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Thesis and Dissertation Appendicies – What to Include

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  • By DiscoverPhDs
  • August 12, 2020

What is an Appendix Dissertation explained

An appendix is a section at the end of a dissertation that contains supplementary information. An appendix may contain figures, tables, raw data, and other additional information that supports the arguments of your dissertation but do not belong in the main body.

It can be either a long appendix or split into several smaller appendices. Each appendix should have its own title and identification letters, and the numbering for any tables or figures in them should be reset at the beginning of each new appendix.

Purpose of an Appendix

When writing the main body of your dissertation, it is important to keep it short and concise in order to convey your arguments effectively.

Given the amount of research you would have done, you will probably have a lot of additional information that you would like to share with your audience.

This is where appendices come in. Any information that doesn’t support your main arguments or isn’t directly relevant to the topic of your dissertation should be placed in an appendix.

This will help you organise your paper, as only information that adds weight to your arguments will be included; it will also help improve your flow by minimising unnecessary interruptions.

Note, however, that your main body must be detailed enough that it can be understood without your appendices. If a reader has to flip between pages to make sense of what they are reading, they are unlikely to understand it.

For this reason, appendices should only be used for supporting background material and not for any content that doesn’t fit into your word count, such as the second half of your literature review .

What to Include in a Dissertation Appendix

A dissertation appendix can be used for the following supplementary information:

Research Results

There are various ways in which research results can be presented, such as in tables or diagrams.

Although all of your results will be useful to some extent, you won’t be able to include them all in the main body of your dissertation. Consequently, only those that are crucial to answering your research question should be included.

Your other less significant findings should be placed in your appendix, including raw data, proof of control measures, and other supplemental material.

Details of Questionnaires and Interviews

You can choose to include the details of any surveys and interviews you have conducted. This can include:

  • An interview transcript,
  • A copy of any survey questions,
  • Questionnaire results.

Although the results of your surveys, questionnaires or interviews should be presented and discussed in your main text, it is useful to include their full form in the appendix of a dissertation to give credibility to your study.

Tables, Figures and Illustrations

If your dissertation contains a large number of tables, figures and illustrative material, it may be helpful to insert the less important ones in your appendix. For example, if you have four related datasets, you could present all the data and trend lines (made identifiable by different colours) on a single chart with a further breakdown for each dataset in your appendix.

Letters and Correspondence

If you have letters or correspondence, either between yourself and other researchers or places where you sought permission to reuse copyrighted material, they should be included here. This will help ensure that your dissertation doesn’t become suspected of plagiarism.

List of Abbreviations

Most researchers will provide a list of abbreviations at the beginning of their dissertation, but if not, it would be wise to add them as an appendix.

This is because not all of your readers will have the same background as you and therefore may have difficulty understanding the abbreviations and technical terms you use.

Note: Some researchers refer to this as a ‘glossary’, especially if it is provided as an appendix section. For all intended purposes, this is the same as a list of abbreviations.

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How to Format a Dissertation Appendix

In regards to format, you can include one lengthy appendix or structure it into several smaller appendices.

Although the choice is yours, it is usually better to opt for several different appendices as it allows you to organise your supplementary information into different categories based on what they are.

The following guidelines should be observed when preparing your dissertation appendices section:

  • Each appendix should start on a new page and be given a unique title and identifying letter, such as “Appendix A – Raw Data”. This allows you to more easily refer to appendix headings in the text of your main body should you need to.
  • Each appendix should have its own page numbering system, comprising the appendix identification letter and the corresponding page number. The appendix identification letter should be reset for each appendix, but the page number should remain continuous. For example, if ‘Appendix A’ has three pages and ‘Appendix B’ two pages, the page numbers should be A-1, A-2, A-3, B-4, B-5.
  • The numbering of tables and figures should be reset at the beginning of each new appendix. For example, if ‘Appendix A’ contains two tables and ‘Appendix B’ one table, the table number within Appendix B should be ‘Table 1’ and not ‘Table 3’.
  • If you have multiple appendices instead of a single longer one, insert a ‘List of Appendices’ in the same way as your contents page.
  • Use the same formatting (font size, font type, spacing, margins, etc.) as the rest of your report.

Example of Appendices

Below is an example of what a thesis or dissertation appendix could look like.

Thesis and Dissertation Appendices Example

Referring to an Appendix In-Text

You must refer to each appendix in the main body of your dissertation at least once to justify its inclusion; otherwise, the question arises as to whether they are really needed.

You can refer to an appendix in one of three ways:

1. Refer to a specific figure or table within a sentence, for example: “As shown in Table 2 of Appendix A, there is little correlation between X and Y”.

2. Refer to a specific figure or table in parentheses, for example: “The results (refer to Table 2 of Appendix A) show that there is little correlation between X and Y”.

3. Refer to an entire appendix, for example: “The output data can be found in Appendix A”.

Appendices vs Appendixes

Both terms are correct, so it is up to you which one you prefer. However, it is worth noting that ‘appendices’ are used more frequently in the science and research community, so we recommend using the former in academic writing if you have no preferences.

Where Does an Appendix Go?

For a dissertation, your appendices should be inserted after your reference list.

Some people like to put their appendices in a standalone document to separate it from the rest of their report, but we only recommend this at the request of your dissertation supervisor, as this isn’t common practice.

Note : Your university may have its own requirements or formatting suggestions for writing your dissertation or thesis appendix. As such, make sure you check with your supervisor or department before you work on your appendices. This will especially be the case for any students working on a thesis.

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What is an Appendix Dissertation explained

A thesis and dissertation appendix contains additional information which supports your main arguments. Find out what they should include and how to format them.

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  • Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

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Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

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An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as ‘Appendix A. Interview transcripts’. This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., ‘Transcripts’) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It is also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalise ‘Appendix’ when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in capitalising headings and titles in academic writing.

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, ‘The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews.’

The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice . If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilise many specialised or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

Cite this Scribbr article

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Dingemanse, K. & George, T. (2022, October 25). Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved 15 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/thesis-dissertation/appendix/

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Formatting your thesis: Appendices & supplemental material

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On this page

Introduction, materials included in appendices, supplementary material or research data files, order of appendices, appendix headings, formatting help.

Appendices provide supplementary information to the main thesis and should always appear after the references/bibliography. If you are unsure about whether content should be included in the thesis or in an appendix, consult with your supervisor. The thesis and appendices must be uploaded in a single file.

For more information about appendices, please see the Thesis Template Instructions .

Note: Signatures, personal phone numbers, or personal email addresses (ones that contains part of a person’s name) must be redacted from your thesis. This means that the text is fully removed, and cannot be copied & pasted out of the document.

If including copyrighted materials as appendices, see Copyright at SFU .

Examples of material included in appendices are as follows--also refer to Formatting Help .

  • interview questions
  • participant letters / forms  
  • surveys / questionnaires (if not your own work, these require copyright permission)
  • supplemental tables / figures / graphs / image

Supplementary material or research data files associated with your thesis can also be uploaded to your library submission record. We recommend publishing such files to Summit (the SFU Research Repository) as they will be available alongside your thesis. This is preferred to hosting such files externally or on personal cloud storage.     

Temporary instructions : Contact  [email protected] if you wish to upload such files with your thesis submission -- please do not upload them to the Thesis Registration System at this time. Data Services will require basic descriptive information for each of your files and will also help you organize your research data appropriately pending publication.  

If you are including supplementary material or research data files in your submission, you must include an appendix within your thesis document which contains an overall description of the supplementary material or research data files, authorship credits, and file name(s). This assists in “linking” your thesis document to any additional files, as well as providing further information and context about the file(s). The maximum file size for each file is 2GB. If you have a larger file size, please contact  [email protected] .  

Appendix examples: 

  • video file example
  • data file example

Note : if your Ethics approval requires that supplementary material or research data files be destroyed after a certain period, then such files cannot be published to Summit (the SFU Research Repository). Please contact  [email protected] to identify other possible solutions in this case.  

Accepted supplementary material or research data file types: 

aac, cif, csv, docx, dta, epub, exe, gdb, geojson, gif, iso, jp2, jpg, jpeg, json, kml, kmz, las, mov, mp3, mp4, mpv, odt, pdf, png, pptx, py, qgs, qgz, r, rar, rmd, rtf, shp, tex, tif, tiff, txt, wav, xlsx, zip 

It is recommended to use the best file formats  to allow for data files to be openly accessible for the long term, so that they remain usable through software upgrades and changes in the computing environment. See the Research Data Management (RDM) website  for more information about the handling and organization of data during your research.

Appendices appear in the order in which they are introduced in the text.  

You may include one appendix or a number of appendices.

If you have more than one appendix, you would letter each accordingly (i.e., Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.). Write your appendix headings in the same manner as your chapter headings.

  • Transfer the text and re-format using the template styles as necessary, or 
  • Convert the documents into images and insert them into your document, one image per page.
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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to  comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.

It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:

  • Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
  • Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
  • Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
  • Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
  • Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
  • Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.

Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.

II.  Content

Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].

There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:

  • Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
  • Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
  • Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
  • Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
  • Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
  • Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
  • Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.

NOTE:   Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.

ANOTHER NOTE :   Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
  • If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College;  Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.

Writing Tip

Consider Putting Your Appendices Online

Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.

Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).

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Dissertation Appendix – Components, Format & Examples

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Dissertation-Appendix-Definition

An appendix is an integral part of every dissertation paper, serving as supplementary material that enhances and supports the research study. However, only a few people understand what the section is, where it must be placed, and why it must be included in a dissertation . Therefore, while not typically central to the dissertation’s argument, the appendix adds valuable context and transparency to the academic work. This post will cover everything there is to know about a dissertation appendix, from its definition and purpose to the components and format.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 Dissertation Appendix – In a Nutshell
  • 2 Definition: Dissertation appendix
  • 3 Purpose of a dissertation appendix
  • 4 Dissertation appendix: Components
  • 5 Dissertation appendix: Format
  • 6 Referring to a dissertation appendix
  • 7 Dissertation Appendix: Checklist

Dissertation Appendix – In a Nutshell

  • An appendix is not part of the main body of the dissertation, but is still relevant to it.
  • A dissertation appendix encapsulates all explanations that cannot be included in the main body of the dissertation.
  • Appendices must be well-structured, and their components systemically organized to serve their purpose correctly.

Definition: Dissertation appendix

A dissertation appendix (plural –appendices) is an index at the end of a dissertation that provides additional information related to the dissertation paper. The section helps academic writers present background information related to the dissertation, but doesn’t directly answer the research question. These can include tables, illustrations and other graphics.

Purpose of a dissertation appendix

The primary purpose of a dissertation appendix is to help keep your dissertation paper organized and within the required word limit. It contains any additional information that isn’t directly relevant to the research topic.

Typically, texts that strengthen your arguments appear in your dissertation paper’s main body. However, there is additional information that isn’t directly beneficial to your research but might be helpful to your readers. That is where a dissertation appendix comes in.

Although they provide additional information, your audience should be able to understand the contents of your dissertation paper even without looking at the dissertation appendix. So, ensure you include all important texts in the main body.

Dissertation appendix: Components

A dissertation appendix can include different types of information, such as:

Dissertation-Appendix-Components

Research results can be presented in various ways, including tables and figures. However, not all of these findings need to appear in the main body of your dissertation. Only results that are essential in answering the research topic should be included in the paper. Additional results (less significant findings), such as raw data and supplemental analyses, should go into the dissertation appendix.

Further information

Besides supplementary results, additional information related to surveys and interviews can be included in a dissertation appendix. These can include types of interviews, interview transcripts, survey questions, and details of questionnaires. Although these details are not critical to answering your research question, including them in the dissertation appendix gives credibility to your research.

Dissertation-Appendix-Components-copies-and-graphics

Copies of relevant forms 

It is essential to include a list of abbreviations and acronyms and a glossary in the appendix if your dissertation paper contains many words that your audience might not recognize. This helps enhance readability and minimize confusion for readers. Your list of abbreviations and acronyms, and glossary should appear after the table of contents section.

Figures, tables, graphics

You can also include tables, figures, illustrations, and other graphics in the dissertation appendix if your research contains a lot of them. The appendix is the appropriate platform to include less important ones. Use tables and figures that support your research question but cannot be included in the main body.

Dissertation appendix: Format

There is no restriction to how you can format your dissertation appendix. You can opt to have one long appendix if you don’t feel the need to break it into smaller sections with different components. However, it might be a good idea to separate the components (such as interview transcripts and supplementary results) into various appendices to enhance readability.

If you choose to have multiple appendices in your dissertation, always start each appendix on a new page. Additionally, ensure you assign each page a number or letter. For instance, you can use ‘Appendix 2 – Interview Transcripts.’ Giving a unique identifier (number and title of each element) to each appendix makes it easier for the reader to navigate through the information and for you to refer to it in the main dissertation body.

When numbering tables and figures in multiple appendices, you should reset the numbering as you move to the next appendix (next page). For instance, if your ‘Appendix 1 –Raw Data’ has two tables and ‘Appendix 2 – Interview Transcripts’ has one table, the table in ‘Appendix 2’ should be ‘Table 1’ and not ‘Table 3’ .

Referring to a dissertation appendix

It is crucial to refer to each dissertation appendix at least once when crafting the dissertation’s main body. That helps justify the inclusion of appendices in your study.

There are two primary ways you can refer to a dissertation appendix in the main body:

  • Refer to an entire appendix

“The interview transcripts can be found in Appendix 1 –Interview Transcripts”.

  • Refer to an appendix component

There are two ways you can refer to an appendix component:

  • Refer to specific figures or tables in brackets (parenthetical reference). For example, “The results (refer to Table 1 Appendix 3) indicate a slight decline in the number of new infections”.
  • Include the reference in a sentence within the main body (descriptive reference). For example, “As shown in Table 1 of Appendix 3, there is a slight decline in the number of new infections” .

If your paper has one long dissertation appendix, it is good practice to refer to its components in uppercase, but it is not mandatory. However, it is important to maintain consistency throughout your entire paper, the same way you capitalize your headings and titles in academic work.

Although you are free to choose what case to use, you should always use lower-case when referring to appendices in general.

“The appendices at the end of this paper contain additional information about the area of research.”

Dissertation Appendix: Checklist

  • Each dissertation appendix starts on a fresh page
  • My appendices contain relevant information, but they are not essential in answering my research question
  • I have referred to each of my appendices at least once in the main body
  • The content of my appendices (tables and figures) are clearly labelled
  • My appendices are easy to understand and refer to

What is a dissertation appendix?

A dissertation appendix is a section of your dissertation that you use to provide additional data related to your main study but is not essential to answering the primary research question.

What should I include in my appendix?

Your appendix should contain additional information relevant to the dissertation but not directly important to answering your main questions. These can include supplementary results, tables, interview questions and transcripts.

Do I need an appendix in my dissertation?

If you have a lot of additional information, it is important to have an appendix in your dissertation. Appendices help provide readers with details that support your research without breaking the flow of the main body.

Can my dissertation paper have multiple appendices?

Yes. Your dissertation paper can have more than one appendix. Ensure you properly label each appendix (Appendix A or Appendix 1) if your paper has multiple appendices.

Is it appendices or appendixes?

Appendices and appendixes are both correct plurals for the term appendix. However, many scholars prefer using ‘appendices’ over ‘appendixes.’

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What is Appendix in the Dissertation?

Published by Alvin Nicolas at August 12th, 2021 , Revised On June 13, 2023

“Appendix or appendices (plural) is/are used to provide additional data related to your dissertation research project.”

An appendix section in  dissertation  helps you to provide background data related to your topic; present  tables, illustrations, and figures  that are not directly relevant to your research questions in order to avoid disrupting the flow of the text; to make sure that your dissertation paper’s word count does not go beyond the limit. This article explains what is an appendix in the dissertation.

The Purpose of an Appendix

The main body of the dissertation paper generally contains text that adds weight to your arguments. However, some information that is not directly relevant to the topic of research but might be useful to your audience could be provided under the appendices section.

Any additional information that does not directly support your in-text arguments goes into appendices. This helps to keep your paper organised and within the word limit. It is important to make sure that your readers can understand the contents of your dissertation paper without having to look at the appendices. Any information that is important should be mentioned in the main body.

Items Included in Appendices in Dissertation

An appendix, which is also known as a postscript, includes the following:

Research findings can be presented in several ways. Findings including tables, illustrations and figures that are directly relevant to your research questions or  research problem  are included in the main body.

However, there are certain text,  tables and figures —such as supplemental analyses—that really need to be shown and cannot be ignored, but (due to less significance) can’t be included in the main body as it can disturb the flow of the text.

Such tables and figures are then included in the appendix section. The appendix includes more of the illustrations and  findings as a result of data analysis  that doesn’t directly address the research question but are essential to be shown.

Also Read:   How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements

Surveys/Interviews

Appendices are helpful in mentioning extra information related to surveys , interviews or focus groups. You can clearly mention how respondents responded to underpin your findings.

Include Abbreviations Section

If you have utilised a lot of abbreviations or jargon, it might be difficult for lay-person to understand those terms. You can include the  abbreviations  section or a  glossary  section in the appendix, which are sometimes positioned at the start of the dissertation.

Tables, Figures and/or Graphs

Your dissertation may include a lot of tables, figures and/or graphs due to the  nature of research . The appendix is the appropriate platform to include all this information, including illustrations.

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Appendix Format

You can carry on with just one long appendix (if you don’t want to break it into different components and want it to be the only appendix in your dissertation).

On the other hand, you might want to have separate sections in appendices such as questionnaire responses, findings, key phrases and key terms; it would be easier to figure out the information provided in appendices.

If you decide to include multiple sections within your appendices, each appendix should start on a new page with a clearly assigned title and number, for instance, ‘Appendix 7. Survey questions’ . It allows for each section of the appendix to be clearly visible to the reader and researcher.

It is also recommended to mention the number and title against each element that is directly linked to the appendix so that the reader will be able to know what you are referring to in the main body.

While numbering tables and figures, make sure that you re-start the numbering for each appendix. This means that each table and figure in a new appendix would be titled Table 1 or Figure 1.

Referring to the Appendix in the Main Body of the Dissertation

It is recommended to indicate all appendices at least once in the main body of your dissertation. Make sure that you mention the appendix number (enclosed in brackets, called parenthetical reference ) or within text in the main body (called descriptive reference ) as highlights for the readers.

It is not mandatory to capitalise it as that typically depends on the researcher’s will. You can also refer to certain elements within the appendix (which can be a specific illustration or table).

Example #1. When you are referring to an entire appendix

The focus-group interview (see Appendix 1) shows that… Appendix 2 describes how we gathered data from the sample population….

Example #2. While you are referring to an appendix component

These findings (see Appendix 1, Table 2) show that… Table 2 in Appendix 1 describes the factors which result in the increase in sales.

It would be a good practice to mention Appendix in upper-case, especially when referring to a specific component. However, this is not compulsory and you can choose to use lower-case, i.e., ‘The appendices provided at the end of the documents contain relevant content about the questionnaire responses.’

Here are some more appendix examples for you .

Which is More Appropriate: Appendices or Appendixes?

Both of these words (spellings) are true in their sense and can be used, but appendices is more appropriate according to APA style. However, it is important to ensure consistency throughout the thesis document. Don’t use alternative words in different  sections of the dissertation .

Where to Include Appendices?

The general idea in this regard is to include appendices after the main body, i.e., the reference section. If you opt for this option, you need to continue with the same page number format. You can also submit appendices as a separate document with your dissertation project.

You should write down appendices (including titles and page numbers) in the table of contents.

Even if you are still unsure about what an appendix in a dissertation is, our writers can help with this chapter of your paper. All you have to do is complete our online order form , select the dissertation part/chapter as the required service type, attach your dissertation draft, and let us know your deadline. We guarantee that the writer we will assign to your order will have the expertise and qualification to create the appendices to your exact requirements.

FAQs About Appendices in Dissertation

What should i not include in a dissertation appendix.

Don’t include any irrelevant and/or vague information. It will only distract your readers from understanding your study’s overall purpose, significance, etc.

What can I include in an appendix?

You can include in it things like figures and/tables that are too lengthy to be included within the dissertation ; maps, photographs, raw data like participant score lists, computer programs like SPSS, musical examples like audios etc., interview questions and/or sample questionnaires, etc.

Can I include web URLs in an appendix?

Not really, although you can include PDF documents or weblinks to such documents within your dissertation appendix.

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A list of glossary in a dissertation contains all the terms that were used in your dissertation but the meanings of which may not be obvious to the readers.

How to Structure a Dissertation or Thesis Need interesting and manageable Finance and Accounting dissertation topics? Here are the trending Media dissertation titles so you can choose one most suitable to your needs.

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Guide for Dissertation Appendix in 2024: Everything You Need to Know

Table of contents, what is a dissertation appendix.

An appendix is an index at the end of a dissertation or thesis that gives additional information about the dissertation. The purpose of an appendix is to include information that directly answers your main question or is not important to understand your answer. New information can be used as items included in the appendices. The information should be relevant but not crucial to your dissertation argument. The role of an appendix is to explain certain terms and words used in the dissertation and provide data that is relevant to the dissertation but not as important as points that are directly involved in the main body of the dissertation.

An appendix is an important part of a dissertation . It comes after the conclusion. No main point should go in the appendix. Everything except the main points can be included in a dissertation appendix. It should be secondary knowledge provided to the reader in order to make them more aware of the subject addressed in the dissertation. All ‘relational information’ can be included in the appendices.

Appendices are usually long. The information provided comes under distinct headings. The reader chooses to read whatever seems beneficial to their understanding of the topic of the dissertation and leaves the rest.

Items to be Included in Appendices

1. meanings of words or phrases.

In the case of abbreviations used throughout the dissertation, it would help to create a glossary at the beginning or end of your dissertation. A glossary can be included in the appendix. Readers would refer to it to know the full form of an abbreviation or the contextual meaning of a word.

2. Forms of usage

While discussing different words used in a similar context, be sure to mention them in the appendix. Also, the same word used in a different context should be included in the dissertation appendix.

  • Context behind a research methodology, question, or subject of study, objects used, etc

You can state your purpose for using particular data points. This context should not be highly important to your research question, though.

  • Context behind a research methodology, question, subject of study, objects used, etc
  • Information about an area of research

This can include the modes of transport you used to visit a particular region to collect information or data, the problems you faced while collecting data in that region, the exact location, geography and ethnography of that region, etc.

  • Additional results and surveys

This will help the readers see what you have based your research on. Be careful not to include the main results, but only those not directly connected to your dissertation findings. They need to be extra ones you collected or made while working on your dissertation.

  • Tables, diagrams, and graphs

Use as many tables and graphs as possible that support your dissertation question but cannot be included in the main body. Show the reader how much data you have collected as part of your dissertation.

  • Dates, time, places

All skeptical readers who want to dig into the date, place, and time of your research can refer to the appendix, where they will find your systematic archive of days, months, and places of data collection. It is part of explaining the context behind an event or data point.

  • Any other connected information

Your dissertation cannot be complete without further information that is connected to your main points in certain ways. It can be absorbed, along with its ambiguous nature, in the dissertation appendix. You can state your purpose for using particular data points. This context should not be highly important to your research question, though.

Tips to Help Write an Dissertation Appendix

  • Go through your dissertation and mark phrases or words

Before you start writing an dissertation appendix at the end of your research paper or dissertation, read your dissertation from introduction to conclusion and make a list of all the words and phrases that need an explanation. At the same time, note the points that need to be explained more with the help of diagrams, tables, graphs, etc. The additional explanations, tables, graphs, etc can be in the appendix.

  • Use a dictionary

Despite your knowledge of a word or a phrase and its usage, please refer to a dictionary as you prepare a glossary. The appropriate meaning is important to be given in an appendix to avoid miscommunications of any sort. Give the usage of the word along with the meaning.

  • State what the table, diagram, or survey is in reference to

The additional survey, table, or diagram that is included in the appendix needs to specify its connection to the point made in the main body of the dissertation . It should be in reference to the main body of the dissertation. Page numbers need to be stated accordingly, along with the title or the respective point of reference in the main body (survey, diagram, table, or data). This will help the reader refer to these diagrams in relation to the information given in the main body of your dissertation.

  • Try to include the date and time of data collection

If the date and time of collecting data for your dissertation are not directly relevant to your findings or do not affect the collected data in a certain way, you can include them in the dissertation appendices. In this way, you need not bombard your reader with unnecessary information and yet include it in your dissertation.

  • Do not worry about giving TMI (Too Much Information)

The purpose of an appendix is to give extra information to a reader. There is no way the information or data you provide in your dissertation appendix will overwhelm the reader because of its size. Appendices are supposed to be long and tedious. It is up to the reader to go over the information in the appendices.

  • Look at a few examples

Each book, dissertation, research paper, and academic article has an appendix or several appendices at the end. It would help you to go through a few appendices before you start writing your own dissertation appendix. Examples may provide you with an idea of the structure and format of an appendix and the components that may be included in it. Many of these examples are available online.

  • Referring to an appendix

As you prepare an appendix, add a few notes in the main body of your dissertation referring to the appendix. Refer to particular points or elements at a time. Do not just say, ‘Refer to the appendix given at the end of the dissertation’. Instead, use something like, ‘Refer to point number 4 of Appendix 2 to get more information about table 2.3’.

Guidelines for Formatting of an Appendix

  • Create multiple appendices if you need

To give information in a logical order and avoid confusion on the part of the reader, it is better to divide this information into various appendices, starting with Appendix 1, Appendix 2, and so on. The first appendix can be a glossary; the second one can have tables, graphs, or diagrams; and the third can include information about the institutes or papers referred to.

  • Write point-wise

While creating an appendix, each new word, phrase, or element should be a separate point. Number each point properly. It would be easier to find the required table or word if it is a separate point.

  • The contents explained should be in the order of their appearance in the dissertation

The order of words and phrases should be maintained in the appendix. You cannot put one above the other when their order of occurrence is the opposite. Haphazard content is very off-putting. If a word occurs on the 3 rd page of a dissertation and another on the 4 th , the one on the 3 rd should be explained before the one on the 4 th .

  • Have a minimum of two columns to divide elements and their explanation

As you prepare an appendix, write the words or phrases in one column and their explanation in the next column. This would make your appendix neat and tidy. A word and its explanation should be on the same horizontal line to make the appendix systematic.

  • Title and label the tables and graphs

All tables and graphs need to be assigned a title that clarifies their contents. They also need to be labeled so that they are beneficial to the reader. They need to make their position in the dissertation clear.

  • Put these appendices in the right order

Order is very important in making dissertation appendices proper and appealing. Do not go all over the place with your appendices. Try to put them in a rational order with proper spacing between two appendices. Start each appendix on a new page.

To Conclude

An appendix, though not part of the main body of a dissertation, is relevant to it. All explanations that cannot be included in the main body of the dissertation can be found in the appendix. The role of an appendix is to show minor details that are part of the dissertation process.

However, appendices need to be well structured, and the items included in the appendices need to be systematically organized. There is no point in losing sight of the purpose of a dissertation appendix. Refer to your appendices wherever needed in the main body. In order to be able to refer to it, structure your appendix well. Do not ignore it just because it comes at the end of your dissertation.

-Masha Evans

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Footnotes & Appendices 

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APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document. Should additional clarification be necessary, it is always recommended that writers reach out to the individual overseeing their work (i.e., instructor, editor, etc.). For your convenience, a student sample paper is included below; please note the document is filled with  Lorem Ipsum  placeholder text and references to footnotes and appendices are highighlighted. Additional marginal notes also further explain specific portions of the example. 

Footnotes 

Footnotes are supplementary details printed at the bottom of the page pertaining to a paper’s content or copyright information. This supporting text can be utilized in any type of APA paper to support the body paragraphs.

Content-Based Footnotes

Utilizing footnotes to provide supplementary detail can enrich the body text and reinforce the main argument of the paper. Footnotes may also direct readers to an alternate source for more detail on a topic. Though content footnotes can be useful in providing additional context, it is detrimental to include tangential or convoluted information. Footnotes should detail a focused subject; lengthier sections of text are better suited for the body paragraphs.

Acknowledging Copyright

When citing long quotations, images, tables, data, or commercially published questionnaires in-text, it is important to credit the copyright information in a footnote. Functioning much like an in-text citation, a footnote copyright attribution provides credit to the original source and must also be included in a reference list. A copyright citation is needed for both direct reprinting as well as adaptations of content, and these may require express permission from the copyright owner.

Formatting Footnotes

Each footnote and its corresponding in-text callout should be formatted in numerical order of appearance utilizing superscript. As demonstrated in the example below, the superscripted numerals should follow all punctuation with the exception of dashes and parentheses.

For example: 

Footnote callouts should not be placed in headings and do not require a space between the callout and superscripted number. When reintroducing a footnote that has previously been called out, refrain from replicating the callout or footnote itself; rather, format such reference as “see Footnote 4”, for example. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the page on which the corresponding callout is referenced. Alternatively, a footnotes page could be created to follow the reference page. When formatting footnotes in the latter manner, center and bold the label “Footnotes” then record each footnote as a double-spaced and indented paragraph. Place the corresponding superscripted number in front of each footnote and separate the numeral from the following text with a single space.

Formatting Copyright Information

To provide credit for images, tables, or figures pulled from an outside source, include the accreditation statement at the end of the note for the visual. Copyright acknowledgements for long quotations or questionnaires should simply be placed in a footnote at the bottom of the page.

When formatting a copyright accreditation, utilize the following format:

  • Establish if the content was reprinted or adapted by using language such as “from” for directly copied material or “adapted from” for material that has been modified
  • Include the content’s title, author, year of publication, and source
  • Cite the copyright holder and year of copyright or indicate that the source is public domain or licensed under Creative Commons
  • If express permission was required to reprint the material, include a statement indicating that permission was acquired

Appendices 

When introducing supplementary content that may not fit within the body of a paper, an appendix can be included to help readers better understand the material without distracting from the text itself. Primarily used to introduce research materials, specific details of a study, or participant demographics, appendices are generally concise and only incorporate relevant content. Much like with footnotes, appendices may require an acknowledgement of copyright and, if data is cited, an adherence to the privacy policies that protect participant identities.

Formatting Appendices

An appendix should be created on its own individual page labelled “Appendix” and followed by a title on the next line that describes the subject of the appendix. These headings should be centered and bolded at the top of the page and written in title case. If there are multiple appendices, each should be labelled with a capital letter and referenced in-text by its specific title (for example, “see Appendix B”). All appendices should follow references, footnotes, and any tables or figures included at the end of the document.

Text Appendices 

Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears. For example, a table labelled “Table B1” would be the first table in Appendix B. If there is only one appendix in the document, the visuals should still be labelled with the letter A and a number to differentiate them from those contained in the paper itself (for example, “Figure A3” is the third figure in the singular appendix, which is not labelled with a letter in the heading). 

Table or Figure Appendices 

When an appendix solely contains a table or figure, the title of the figure or table should be substituted with the title of the appendix. For example, if Appendix B only includes a figure, the figure should be labelled “Appendix B” rather than “Figure B1”, as it would be named if there were multiple figures included.

If an appendix does not contain text but includes numerous figures or table, the appendix should be formatted like a text appendix. The appendix would receive a name and label, and each figure or table would be given a corresponding letter and number. For example, if Appendix C contains two tables and one figure, these visuals would be labelled “Table C1”, “Table C2”, and “Figure C1” respectively.

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Media File: APA 7 - Student Sample Paper (Footnotes & Appendices)

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Home » Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples

Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples

Table of Contents

Appendices

Definition:

Appendices refer to supplementary materials or documents that are attached to the end of a Book, Report , Research Paper , Thesis or other written work. These materials can include charts, graphs, tables, images, or other data that support the main content of the work.

Types of Appendices

Types of appendices that can be used depending on the content and purpose of the document. These types of Appendices are as follows:

Statistical Appendices

Statistical appendices are used to present raw data or statistical analysis that is relevant to the main text but would be too bulky to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include tables, graphs, charts, or other types of visual aids that help to illustrate the data.

Technical Appendices

Technical appendices are used to provide detailed technical information that is relevant to the main text but would be too complex or lengthy to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include equations, formulas, diagrams, or other technical details that are important for understanding the subject matter.

Bibliographical Appendices

Bibliographical appendices are used to provide additional references or sources that are relevant to the main text but were not cited in the main body of the document. These appendices may include lists of books, articles, or other resources that the author consulted in the course of their research.

Historical Appendices

Historical appendices are used to provide background information or historical context that is relevant to the main text but would be too lengthy or distracting to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include timelines, maps, biographical sketches, or other historical details that help to contextualize the subject matter.

Supplemental Appendices

Supplemental appendices are used to provide additional material that is relevant to the main text but does not fit into any of the other categories. These appendices may include interviews, surveys, case studies, or other types of supplemental material that help to further illustrate the subject matter.

Applications of Appendices

Some applications of appendices are:

  • Providing detailed data and statistics: Appendices are often used to include detailed data and statistics that support the findings presented in the main body of the document. For example, in a research paper, an appendix might include raw data tables or graphs that were used to support the study’s conclusions.
  • Including technical details: Appendices can be used to include technical details that may be of interest to a specialized audience. For example, in a technical report, an appendix might include detailed calculations or equations that were used to develop the report’s recommendations.
  • Presenting supplementary information: Appendices can be used to present supplementary information that is related to the main content but doesn’t fit well within the main body of the document. For example, in a business proposal, an appendix might include a list of references or a glossary of terms.
  • Providing supporting documentation: Appendices can be used to provide supporting documentation that is required by the document’s audience. For example, in a legal document, an appendix might include copies of contracts or agreements that were referenced in the main body of the document.
  • Including multimedia materials : Appendices can be used to include multimedia materials that supplement the main content. For example, in a book, an appendix might include photographs, maps, or illustrations that help to clarify the text.

Importance of Appendices

Appendices are important components of research papers, reports, Thesis, and other academic papers. They are supplementary materials that provide additional information and data that support the main text. Here are some reasons why appendices are important:

  • Additional Information : Appendices provide additional information that is too detailed or too lengthy to include in the main text. This information includes raw data, graphs, tables, and charts that support the research findings.
  • Clarity and Conciseness : Appendices help to maintain the clarity and conciseness of the main text. By placing detailed information and data in appendices, writers can avoid cluttering the main text with lengthy descriptions and technical details.
  • Transparency : Appendices increase the transparency of research by providing readers with access to the data and information used in the research process. This transparency increases the credibility of the research and allows readers to verify the findings.
  • Accessibility : Appendices make it easier for readers to access the data and information that supports the research. This is particularly important in cases where readers want to replicate the research or use the data for their own research.
  • Compliance : Appendices can be used to comply with specific requirements of the research project or institution. For example, some institutions may require researchers to include certain types of data or information in the appendices.

Appendices Structure

Here is an outline of a typical structure for an appendix:

I. Introduction

  • A. Explanation of the purpose of the appendix
  • B. Brief overview of the contents

II. Main Body

  • A. Section headings or subheadings for different types of content
  • B. Detailed descriptions, tables, charts, graphs, or images that support the main content
  • C. Labels and captions for each item to help readers navigate and understand the content

III. Conclusion

  • A. Summary of the key points covered in the appendix
  • B. Suggestions for further reading or resources

IV. Appendices

  • A. List of all the appendices included in the document
  • B. Table of contents for the appendices

V. References

  • A. List of all the sources cited in the appendix
  • B. Proper citation format for each source

Example of Appendices

here’s an example of what appendices might look like for a survey:

Appendix A:

Survey Questionnaire

This section contains a copy of the survey questionnaire used for the study.

  • What is your age?
  • What is your gender?
  • What is your highest level of education?
  • How often do you use social media?
  • Which social media platforms do you use most frequently?
  • How much time do you typically spend on social media each day?
  • Do you feel that social media has had a positive or negative impact on your life?
  • Have you ever experienced cyberbullying or harassment on social media?
  • Have you ever been influenced by social media to make a purchase or try a new product?
  • In your opinion, what are the biggest advantages and disadvantages of social media?

Appendix B:

Participant Demographics

This section includes a table with demographic information about the survey participants, such as age, gender, and education level.

Age Gender Education Level

  • 20 Female Bachelor’s Degree
  • 32 Male Master’s Degree
  • 45 Female High School Diploma
  • 28 Non-binary Associate’s Degree

Appendix C:

Statistical Analysis

This section provides details about the statistical analysis performed on the survey data, including tables or graphs that illustrate the results of the analysis.

Table 1: Frequency of Social Media Platforms

Use Platform Frequency

  • Facebook 35%
  • Instagram 28%
  • Twitter 15%
  • Snapchat 12%

Figure 1: Impact of Social Media on Life Satisfaction

Appendix D:

Survey Results

This section presents the raw data collected from the survey, such as participant responses to each question.

Question 1: What is your age?

Question 2: What is your gender?

And so on for each question in the survey.

How to Write Appendices

Here are the steps to follow to write appendices:

  • Determine what information to include: Before you start writing your appendices, decide what information you want to include. This may include tables, figures, graphs, charts, photographs, or other types of data that support the main content of your paper.
  • Organize the material: Once you have decided what to include, organize the material in a logical manner that follows the sequence of the main content. Use clear headings and subheadings to make it easy for readers to navigate through the appendices.
  • Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content.
  • F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.
  • Provide detailed explanations: Make sure to provide detailed explanations of any data, charts, graphs, or other information included in the appendices so that readers can understand the significance of the material.
  • Cross-reference the appendices: In the main text, cross-reference the appendices where appropriate by referring to the appendix letter and title (e.g., “see Appendix A for more information”).
  • Review and revise: Review and revise the appendices just as you would any other part of your paper or report to ensure that the information is accurate, clear, and relevant.

When to Write Appendices

Appendices are typically included in a document when additional information needs to be provided that is not essential to the main text, but still useful for readers who want to delve deeper into a topic. Here are some common situations where you might want to include appendices:

  • Supporting data: If you have a lot of data that you want to include in your document, but it would make the main text too lengthy or confusing, you can include it in an appendix. This is especially useful for academic papers or reports.
  • Additional examples: I f you want to include additional examples or case studies to support your argument or research, but they are not essential to the main text, you can include them in an appendix.
  • Technical details: I f your document contains technical information that may be difficult for some readers to understand, you can include detailed explanations or diagrams in an appendix.
  • Background information : If you want to provide background information on a topic that is not directly related to the main text, but may be helpful for readers, you can include it in an appendix.

Purpose of Appendices

The purposes of appendices include:

  • Providing additional details: Appendices can be used to provide additional information that is too detailed or bulky to include in the main body of the document. For example, technical specifications, data tables, or lengthy survey results.
  • Supporting evidence: Appendices can be used to provide supporting evidence for the arguments or claims made in the main body of the document. This can include supplementary graphs, charts, or other visual aids that help to clarify or support the text.
  • Including legal documents: Appendices can be used to include legal documents that are referred to in the main body of the document, such as contracts, leases, or patent applications.
  • Providing additional context: Appendices can be used to provide additional context or background information that is relevant to the main body of the document. For example, historical or cultural information, or a glossary of technical terms.
  • Facilitating replication: In research papers, appendices are used to provide detailed information about the research methodology, raw data, or analysis procedures to facilitate replication of the study.

Advantages of Appendices

Some Advantages of Appendices are as follows:

  • Saving Space: Including lengthy or detailed information in the main text of a document can make it appear cluttered and overwhelming. By placing this information in an appendix, it can be included without taking up valuable space in the main text.
  • Convenience: Appendices can be used to provide supplementary information that is not essential to the main argument or discussion but may be of interest to some readers. By including this information in an appendix, readers can choose to read it or skip it, depending on their needs and interests.
  • Organization: Appendices can be used to organize and present complex information in a clear and logical manner. This can make it easier for readers to understand and follow the main argument or discussion of the document.
  • Compliance : In some cases, appendices may be required to comply with specific document formatting or regulatory requirements. For example, research papers may require appendices to provide detailed information on research methodology, data analysis, or technical procedures.

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Grad Coach

Dissertation Structure & Layout 101: How to structure your dissertation, thesis or research project.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) Reviewed By: David Phair (PhD) | July 2019

So, you’ve got a decent understanding of what a dissertation is , you’ve chosen your topic and hopefully you’ve received approval for your research proposal . Awesome! Now its time to start the actual dissertation or thesis writing journey.

To craft a high-quality document, the very first thing you need to understand is dissertation structure . In this post, we’ll walk you through the generic dissertation structure and layout, step by step. We’ll start with the big picture, and then zoom into each chapter to briefly discuss the core contents. If you’re just starting out on your research journey, you should start with this post, which covers the big-picture process of how to write a dissertation or thesis .

Dissertation structure and layout - the basics

*The Caveat *

In this post, we’ll be discussing a traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout, which is generally used for social science research across universities, whether in the US, UK, Europe or Australia. However, some universities may have small variations on this structure (extra chapters, merged chapters, slightly different ordering, etc).

So, always check with your university if they have a prescribed structure or layout that they expect you to work with. If not, it’s safe to assume the structure we’ll discuss here is suitable. And even if they do have a prescribed structure, you’ll still get value from this post as we’ll explain the core contents of each section.  

Overview: S tructuring a dissertation or thesis

  • Acknowledgements page
  • Abstract (or executive summary)
  • Table of contents , list of figures and tables
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: Literature review
  • Chapter 3: Methodology
  • Chapter 4: Results
  • Chapter 5: Discussion
  • Chapter 6: Conclusion
  • Reference list

As I mentioned, some universities will have slight variations on this structure. For example, they want an additional “personal reflection chapter”, or they might prefer the results and discussion chapter to be merged into one. Regardless, the overarching flow will always be the same, as this flow reflects the research process , which we discussed here – i.e.:

  • The introduction chapter presents the core research question and aims .
  • The literature review chapter assesses what the current research says about this question.
  • The methodology, results and discussion chapters go about undertaking new research about this question.
  • The conclusion chapter (attempts to) answer the core research question .

In other words, the dissertation structure and layout reflect the research process of asking a well-defined question(s), investigating, and then answering the question – see below.

A dissertation's structure reflect the research process

To restate that – the structure and layout of a dissertation reflect the flow of the overall research process . This is essential to understand, as each chapter will make a lot more sense if you “get” this concept. If you’re not familiar with the research process, read this post before going further.

Right. Now that we’ve covered the big picture, let’s dive a little deeper into the details of each section and chapter. Oh and by the way, you can also grab our free dissertation/thesis template here to help speed things up.

The title page of your dissertation is the very first impression the marker will get of your work, so it pays to invest some time thinking about your title. But what makes for a good title? A strong title needs to be 3 things:

  • Succinct (not overly lengthy or verbose)
  • Specific (not vague or ambiguous)
  • Representative of the research you’re undertaking (clearly linked to your research questions)

Typically, a good title includes mention of the following:

  • The broader area of the research (i.e. the overarching topic)
  • The specific focus of your research (i.e. your specific context)
  • Indication of research design (e.g. quantitative , qualitative , or  mixed methods ).

For example:

A quantitative investigation [research design] into the antecedents of organisational trust [broader area] in the UK retail forex trading market [specific context/area of focus].

Again, some universities may have specific requirements regarding the format and structure of the title, so it’s worth double-checking expectations with your institution (if there’s no mention in the brief or study material).

Dissertations stacked up

Acknowledgements

This page provides you with an opportunity to say thank you to those who helped you along your research journey. Generally, it’s optional (and won’t count towards your marks), but it is academic best practice to include this.

So, who do you say thanks to? Well, there’s no prescribed requirements, but it’s common to mention the following people:

  • Your dissertation supervisor or committee.
  • Any professors, lecturers or academics that helped you understand the topic or methodologies.
  • Any tutors, mentors or advisors.
  • Your family and friends, especially spouse (for adult learners studying part-time).

There’s no need for lengthy rambling. Just state who you’re thankful to and for what (e.g. thank you to my supervisor, John Doe, for his endless patience and attentiveness) – be sincere. In terms of length, you should keep this to a page or less.

Abstract or executive summary

The dissertation abstract (or executive summary for some degrees) serves to provide the first-time reader (and marker or moderator) with a big-picture view of your research project. It should give them an understanding of the key insights and findings from the research, without them needing to read the rest of the report – in other words, it should be able to stand alone .

For it to stand alone, your abstract should cover the following key points (at a minimum):

  • Your research questions and aims – what key question(s) did your research aim to answer?
  • Your methodology – how did you go about investigating the topic and finding answers to your research question(s)?
  • Your findings – following your own research, what did do you discover?
  • Your conclusions – based on your findings, what conclusions did you draw? What answers did you find to your research question(s)?

So, in much the same way the dissertation structure mimics the research process, your abstract or executive summary should reflect the research process, from the initial stage of asking the original question to the final stage of answering that question.

In practical terms, it’s a good idea to write this section up last , once all your core chapters are complete. Otherwise, you’ll end up writing and rewriting this section multiple times (just wasting time). For a step by step guide on how to write a strong executive summary, check out this post .

Need a helping hand?

dissertation appendix sample

Table of contents

This section is straightforward. You’ll typically present your table of contents (TOC) first, followed by the two lists – figures and tables. I recommend that you use Microsoft Word’s automatic table of contents generator to generate your TOC. If you’re not familiar with this functionality, the video below explains it simply:

If you find that your table of contents is overly lengthy, consider removing one level of depth. Oftentimes, this can be done without detracting from the usefulness of the TOC.

Right, now that the “admin” sections are out of the way, its time to move on to your core chapters. These chapters are the heart of your dissertation and are where you’ll earn the marks. The first chapter is the introduction chapter – as you would expect, this is the time to introduce your research…

It’s important to understand that even though you’ve provided an overview of your research in your abstract, your introduction needs to be written as if the reader has not read that (remember, the abstract is essentially a standalone document). So, your introduction chapter needs to start from the very beginning, and should address the following questions:

  • What will you be investigating (in plain-language, big picture-level)?
  • Why is that worth investigating? How is it important to academia or business? How is it sufficiently original?
  • What are your research aims and research question(s)? Note that the research questions can sometimes be presented at the end of the literature review (next chapter).
  • What is the scope of your study? In other words, what will and won’t you cover ?
  • How will you approach your research? In other words, what methodology will you adopt?
  • How will you structure your dissertation? What are the core chapters and what will you do in each of them?

These are just the bare basic requirements for your intro chapter. Some universities will want additional bells and whistles in the intro chapter, so be sure to carefully read your brief or consult your research supervisor.

If done right, your introduction chapter will set a clear direction for the rest of your dissertation. Specifically, it will make it clear to the reader (and marker) exactly what you’ll be investigating, why that’s important, and how you’ll be going about the investigation. Conversely, if your introduction chapter leaves a first-time reader wondering what exactly you’ll be researching, you’ve still got some work to do.

Now that you’ve set a clear direction with your introduction chapter, the next step is the literature review . In this section, you will analyse the existing research (typically academic journal articles and high-quality industry publications), with a view to understanding the following questions:

  • What does the literature currently say about the topic you’re investigating?
  • Is the literature lacking or well established? Is it divided or in disagreement?
  • How does your research fit into the bigger picture?
  • How does your research contribute something original?
  • How does the methodology of previous studies help you develop your own?

Depending on the nature of your study, you may also present a conceptual framework towards the end of your literature review, which you will then test in your actual research.

Again, some universities will want you to focus on some of these areas more than others, some will have additional or fewer requirements, and so on. Therefore, as always, its important to review your brief and/or discuss with your supervisor, so that you know exactly what’s expected of your literature review chapter.

Dissertation writing

Now that you’ve investigated the current state of knowledge in your literature review chapter and are familiar with the existing key theories, models and frameworks, its time to design your own research. Enter the methodology chapter – the most “science-ey” of the chapters…

In this chapter, you need to address two critical questions:

  • Exactly HOW will you carry out your research (i.e. what is your intended research design)?
  • Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way (i.e. how do you justify your design)?

Remember, the dissertation part of your degree is first and foremost about developing and demonstrating research skills . Therefore, the markers want to see that you know which methods to use, can clearly articulate why you’ve chosen then, and know how to deploy them effectively.

Importantly, this chapter requires detail – don’t hold back on the specifics. State exactly what you’ll be doing, with who, when, for how long, etc. Moreover, for every design choice you make, make sure you justify it.

In practice, you will likely end up coming back to this chapter once you’ve undertaken all your data collection and analysis, and revise it based on changes you made during the analysis phase. This is perfectly fine. Its natural for you to add an additional analysis technique, scrap an old one, etc based on where your data lead you. Of course, I’m talking about small changes here – not a fundamental switch from qualitative to quantitative, which will likely send your supervisor in a spin!

You’ve now collected your data and undertaken your analysis, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods. In this chapter, you’ll present the raw results of your analysis . For example, in the case of a quant study, you’ll present the demographic data, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics , etc.

Typically, Chapter 4 is simply a presentation and description of the data, not a discussion of the meaning of the data. In other words, it’s descriptive, rather than analytical – the meaning is discussed in Chapter 5. However, some universities will want you to combine chapters 4 and 5, so that you both present and interpret the meaning of the data at the same time. Check with your institution what their preference is.

Now that you’ve presented the data analysis results, its time to interpret and analyse them. In other words, its time to discuss what they mean, especially in relation to your research question(s).

What you discuss here will depend largely on your chosen methodology. For example, if you’ve gone the quantitative route, you might discuss the relationships between variables . If you’ve gone the qualitative route, you might discuss key themes and the meanings thereof. It all depends on what your research design choices were.

Most importantly, you need to discuss your results in relation to your research questions and aims, as well as the existing literature. What do the results tell you about your research questions? Are they aligned with the existing research or at odds? If so, why might this be? Dig deep into your findings and explain what the findings suggest, in plain English.

The final chapter – you’ve made it! Now that you’ve discussed your interpretation of the results, its time to bring it back to the beginning with the conclusion chapter . In other words, its time to (attempt to) answer your original research question s (from way back in chapter 1). Clearly state what your conclusions are in terms of your research questions. This might feel a bit repetitive, as you would have touched on this in the previous chapter, but its important to bring the discussion full circle and explicitly state your answer(s) to the research question(s).

Dissertation and thesis prep

Next, you’ll typically discuss the implications of your findings? In other words, you’ve answered your research questions – but what does this mean for the real world (or even for academia)? What should now be done differently, given the new insight you’ve generated?

Lastly, you should discuss the limitations of your research, as well as what this means for future research in the area. No study is perfect, especially not a Masters-level. Discuss the shortcomings of your research. Perhaps your methodology was limited, perhaps your sample size was small or not representative, etc, etc. Don’t be afraid to critique your work – the markers want to see that you can identify the limitations of your work. This is a strength, not a weakness. Be brutal!

This marks the end of your core chapters – woohoo! From here on out, it’s pretty smooth sailing.

The reference list is straightforward. It should contain a list of all resources cited in your dissertation, in the required format, e.g. APA , Harvard, etc.

It’s essential that you use reference management software for your dissertation. Do NOT try handle your referencing manually – its far too error prone. On a reference list of multiple pages, you’re going to make mistake. To this end, I suggest considering either Mendeley or Zotero. Both are free and provide a very straightforward interface to ensure that your referencing is 100% on point. I’ve included a simple how-to video for the Mendeley software (my personal favourite) below:

Some universities may ask you to include a bibliography, as opposed to a reference list. These two things are not the same . A bibliography is similar to a reference list, except that it also includes resources which informed your thinking but were not directly cited in your dissertation. So, double-check your brief and make sure you use the right one.

The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. This is where you’ll include any supporting data and evidence. Importantly, supporting is the keyword here.

Your appendices should provide additional “nice to know”, depth-adding information, which is not critical to the core analysis. Appendices should not be used as a way to cut down word count (see this post which covers how to reduce word count ). In other words, don’t place content that is critical to the core analysis here, just to save word count. You will not earn marks on any content in the appendices, so don’t try to play the system!

Time to recap…

And there you have it – the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows:

  • Acknowledgments page

Most importantly, the core chapters should reflect the research process (asking, investigating and answering your research question). Moreover, the research question(s) should form the golden thread throughout your dissertation structure. Everything should revolve around the research questions, and as you’ve seen, they should form both the start point (i.e. introduction chapter) and the endpoint (i.e. conclusion chapter).

I hope this post has provided you with clarity about the traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below, or feel free to get in touch with us. Also, be sure to check out the rest of the  Grad Coach Blog .

dissertation appendix sample

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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Dissertation and thesis defense 101

36 Comments

ARUN kumar SHARMA

many thanks i found it very useful

Derek Jansen

Glad to hear that, Arun. Good luck writing your dissertation.

Sue

Such clear practical logical advice. I very much needed to read this to keep me focused in stead of fretting.. Perfect now ready to start my research!

hayder

what about scientific fields like computer or engineering thesis what is the difference in the structure? thank you very much

Tim

Thanks so much this helped me a lot!

Ade Adeniyi

Very helpful and accessible. What I like most is how practical the advice is along with helpful tools/ links.

Thanks Ade!

Aswathi

Thank you so much sir.. It was really helpful..

You’re welcome!

Jp Raimundo

Hi! How many words maximum should contain the abstract?

Karmelia Renatee

Thank you so much 😊 Find this at the right moment

You’re most welcome. Good luck with your dissertation.

moha

best ever benefit i got on right time thank you

Krishnan iyer

Many times Clarity and vision of destination of dissertation is what makes the difference between good ,average and great researchers the same way a great automobile driver is fast with clarity of address and Clear weather conditions .

I guess Great researcher = great ideas + knowledge + great and fast data collection and modeling + great writing + high clarity on all these

You have given immense clarity from start to end.

Alwyn Malan

Morning. Where will I write the definitions of what I’m referring to in my report?

Rose

Thank you so much Derek, I was almost lost! Thanks a tonnnn! Have a great day!

yemi Amos

Thanks ! so concise and valuable

Kgomotso Siwelane

This was very helpful. Clear and concise. I know exactly what to do now.

dauda sesay

Thank you for allowing me to go through briefly. I hope to find time to continue.

Patrick Mwathi

Really useful to me. Thanks a thousand times

Adao Bundi

Very interesting! It will definitely set me and many more for success. highly recommended.

SAIKUMAR NALUMASU

Thank you soo much sir, for the opportunity to express my skills

mwepu Ilunga

Usefull, thanks a lot. Really clear

Rami

Very nice and easy to understand. Thank you .

Chrisogonas Odhiambo

That was incredibly useful. Thanks Grad Coach Crew!

Luke

My stress level just dropped at least 15 points after watching this. Just starting my thesis for my grad program and I feel a lot more capable now! Thanks for such a clear and helpful video, Emma and the GradCoach team!

Judy

Do we need to mention the number of words the dissertation contains in the main document?

It depends on your university’s requirements, so it would be best to check with them 🙂

Christine

Such a helpful post to help me get started with structuring my masters dissertation, thank you!

Simon Le

Great video; I appreciate that helpful information

Brhane Kidane

It is so necessary or avital course

johnson

This blog is very informative for my research. Thank you

avc

Doctoral students are required to fill out the National Research Council’s Survey of Earned Doctorates

Emmanuel Manjolo

wow this is an amazing gain in my life

Paul I Thoronka

This is so good

Tesfay haftu

How can i arrange my specific objectives in my dissertation?

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How Do You Incorporate an Interview into a Dissertation? | Tips

Published on November 5, 2014 by Bas Swaen . Revised on December 19, 2022.

You have performed qualitative research for your dissertation by  conducting interviews that you now want to include: how do you do that? Chances are that this was never explained to you and you don’t know what is expected. That’s why in this article we describe how interviews can be included in, for instance, the  discussion section of your dissertation and how they can be referenced.

Table of contents

Including interviews in your dissertation, referring to interviews, quoting from interviews, mentioning the name of the interviewee.

To present interviews in a dissertation, you first need to transcribe your interviews . You can use transcription software for this. You can then add the written interviews to the appendix. If you have many or long interviews that make the appendix extremely long, the appendix (after consultation with the supervisor) can be submitted as a separate document. What matters is that you can demonstrate that the interviews have actually taken place.

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When you have added the interviews to the appendix, you can then paraphrase  to them in your dissertation. Paraphrasing is done as follows:

It became clear from an interview with Y that … (Appendix 1).

Sometimes you are not allowed to add the transcription of an interview to the appendix. In this case it is not possible to refer to this interview. According to the APA Style it is possible to refer to it like this:

APA interview citation MLA interview citation

If you literally copy the words of the interviewee, then you need to quote . Finding interesting quotes is easier if you know how to get usable information out of the person during the interview. That’s why you should conduct the interviews in a professional manner.

Don’t just blindly note the name of the person you’re interviewing, but ask yourself two questions:

  • Are you allowed to mention the name?  This is the first question you should ask yourself before you include the interviewee’s name in a dissertation . Determine, in consultation with the interviewee, whether the name should be anonymized (and get informed consent). Sometimes, in fact, the interviewee doesn’t want that. This may be the case when you have interviewed, for example, an employee and the employee does not want his or her boss to be able to read the answers because this could disturb their working relationship. Another situation where this can occur is, for example, when the interview contains very personal questions.
  • Does it add anything to mention the name?  The second factor to consider is whether it is relevant to mention the name. Does it add anything to your research? When the interviewee is an unknown person you have approached on the street, the name of this person is not very important. But if you have interviewed the CEO of a large organization, then it can be very relevant to mention their name. In this second case, add a short introduction so that the reader of the dissertation knows immediately who this person is.

Thus, you may mention the name if you have permission from the interviewee to do so and if it is relevant to the research. If you don’t have permission to use the name or if you don’t want to mention the name, you can then choose to use a description. For example: “Employee 1”.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Swaen, B. (2022, December 19). How Do You Incorporate an Interview into a Dissertation? | Tips. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/how-do-you-incorporate-an-interview-into-a-dissertation/

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Bas Swaen

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How to Write an Appendix: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

how to write an appendix

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While composing your work, you may stumble upon a question on how to write an appendix.

An appendix is a supplemental section of a research paper that provides additional information, data, or materials to support the main content. The appendix is usually placed at the end of the document and is numbered with letters or numbers, such as "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc. The purpose of an appendix is to provide readers with supplementary details that are not included in the main text but are relevant to the topic.

Once you decide on writing appendices, you should collect additional information and format your text as required. Here, we will talk about how you can work with appendices. We will also show some nuances of their preparation process using a real example. Is the deadline around the corner? Consider using professional research paper help from expert scholars.

What Is an Appendix: Definition

Experienced researchers know what an appendix in a paper is. But aspiring authors often have problems with this section of the work. First of all, you should understand that appendices are an additional section of a dissertation or any other scientific paper that includes additional information. Main points are not placed in an appendix meanwhile at the end of your work it can expand on some context or clarify author’s position on a particular issue. Also, an appendix is ​​often placed after the citation page of a work. It is indicated with the help of references in a main text.

What Is the Purpose of an Appendix

Quite often, authors don’t understand the purpose of an appendix. This usually looks like a table and is not included in a main text. Remember that content of your dissertation should be concise and clear. It is also undesirable if you deviate from your theme so as not to confuse readers. Therefore, you can provide a reference, which will lead a reader to an appendix of a thesis. Typically, the purpose of an appendix is to extra information that is usually not included in the text's body. It expresses author's point of view, and provides additional information. It may not address the immediate topic of your dissertation or expand on current research. As a reminder, your work should be clear even without studying an appendix. So make sure you don't put important details there.

What Can You Include in an Appendix

An appendix in a paper is a supplement to a main text, not a replacement. You can put different elements there. It is better if you separate appendices, highlighting one element in each of them. Don’t forget about separate references in your text. Otherwise it will be difficult for a reader to understand your information better. Thus, the following information can be added:

  • diagrams with illustrative figures;
  • abbreviations ;
  • interviews;
  • statistics, and much more.

There are no restrictions on content added to your dissertation's appendices. Theoretically, you can attach absolutely any information that is relevant to your topic. Thus, possibilities for evidence base are almost unlimited. All you need to do is add tables or any other information.

How to Write an Appendix: Full Guide

If you already have experience working on dissertations and other scientific texts, you will not wonder how to make an appendix. However, it is still important that you get some advice on how to properly structure an appendices section. This will help add information that may be redundant in the main part of your paper. We offer 4 simple steps to create an informative and readable appendix block.

Step 1. Make an Appendix: Include Your Data

When creating an appendix, include extra data in their raw form. That is, you might not have used some details in your main paper. But you want a reader to know more information. For example, it can be calculations, some results of which are mentioned in your main text. Or maybe, you can add some statistics that clearly demonstrate your research paper conclusion . You can also include facts from other scientific sources that support your position. One thing is important — information should complement your text but not contradict it.

Step 2. Include Visual Supporting Documents in an Appendix 

When you are writing an appendix, you can’t avoid visual additions that clearly demonstrate an information and save an author from lengthy descriptions in the text. Should you need to support your conclusions drawn in the scientific text, these can be used:

Don’t forget: you should quote and indicate the authorship of graphics used in your work. If you took it from any third-party sources, of course. Thus, a reader will be able to find additional data that explains the content of your text. It is good if you personally put results of your research in a graphic form. To do this, you can use Office programs, graphic editors and other programs available to PC users.

Step 3. Describe the Instruments of Your Research in Your Appendices

It is good if your appendix in the research paper has a section for indicating tools that were used during the preparation of your dissertation writing . This way, your reader will understand how you collected information and do it themselves. For example, it could be a dictaphone or tape recorder on which an interview with your expert was recorded. Or you might have used a video camera for recording facts and interviews. In such case, it is advisable to indicate these instruments in your appendix. Specialized equipment for measuring, calculating and making graphics should also be added at the beginning of the appendix. This way, you will demonstrate your skills and knowledge. Research units don’t require extra tools, so make sure they are listed. You can do it even in a short format.

Step 4. Include an Interview and Transcripts in an Appendix

When conducting interviews and surveys for collecting information, make an appendix with photocopies of handwritten materials or electronic copies of digital surveys. Their order is not important. The main thing is that your research text contains references. This will allow you to quickly study the sources. You should not only show that the source contains important data but also explain it. So, even additional content, including questions and answers, needs to be listed. But if you originally had a readable format, you don’t need to do this. In addition to interviews, also add screenshots or photos of correspondences used for surveys. For example, you can refer to a significant researcher with whom you exchanged letters. Or maybe you studied subject, together with this researcher, and they gave some comments on a particular issue. Do not know how to write a discussion section of a research paper ? Do not worry, we have the whole article dedicated to this topic.

Formatting an Appendix: Main Rules

Formatting of appendices is required in any case. First of all, provide correct citations. APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most commonly used standards. Although, you should clarify what formatting requirements your institution has. Correct formatting includes:

  • Appendix title. Write it at the top of the content page, indicate its title, using letters or numbers for ordering.
  • Sorted by mention. Don’t add appendices randomly, it is better to do it in chronological order. That is, as information from it is given in main text.
  • Location after bibliography. This is a general requirement that cannot always be met. For example, if your professor wants the appendices to be put before the bibliography, this will have to be done.
  • Page numbers. All dissertation pages should be numbered, even if they are blank. This will make the appendix block the part of main text.

Also, review your appendix before approval. Make sure that its content is clear, error-free, and correctly quoted.

Appendix Example

To do the job successfully, it is recommended to have an example of an appendix at hand. Without it, there are usually problems with a choice of font and mentions that appear in main text. We will show you what the appendix itself looks like at the end of the dissertation using a short interview as an example.

Appendix example

We have one more blog in case you wonder what is an abstract in a paper  or need some examples and writing tips.

How to Make an Appendix: Final Thoughts

Thus, we talked about how to write an appendix. It allows you to include additional details, while avoiding writing them in the body of your text. To do this, one can use graphics, transcriptions of conversations, tables and statistics — anything that complements your research. Be sure to clarify formatting requirements of your university. Arrange appendices in an order in which they appear in your text. Try to use your own materials and not take other people's work. In case of unique findings, they can be used in your work.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Appendix Writing

1. how do you add an appendix to an essay.

The inclusion of appendix to an essay is the same as to any other paper. You need to provide references in your text of an essay itself, as well as submit attachments after a bibliography. Don't forget to specify name of an appendix for easy navigation.

2. Do I add references to the appendix?

Yes, this is not only recommended but must be done. In this case the appendix will allow your reader to check the reliability of sources you used. Moreover, if you took any information from third-party sources, this protect you from plagiarism charges.

4. How do you create an appendix in Word?

It is not difficult to prepare an appendix in Word, because this Office program contains all the necessary tools. To get started, choose the same font, font size and indentation that were used in the main text, so as not to visually break away from it. We also recommend that you apply title formatting with built-in Word tools. Place the appendix titles at the top in the center of a page. In this case it will be much easier to navigate the paper.

3. What is an appendix in a report example?

You can include a wide range of information into an appendix in a report. It is better to opt for descriptive formats, though. For example, it can be graphical or mathematical research results, statistics of a certain phenomenon, and questionnaires filled in by other people.

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Using Previously Published Materials in Your ETD

  • Permissions appendix and citations
  • Using Your Published Materials
  • Using Someone Else's Materials

What should you include in your permissions appendix?

How should you indicate your use of copyrighted content in your text, figure notes and notes to the reader, helpful resources.

  • Citing Sources Guide This link opens in a new window
  • Publishers A-C
  • Publishers D-P
  • Publishers Q-Z
  • Main Copyright Guide
  • Ask your Copyright Librarian

All permissions statements should be saved in an appendix in your thesis/dissertation.  These can include:

  • Email responses from a licensing/permissions contact at a publisher or organization
  • RightsLink permission statements (linked as order 'details' in your order confirmation during the RightsLink process)
  • Author Rights statements
  • Creative Commons statements and licenses
  • Fair Use worksheets (if you have determined that your use of the content is likely a fair use)

Each use of copyrighted content within your Thesis/Dissertation or manuscript should be clearly indicated to your readers.   If you are using a previously published article as a chapter in your Thesis/Dissertation, you should include a note to the reader on the first page of the chapter.  The Office of Graduate Studies has an example of this:

  • Note to Reader/Footnote Options Office of Graduate studies' PDF example of note to reader at beginning of chapter.
  • Use of Generative AI and Large Language Models in ETDs Guidance from the Office of Graduate studies on how generative AI tools and Large Language Models may be used in theses and dissertations.

Figure Notes

dissertation appendix sample

Journal article: Figure #.  Your figure title.  From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122.  Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission. Book: Figure #.  Your figure title.   From Title of Book (p. 103), by A.N. Author and C.O. Author, 1994, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright 1994 by the Name of Copyright Holder.  Reprinted with permission.
Journal article: Figure #.  Your figure title.  From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122. CC-BY-NC. Used with permission.

Figure note guidance from various citation styles regarding how to indicate images created with generative AI tools is still evolving.  If using a generative AI tool to create images, it is best to be clear to your reader about the source of those images.  For example:

AI generated images: Figure #.  Your figure title.  Image AI generated by author using [tool].

Notes to Reader

If you are using one or more articles or papers that were previously published as portions of a new work, then you should precede them with a note to the reader that includes the full published citation, copyright status, and that the article is reprinted with permissions.  For example (APA style):

This chapter was previously published as  “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122.  Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission.
  • Citing Generative AI Resources USF Libraries guide on AI Tools and Resources instructions how to cite generative AI.
  • Citing Sources A collection of resources to help you learn and identify different citations formats and management systems.
  • College of Engineering Thesis/Dissertation Information Instructions on formatting for Engineering Theses and Dissertations
  • Copyright and Permissions on Academic Writer (formerly APA Style Central) Video Tutorial on APA Style Central about using and properly notating copyrighted materials in APA style.
  • Copyright LibGuide USF Tampa Library's guide on copyright.
  • Copyright and Previously Published Materials Office of Graduate Studies instructions for the use of copyrighted material in ETDs.
  • Use of Previously Published Materials/Results (USF Office of Graduate Studies) Instructions from the USF Office of Graduate Studies on using your previously published material in electronic theses and dissertations.
  • Fair Use More information on the four factors of a fair use analysis and the USF Libraries' Fair Use checklist.
  • USF Fair Use Checklist This worksheet is offered as a tool to help you determine if your use of copyrighted content is likely to be considered to be a “fair use.”
  • Creative Commons Search Search for images that are in the public domain OR have been granted creative commons status.
  • << Previous: Using Someone Else's Materials
  • Next: Citing Sources Guide >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 7, 2024 1:55 PM
  • URL: https://guides.lib.usf.edu/articlerights

COMMENTS

  1. Research Paper Appendix

    Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument.

  2. Thesis and Dissertation Appendices (What to Include)

    August 12, 2020 Summary An appendix is a section at the end of a dissertation that contains supplementary information. An appendix may contain figures, tables, raw data, and other additional information that supports the arguments of your dissertation but do not belong in the main body.

  3. Research Paper Appendix

    Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument.

  4. How to Create an APA Style Appendix

    Revised on August 9, 2022. This article reflects the 7th edition guidelines of the APA Publication Manual. An appendix is a section at the end of an academic text where you include extra information that doesn't fit into the main text. The plural of appendix is "appendices."

  5. PDF Thesis Sample Appendices

    The following pages are sample appendices that can help you with the format and organization of the document. Appendices should be designated with letters. The figures and tables are numbered in the straight numbering style. This means that the figures and tables are numbered consecutively throughout the document.

  6. Appendix(es) (Optional)

    The appendix is a section that is placed at the end of the thesis and may contain material such as tables, figures, maps, photographs, raw data, computer programs, musical examples, interview questions, sample questionnaires, CDs, and many other types of material.

  7. PDF APA Style Dissertation Guidelines: Formatting Your Dissertation

    Dissertation Content When the content of the dissertation starts, the page numbering should restart at page one using Arabic numbering (i.e., 1, 2, 3, etc.) and continue throughout the dissertation until the end. The Arabic page number should be aligned to the upper right margin of the page with a running head aligned to the upper left margin.

  8. Formatting your thesis: Appendices & supplemental material

    Appendices provide supplementary information to the main thesis and should always appear after the references/bibliography. If you are unsure about whether content should be included in the thesis or in an appendix, consult with your supervisor. The thesis and appendices must be uploaded in a single file. For more information about appendices ...

  9. Appendices

    The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type. If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed. The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

  10. What Is a Dissertation?

    A dissertation is a long-form piece of academic writing based on original research conducted by you. It is usually submitted as the final step in order to finish a PhD program. Your dissertation is probably the longest piece of writing you've ever completed. It requires solid research, writing, and analysis skills, and it can be intimidating ...

  11. Dissertation Appendix ~ Components, Format & Examples

    A dissertation appendix (plural -appendices) is an index at the end of a dissertation that provides additional information related to the dissertation paper. The section helps academic writers present background information related to the dissertation, but doesn't directly answer the research question.

  12. What is Appendix in the Dissertation?

    An appendix section in dissertation helps you to provide background data related to your topic; present tables, illustrations, and figures that are not directly relevant to your research questions in order to avoid disrupting the flow of the text; to make sure that your dissertation paper's word count does not go beyond the limit.

  13. PDF GUIDE FOR THESES PREPARTION

    [This is a sample title page. 1" top & bottom margins, 1 ½" left margin & 1" right margin (See Appendix II).] THE LIBERATED WOMAN IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY . by . Chris S. Student . A thesis submitted to the faculty of Radford University . in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of . Master of Arts in the Department of ...

  14. PDF Sample Thesis Pages

    Sample Appendix Page for a Supplemental File . APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARTICIPANTS OF THE SURVEY . The questionnaire used to gather some of the data that has been presented in this thesis may be found in a supplemental file named questionnaire.tif. 110 . If multiple appendices are included, they should be lettered A, B, C, etc. Page ...

  15. Guide for Dissertation Appendix in 2024: Everything You Need to Know

    An appendix is an index at the end of a dissertation or thesis that gives additional information about the dissertation. The purpose of an appendix is to include information that directly answers your main question or is not important to understand your answer. New information can be used as items included in the appendices.

  16. Footnotes & Appendices

    Text Appendices Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears.

  17. PDF Thesis and Dissertation Formatting Guidelines

    The heading of each new Appendix should be placed 2 inches from the top edge of the page. Although all text (body text, section headings, etc.) in the body of the thesis/dissertation must be black, text within Appendices may appear in other colors. Furthermore, the text in Appendices can be single-spaced.

  18. PDF Papers, Theses, and Dissertations Th Edition. Table of Contents

    See Appendix B for a sample master's thesis acceptance page. Contact doctoral programs for dissertation acceptance pages. Abstract Abstracts are required for all theses and dissertations. This page should have the heading "ABSTRACT" and include the full title of the dissertation, the author's name, and the full names

  19. Appendices

    Definition: Appendices refer to supplementary materials or documents that are attached to the end of a Book, Report, Research Paper, Thesis or other written work. These materials can include charts, graphs, tables, images, or other data that support the main content of the work. Types of Appendices

  20. Dissertation Structure & Layout 101 (+ Examples)

    Time to recap…. And there you have it - the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows: Title page. Acknowledgments page. Abstract (or executive summary) Table of contents, list of figures and tables.

  21. How Do You Incorporate an Interview into a Dissertation?

    Including interviews in your dissertation. To present interviews in a dissertation, you first need to transcribe your interviews. You can use transcription software for this. You can then add the written interviews to the appendix. If you have many or long interviews that make the appendix extremely long, the appendix (after consultation with ...

  22. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper & Examples

    Step 3. Describe the Instruments of Your Research in Your Appendices. It is good if your appendix in the research paper has a section for indicating tools that were used during the preparation of your dissertation writing. This way, your reader will understand how you collected information and do it themselves.

  23. Permissions appendix and citations

    All permissions statements should be saved in an appendix in your thesis/dissertation. These can include: Email responses from a licensing/permissions contact at a publisher or organization; RightsLink permission statements (linked as order 'details' in your order confirmation during the RightsLink process) Author Rights statements