.

Like a road map, a marketing plan is only useful if it helps you get to where you want to go. So, no one part is more than the other.

That said, you can use the list below to make sure that you've added or at least considered each of the following in your marketing plan:

  • Marketing goals
  • Executive summary
  • Target market analysis
  • Marketing strategies

What questions should I ask when making a marketing plan?

Questions are a useful tool for when you‘re stuck or want to make sure you’ve included important details.

Try using one or more of these questions as a starting point when you create your marketing plan:

  • Who is my target audience?
  • What are their needs, motivations, and pain points?
  • How does our product or service solve their problems?
  • How will I reach and engage them?
  • Who are my competitors? Are they direct or indirect competitors?
  • What are the unique selling points of my product or service?
  • What marketing channels are best for the brand?
  • What is our budget and timeline?
  • How will I measure the success of marketing efforts?

How much does a marketing plan cost?

Creating a marketing plan is mostly free. But the cost of executing a marketing plan will depend on your specific plan.

Marketing plan costs vary by business, industry, and plan scope. Whether your team handles marketing in-house or hires external consultants can also make a difference. Total costs can range from a few thousand dollars to tens of thousands. This is why most marketing plans will include a budget.

Featured resource : Free Marketing Budget Templates

What is a marketing plan template?

A marketing plan template is a pre-designed structure or framework that helps you outline your marketing plan.

It offers a starting point that you can customize for your specific business needs and goals. For example, our template includes easy-to-edit sections for:

  • Business summary
  • Business initiatives
  • Target market
  • Market strategy
  • Marketing channels
  • Marketing technology

Let’s create a sample plan together, step by step.

Follow along with HubSpot's free Marketing Plan Template .

HubSpot Mktg plan cover

1. Create an overview or primary objective.

Our business mission is to provide [service, product, solution] to help [audience] reach their [financial, educational, business related] goals without compromising their [your audience’s valuable asset: free time, mental health, budget, etc.]. We want to improve our social media presence while nurturing our relationships with collaborators and clients.

For example, if I wanted to focus on social media growth, my KPIs might look like this:

We want to achieve a minimum of [followers] with an engagement rate of [X] on [social media platform].

The goal is to achieve an increase of [Y] on recurring clients and new meaningful connections outside the platform by the end of the year.

Use the following categories to create a target audience for your campaign.

  • Profession:
  • Background:
  • Pain points:
  • Social media platforms that they use:
  • Streaming platforms that they prefer:

For more useful strategies, consider creating a buyer persona in our Make My Persona tool .

Our content pillars will be: [X, Y, Z].

Content pillars should be based on topics your audience needs to know. If your ideal clients are female entrepreneurs, then your content pillars can be: marketing, being a woman in business, remote working, and productivity hacks for entrepreneurs.

Then, determine any omissions.

This marketing plan won’t be focusing on the following areas of improvement: [A, B, C].

5. Define your marketing budget.

Our marketing strategy will use a total of [Y] monthly. This will include anything from freelance collaborations to advertising.

6. Identify your competitors.

I like to work through the following questions to clearly indicate who my competitors are:

  • Which platforms do they use the most?
  • How does their branding differentiate?
  • How do they talk to their audiences?
  • What valuable assets do customers talk about? And if they are receiving any negative feedback, what is it about?

7. Outline your plan's contributors and their responsibilities.

Create responsible parties for each portion of the plan.

Marketing will manage the content plan, implementation, and community interaction to reach the KPIs.

  • Social media manager: [hours per week dedicated to the project, responsibilities, team communication requirements, expectations]
  • Content strategist: [hours per week dedicated to the project, responsibilities, team communication requirements, expectations]
  • Community manager: [hours per week dedicated to the project, responsibilities, team communication requirements, expectations]

Sales will follow the line of the marketing work while creating and implementing an outreach strategy.

  • Sales strategists: [hours per week dedicated to the project, responsibilities, team communication requirements, expectations]
  • Sales executives: [hours per week dedicated to the project, responsibilities, team communication requirements, expectations]

Customer Service will nurture clients’ relationships to ensure that they have what they want. [Hours per week dedicated to the project, responsibilities, team communication requirements, expectations].

Project Managers will track the progress and team communication during the project. [Hours per week dedicated to the project, responsibilities, team communication requirements, expectations].

Get started on your marketing plan.

These marketing plans serve as initial resources to get your content marketing plan started. But, to truly deliver what your audience wants and needs, you'll likely need to test some different ideas out, measure their success, and then refine your goals as you go.

Editor's Note: This post was originally published in April 2019, but was updated for comprehensiveness. This article was written by a human, but our team uses AI in our editorial process. Check out our full disclosure t o learn more about how we use AI.

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Americans’ social media use, youtube and facebook are by far the most used online platforms among u.s. adults; tiktok’s user base has grown since 2021.

To better understand Americans’ social media use, Pew Research Center surveyed 5,733 U.S. adults from May 19 to Sept. 5, 2023. Ipsos conducted this National Public Opinion Reference Survey (NPORS) for the Center using address-based sampling and a multimode protocol that included both web and mail. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race and ethnicity, education and other categories.

Polls from 2000 to 2021 were conducted via phone. For more on this mode shift, read our Q&A .

Here are the questions used for this analysis , along with responses, and  its methodology ­­­.

A note on terminology: Our May-September 2023 survey was already in the field when Twitter changed its name to “X.” The terms  Twitter  and  X  are both used in this report to refer to the same platform.

Social media platforms faced a range of controversies in recent years, including concerns over misinformation and data privacy . Even so, U.S. adults use a wide range of sites and apps, especially YouTube and Facebook. And TikTok – which some Congress members previously called to ban – saw growth in its user base.

These findings come from a Pew Research Center survey of 5,733 U.S. adults conducted May 19-Sept. 5, 2023.

Which social media sites do Americans use most?

A horizontal bar chart showing that most U.S. adults use YouTube and Facebook; about half use Instagram.

YouTube by and large is the most widely used online platform measured in our survey. Roughly eight-in-ten U.S. adults (83%) report ever using the video-based platform.

While a somewhat lower share reports using it, Facebook is also a dominant player in the online landscape. Most Americans (68%) report using the social media platform.

Additionally, roughly half of U.S. adults (47%) say they use Instagram .

The other sites and apps asked about are not as widely used , but a fair portion of Americans still use them:

  • 27% to 35% of U.S. adults use Pinterest, TikTok, LinkedIn, WhatsApp and Snapchat.
  • About one-in-five say they use Twitter (recently renamed “X”) and Reddit.  

This year is the first time we asked about BeReal, a photo-based platform launched in 2020. Just 3% of U.S. adults report using it.

Recent Center findings show that YouTube also dominates the social media landscape among U.S. teens .

TikTok sees growth since 2021

One platform – TikTok – stands out for growth of its user base. A third of U.S. adults (33%) say they use the video-based platform, up 12 percentage points from 2021 (21%).

A line chart showing that a third of U.S. adults say they use TikTok, up from 21% in 2021.

The other sites asked about had more modest or no growth over the past couple of years. For instance, while YouTube and Facebook dominate the social media landscape, the shares of adults who use these platforms has remained stable since 2021.

The Center has been tracking use of online platforms for many years. Recently, we shifted from gathering responses via telephone to the web and mail. Mode changes can affect study results in a number of ways, therefore we have to take a cautious approach when examining how things have – or have not – changed since our last study on these topics in 2021. For more details on this shift, please read our Q&A .

Stark age differences in who uses each app or site

Adults under 30 are far more likely than their older counterparts to use many of the online platforms. These findings are consistent with previous Center data .

A dot plot showing that the youngest U.S. adults are far more likely to use Instagram, Snapchat and TikTok; age differences are less pronounced for Facebook.

Age gaps are especially large for Instagram, Snapchat and TikTok – platforms that are used by majorities of adults under 30. For example:

  • 78% of 18- to 29-year-olds say they use Instagram, far higher than the share among those 65 and older (15%).
  • 65% of U.S. adults under 30 report using Snapchat, compared with just 4% of the oldest age cohort.
  • 62% of 18- to 29-year-olds say they use TikTok, much higher than the share among adults ages 65 years and older (10%).
  • Americans ages 30 to 49 and 50 to 64 fall somewhere in between for all three platforms.

YouTube and Facebook are the only two platforms that majorities of all age groups use. That said, there is still a large age gap between the youngest and oldest adults when it comes to use of YouTube. The age gap for Facebook, though, is much smaller.

Americans ages 30 to 49 stand out for using three of the platforms – LinkedIn, WhatsApp and Facebook – at higher rates. For instance, 40% of this age group uses LinkedIn, higher than the roughly three-in-ten among those ages 18 to 29 and 50 to 64. And just 12% of those 65 and older say the same. 

Overall, a large majority of the youngest adults use multiple sites and apps. About three-quarters of adults under 30 (74%) use at least five of the platforms asked about. This is far higher than the shares of those ages 30 to 49 (53%), 50 to 64 (30%), and ages 65 and older (8%) who say the same.  

Refer to our social media fact sheet for more detailed data by age for each site and app.

Other demographic differences in use of online platforms

A number of demographic differences emerge in who uses each platform. Some of these include the following:

  • Race and ethnicity: Roughly six-in-ten Hispanic (58%) and Asian (57%) adults report using Instagram, somewhat higher than the shares among Black (46%) and White (43%) adults. 1
  • Gender: Women are more likely than their male counterparts to say they use the platform.
  • Education: Those with some college education and those with a college degree report using it at somewhat higher rates than those who have a high school degree or less education.
  • Race and ethnicity: Hispanic adults are particularly likely to use TikTok, with 49% saying they use it, higher than Black adults (39%). Even smaller shares of Asian (29%) and White (28%) adults say the same.
  • Gender: Women use the platform at higher rates than men (40% vs. 25%).
  • Education: Americans with higher levels of formal education are especially likely to use LinkedIn. For instance, 53% of Americans with at least a bachelor’s degree report using the platform, far higher than among those who have some college education (28%) and those who have a high school degree or less education (10%). This is the largest educational difference measured across any of the platforms asked about.

Twitter (renamed “X”)

  • Household income: Adults with higher household incomes use Twitter at somewhat higher rates. For instance, 29% of U.S. adults who have an annual household income of at least $100,000 say they use the platform. This compares with one-in-five among those with annual household incomes of $70,000 to $99,999, and around one-in-five among those with annual incomes of less than $30,000 and those between $30,000 and $69,999.
  • Gender: Women are far more likely to use Pinterest than men (50% vs. 19%).
  • Race and ethnicity: 54% of Hispanic adults and 51% of Asian adults report using WhatsApp. This compares with 31% of Black adults and even smaller shares of those who are White (20%).

A heat map showing how use of online platforms – such as Facebook, Instagram or TikTok – differs among some U.S. demographic groups.

  • Estimates for Asian adults are representative of English speakers only. ↩

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Table of contents, q&a: how – and why – we’re changing the way we study tech adoption, americans’ use of mobile technology and home broadband, social media fact sheet, internet/broadband fact sheet, mobile fact sheet, most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

Internet Marketing and Business Models Essay

Facebook advertising process, internet business models, works cited.

Social media websites are often utilized for advertising purposes as they are used by billions of representatives of the general public on an everyday basis. Facebook advertising, in particular, is believed to be the best opportunity for business because it is still growing and people spend about an hour surfing it. However, the success of such advertising depends on its proper usage.

The creation of unmistakable ads on Facebook should start with the identification of a needed paid adoption. If a business is willing to advertise all its offerings, campaigns should be considered. Ad sets are needed if different products are meant for separate audiences. Finally, separate ads can be developed. Then, the Ads Manager or the Power Editor should be selected as the most appropriate for a particular business editor that is offered by Facebook. An objective of advertising should be created, and the website’s adoptions can be used to simplify this step. A targeted audience should be identified, and details (age, gender, education, home, etc.) added. A daily (spending per day) or a lifetime (spending over a selected time period) budget can be set. The schedule of the way the ad runs can be developed then. It is also possible to set bids and identify the delivery type (standard or accelerated). The next step is finally the very creation of an ad. It is possible to make “a single image ad (Links) or a multi-image ad (Carousel)” to upload assets (Stec). Recommendations considering image and text characteristics are provided. The Facebook Ad Manager or other software should be used to report on the performance.

Thus, Facebook advertising appears to be rather simple. The whole process does not take much time and effort as numerous hints and supporting software are provided on the website. Facebook advertising can meet various needs because it offers opportunities for individualized approaches.

When developing a website for business, it is significant to use an appropriate Internet business model because traditional ones fail to meet the needs of online operations and ensure monetization. There are three major online business models that turn out to be the most advantageous currently.

The social media model is considered by many businesses because it allows providing clients with online service which is totally free. Selling pay-per-click ads to Internet users, companies benefit greatly because they obtain an opportunity to increase virtual goods sales. Facebook, for instance, manages to generate billions of dollars from advertising.

The merchant business model is believed to be the best one because it allows “merchants to grow at an almost unbelievable rate” (Muehlhausen and Monen). Those businesses that utilize it sell their products directly to clients without contacting third parties. For instance, Wal-Mart and Amazon work in this way. Unfortunately, the sales tax may turn out to be a challenge for the future development of a business, but it can be overcome with efficient managing.

The subscription model can also be utilized. It presupposes the provision of additional advantages for those clients who pay a fee. This opportunity is rather beneficial because it can be appropriate for different businesses.

The selection of the most appropriate Internet business model also depends on the things a company wants to sell. In this way, it is possible to consider models for 1) physical products; 2) services; 3) digital information products. Thus, developing a website, one can choose the most appropriate model, considering its offerings.

Muehlhausen, Jim, and Monen Joshua. “Internet Business Models.” Internet Business Models Institute , 2013, Web.

Stec, Carly. “How to Create Facebook Ads: A Step-by-Step Guide to Advertising on Facebook.” Hubspot , 2015. Web.

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A glacier calving makes a huge splash.

Atlantic Ocean is headed for a tipping point − once melting glaciers shut down the Gulf Stream, we would see extreme climate change within decades, study shows

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Postdoctoral Researcher in Climate Physics, Utrecht University

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Climate Model Specialist, Utrecht University

Disclosure statement

René van Westen receives funding from the European Research Council (ERC-AdG project 101055096, TAOC).

Henk A. Dijkstra receives funding from the European Research Council (ERC-AdG project 101055096, TAOC, PI: Dijkstra).

Michael Kliphuis does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

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Superstorms, abrupt climate shifts and New York City frozen in ice. That’s how the blockbuster Hollywood movie “ The Day After Tomorrow ” depicted an abrupt shutdown of the Atlantic Ocean’s circulation and the catastrophic consequences.

While Hollywood’s vision was over the top, the 2004 movie raised a serious question: If global warming shuts down the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, which is crucial for carrying heat from the tropics to the northern latitudes, how abrupt and severe would the climate changes be?

Twenty years after the movie’s release, we know a lot more about the Atlantic Ocean’s circulation. Instruments deployed in the ocean starting in 2004 show that the Atlantic Ocean circulation has observably slowed over the past two decades, possibly to its weakest state in almost a millennium . Studies also suggest that the circulation has reached a dangerous tipping point in the past that sent it into a precipitous, unstoppable decline, and that it could hit that tipping point again as the planet warms and glaciers and ice sheets melt.

In a new study using the latest generation of Earth’s climate models, we simulated the flow of fresh water until the ocean circulation reached that tipping point.

The results showed that the circulation could fully shut down within a century of hitting the tipping point, and that it’s headed in that direction. If that happened, average temperatures would drop by several degrees in North America, parts of Asia and Europe, and people would see severe and cascading consequences around the world.

We also discovered a physics-based early warning signal that can alert the world when the Atlantic Ocean circulation is nearing its tipping point.

The ocean’s conveyor belt

Ocean currents are driven by winds, tides and water density differences .

In the Atlantic Ocean circulation, the relatively warm and salty surface water near the equator flows toward Greenland. During its journey it crosses the Caribbean Sea, loops up into the Gulf of Mexico, and then flows along the U.S. East Coast before crossing the Atlantic.

Two illustrations show how the AMOC looks today and its weaker state in the future

This current, also known as the Gulf Stream, brings heat to Europe. As it flows northward and cools, the water mass becomes heavier. By the time it reaches Greenland, it starts to sink and flow southward. The sinking of water near Greenland pulls water from elsewhere in the Atlantic Ocean and the cycle repeats, like a conveyor belt .

Too much fresh water from melting glaciers and the Greenland ice sheet can dilute the saltiness of the water, preventing it from sinking, and weaken this ocean conveyor belt . A weaker conveyor belt transports less heat northward and also enables less heavy water to reach Greenland, which further weakens the conveyor belt’s strength. Once it reaches the tipping point , it shuts down quickly.

What happens to the climate at the tipping point?

The existence of a tipping point was first noticed in an overly simplified model of the Atlantic Ocean circulation in the early 1960s . Today’s more detailed climate models indicate a continued slowing of the conveyor belt’s strength under climate change. However, an abrupt shutdown of the Atlantic Ocean circulation appeared to be absent in these climate models.

This is where our study comes in. We performed an experiment with a detailed climate model to find the tipping point for an abrupt shutdown by slowly increasing the input of fresh water.

We found that once it reaches the tipping point, the conveyor belt shuts down within 100 years. The heat transport toward the north is strongly reduced, leading to abrupt climate shifts.

The result: Dangerous cold in the North

Regions that are influenced by the Gulf Stream receive substantially less heat when the circulation stops. This cools the North American and European continents by a few degrees.

The European climate is much more influenced by the Gulf Stream than other regions. In our experiment, that meant parts of the continent changed at more than 5 degrees Fahrenheit (3 degrees Celsius) per decade – far faster than today’s global warming of about 0.36 F (0.2 C) per decade. We found that parts of Norway would experience temperature drops of more than 36 F (20 C). On the other hand, regions in the Southern Hemisphere would warm by a few degrees.

Two maps show US and Europe both cooling by several degrees if the AMOC stops.

These temperature changes develop over about 100 years. That might seem like a long time, but on typical climate time scales, it is abrupt.

The conveyor belt shutting down would also affect sea level and precipitation patterns, which can push other ecosystems closer to their tipping points . For example, the Amazon rainforest is vulnerable to declining precipitation . If its forest ecosystem turned to grassland, the transition would release carbon to the atmosphere and result in the loss of a valuable carbon sink, further accelerating climate change.

The Atlantic circulation has slowed significantly in the distant past . During glacial periods when ice sheets that covered large parts of the planet were melting, the influx of fresh water slowed the Atlantic circulation, triggering huge climate fluctuations.

So, when will we see this tipping point?

The big question – when will the Atlantic circulation reach a tipping point – remains unanswered. Observations don’t go back far enough to provide a clear result. While a recent study suggested that the conveyor belt is rapidly approaching its tipping point , possibly within a few years, these statistical analyses made several assumptions that give rise to uncertainty.

Instead, we were able to develop a physics-based and observable early warning signal involving the salinity transport at the southern boundary of the Atlantic Ocean. Once a threshold is reached, the tipping point is likely to follow in one to four decades.

A line chart of circulation strength shows a quick drop-off after the amount of freshwater in the ocean hits a tipping point.

The climate impacts from our study underline the severity of such an abrupt conveyor belt collapse. The temperature, sea level and precipitation changes will severely affect society, and the climate shifts are unstoppable on human time scales.

It might seem counterintuitive to worry about extreme cold as the planet warms, but if the main Atlantic Ocean circulation shuts down from too much meltwater pouring in, that’s the risk ahead.

This article was updated on Feb. 11, 2024, to fix a typo: The experiment found temperatures in parts of Europe changed by more than 5 F per decade.

  • Climate change
  • Global warming
  • Extreme weather
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Climate models
  • Greenland ice sheet
  • Ocean circulation

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What to Know About Pakistan’s Election

Analysts say Pakistan’s powerful military has never intervened so openly on behalf of its preferred candidate.

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A street scene with people and motorbikes. Campaign posters hang outside market stalls near colorful garlands.

By Christina Goldbaum

Reporting from Lahore, Pakistan

Pakistan went to the polls on Thursday for an election that analysts say will be among the least credible in the country’s 76-year history, one that comes at a particularly turbulent moment for the nation.

For nearly half of Pakistan’s existence, the military has ruled directly. Even under civilian governments, military leaders have wielded enormous power, ushering in politicians they favored and pushing out those who stepped out of line.

This will be only the third democratic transition between civilian governments in Pakistan’s history. And it is the first national election since former Prime Minister Imran Khan was removed from power after a vote of no confidence in 2022. Mr. Khan’s ouster — which he accused the military of orchestrating, though the powerful generals deny it — set off a political crisis that has embroiled the nuclear-armed nation for the past two years.

The vote on Thursday is the culmination of an especially contentious campaign season , in which analysts say the military has sought to gut Mr. Khan’s widespread support and pave the way to victory for the party of his rival, former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif .

Here’s what you need to know.

What’s the campaign been like?

Over the past two years, Pakistanis have come out in droves to protest the behind-the-scenes role that they believe the military played in Mr. Khan’s ouster. The generals have responded in force, arresting Mr. Khan’s allies and supporters, and working to cripple his party ahead of the vote.

While the military has often meddled in elections to pave the way for its preferred candidates, analysts say this crackdown has been more visible and widespread than others.

That has also made this perhaps Pakistan’s most muted election in decades. Streets that would normally be filled with political rallies have remained empty. For weeks, many people were convinced that the election would not even take place on the scheduled date. A common refrain among Pakistanis is that this is a “selection” — not an election — as many feel it is clear that the military has predetermined the winner.

Who’s running?

Roughly 128 million voters were eligible to cast ballots for a new Parliament, which will then choose a new prime minister after the election.

There are 266 seats to fill in the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, with an additional 70 seats reserved for women and minorities. If no party wins an outright majority — which is considered highly likely — then the one with the biggest share of assembly seats can form a coalition government.

Three main parties dominate politics in Pakistan: the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (P.M.L.N.), the Pakistan People’s Party (P.P.P.) and Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (P.T.I.).

Mr. Khan, the leader of P.T.I., has been notably absent from the campaign: He was arrested in August and has since been sentenced to multiple prison terms for a variety of offenses and barred from holding public office for a decade. Candidates from his party say they have been detained , forced to denounce the party and subjected to intimidation campaigns.

Most election observers expect a victory by the P.M.L.N. , the party of Mr. Sharif. A three-time prime minister, Mr. Sharif built his political reputation on reviving economic growth. He has repeatedly fallen out with the military after pushing for more civilian control in government, only to find himself once more in its favor in this election.

The P.P.P. is led by Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, the son of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, who was assassinated in 2007 . The party is expected to win some seats in the south, where it has a power base, and would most likely form part of a Sharif-led coalition government.

What’s at stake?

Pakistan’s next government will inherit a raft of problems. The economy is in shambles, terrorist attacks have resurged and relations with neighbors — particularly Afghanistan, ruled by the Taliban — are tense.

The cost of living has soared in Pakistan, where inflation last year hit a record high of nearly 40 percent. Meanwhile, gas outages and electricity blackouts are frequent occurrences for the country’s 240 million people. Pakistan has had to turn to the International Monetary Fund for bailouts to keep its economy afloat and prop up its foreign exchange reserves. It also has relied on financing from wealthy allies, like China and Saudi Arabia.

At the same time, extremist violence in Pakistan has surged since the Taliban swept back to power in Afghanistan in 2021. Much of it has been carried out by the Pakistani Taliban, also known as Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, or T.T.P. — an ally and ideological twin of the Taliban in Afghanistan.

That has stoked tensions between Pakistan and Afghanistan, with Pakistani officials accusing the Taliban of offering the Pakistani Taliban safe haven on Afghan soil, a claim that Taliban officials deny. Those tensions appeared to boil over last year when Pakistan ordered all undocumented foreigners to leave the country by Nov. 1, a move that has primarily affected Afghans .

How will the vote take place?

A day before the election, two separate explosions outside election offices in an insurgency-hit area of Pakistan killed at least 22 people . The blasts were the latest in a series of attacks on election-related activities, including the targeting of candidates, throughout the campaign season.

In light of such security threats, the authorities have designated half of Pakistan’s approximately 90,000 polling stations as “sensitive” or “most sensitive” and have deployed the military to secure them.

The polls officially closed at 5 p.m. Preliminary results are expected by late Thursday night, but it could take up to three days for all votes to be officially counted.

Once the count is finalized, members of Parliament will convene to form the government and choose the next prime minister. The selection of the prime minister is expected by the end of February.

Zia ur-Rehman contributed reporting.

Christina Goldbaum is the Afghanistan and Pakistan bureau chief for The Times. More about Christina Goldbaum

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