Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Research paper
  • How to Write a Discussion Section | Tips & Examples

How to Write a Discussion Section | Tips & Examples

Published on August 21, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 18, 2023.

Discussion section flow chart

The discussion section is where you delve into the meaning, importance, and relevance of your results .

It should focus on explaining and evaluating what you found, showing how it relates to your literature review and paper or dissertation topic , and making an argument in support of your overall conclusion. It should not be a second results section.

There are different ways to write this section, but you can focus your writing around these key elements:

  • Summary : A brief recap of your key results
  • Interpretations: What do your results mean?
  • Implications: Why do your results matter?
  • Limitations: What can’t your results tell us?
  • Recommendations: Avenues for further studies or analyses

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

What not to include in your discussion section, step 1: summarize your key findings, step 2: give your interpretations, step 3: discuss the implications, step 4: acknowledge the limitations, step 5: share your recommendations, discussion section example, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about discussion sections.

There are a few common mistakes to avoid when writing the discussion section of your paper.

  • Don’t introduce new results: You should only discuss the data that you have already reported in your results section .
  • Don’t make inflated claims: Avoid overinterpretation and speculation that isn’t directly supported by your data.
  • Don’t undermine your research: The discussion of limitations should aim to strengthen your credibility, not emphasize weaknesses or failures.

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services

Discover proofreading & editing

Start this section by reiterating your research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings. To speed up the process you can use a summarizer to quickly get an overview of all important findings. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported—aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question . This should be no more than one paragraph.

Many students struggle with the differences between a discussion section and a results section . The crux of the matter is that your results sections should present your results, and your discussion section should subjectively evaluate them. Try not to blend elements of these two sections, in order to keep your paper sharp.

  • The results indicate that…
  • The study demonstrates a correlation between…
  • This analysis supports the theory that…
  • The data suggest that…

The meaning of your results may seem obvious to you, but it’s important to spell out their significance for your reader, showing exactly how they answer your research question.

The form of your interpretations will depend on the type of research, but some typical approaches to interpreting the data include:

  • Identifying correlations , patterns, and relationships among the data
  • Discussing whether the results met your expectations or supported your hypotheses
  • Contextualizing your findings within previous research and theory
  • Explaining unexpected results and evaluating their significance
  • Considering possible alternative explanations and making an argument for your position

You can organize your discussion around key themes, hypotheses, or research questions, following the same structure as your results section. Alternatively, you can also begin by highlighting the most significant or unexpected results.

  • In line with the hypothesis…
  • Contrary to the hypothesized association…
  • The results contradict the claims of Smith (2022) that…
  • The results might suggest that x . However, based on the findings of similar studies, a more plausible explanation is y .

As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review . The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice.

Ask yourself these questions:

  • Do your results support or challenge existing theories? If they support existing theories, what new information do they contribute? If they challenge existing theories, why do you think that is?
  • Are there any practical implications?

Your overall aim is to show the reader exactly what your research has contributed, and why they should care.

  • These results build on existing evidence of…
  • The results do not fit with the theory that…
  • The experiment provides a new insight into the relationship between…
  • These results should be taken into account when considering how to…
  • The data contribute a clearer understanding of…
  • While previous research has focused on  x , these results demonstrate that y .

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

  • Academic style
  • Vague sentences
  • Style consistency

See an example

discussion section master thesis

Even the best research has its limitations. Acknowledging these is important to demonstrate your credibility. Limitations aren’t about listing your errors, but about providing an accurate picture of what can and cannot be concluded from your study.

Limitations might be due to your overall research design, specific methodological choices , or unanticipated obstacles that emerged during your research process.

Here are a few common possibilities:

  • If your sample size was small or limited to a specific group of people, explain how generalizability is limited.
  • If you encountered problems when gathering or analyzing data, explain how these influenced the results.
  • If there are potential confounding variables that you were unable to control, acknowledge the effect these may have had.

After noting the limitations, you can reiterate why the results are nonetheless valid for the purpose of answering your research question.

  • The generalizability of the results is limited by…
  • The reliability of these data is impacted by…
  • Due to the lack of data on x , the results cannot confirm…
  • The methodological choices were constrained by…
  • It is beyond the scope of this study to…

Based on the discussion of your results, you can make recommendations for practical implementation or further research. Sometimes, the recommendations are saved for the conclusion .

Suggestions for further research can lead directly from the limitations. Don’t just state that more studies should be done—give concrete ideas for how future work can build on areas that your own research was unable to address.

  • Further research is needed to establish…
  • Future studies should take into account…
  • Avenues for future research include…

Discussion section example

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

  • Anchoring bias
  • Halo effect
  • The Baader–Meinhof phenomenon
  • The placebo effect
  • Nonresponse bias
  • Deep learning
  • Generative AI
  • Machine learning
  • Reinforcement learning
  • Supervised vs. unsupervised learning

 (AI) Tools

  • Grammar Checker
  • Paraphrasing Tool
  • Text Summarizer
  • AI Detector
  • Plagiarism Checker
  • Citation Generator

In the discussion , you explore the meaning and relevance of your research results , explaining how they fit with existing research and theory. Discuss:

  • Your  interpretations : what do the results tell us?
  • The  implications : why do the results matter?
  • The  limitation s : what can’t the results tell us?

The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.

In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. But in quantitative research , it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them.

In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, July 18). How to Write a Discussion Section | Tips & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 19, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/discussion/

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, how to write a literature review | guide, examples, & templates, what is a research methodology | steps & tips, how to write a results section | tips & examples, what is your plagiarism score.

offer

How to Write Your Thesis Discussion Section

discussion section master thesis

The discussion section is the most critical aspect of your thesis. It is written after presenting your data in the results section. This article explains how to structure your thesis discussion section and what content is required.

What is the thesis discussion section?

The thesis discussion includes explanations and interpretations of your results in the context of your thesis question and  literature review , discusses their implications, acknowledges their limitations, and gives recommendations. In doing so, you make an argument to support your conclusion .

What should the thesis discussion section include?

  • A summary of your key findings
This analysis does not support the theory that…
  • The answer to your thesis question
These findings confirm our hypothesis that…
  • An interpretation of your findings
Our findings agree with the theory proposed by Jones (2019)…
  • The implications of your findings
The data provide new evidence of…
  • The limitations of your findings (i.e., what can’t the results tell us)
This study only included individuals living in urban areas, and the results may not be generalizable to populations in rural areas…
  • Suggestions of practical applications of your findings
X should be taken into consideration when…
  • Recommendations for further scientific investigations
Further studies are necessary to…

What should the thesis discussion section not include?

  • A restatement of all your results
  • The introduction of new results . All results in the discussion section must have been presented in the results section.
  • Speculations that can’t be supported by your data
  • Results that do not directly relate to your thesis question or hypothesis
  • Tables and figures (these are usually included in the results section)

How does the discussion overlap with other thesis sections?

The content in the thesis discussion section overlaps with the results section — the results section presents the data, and the discussion section interprets it. The structure of the discussion section differs according to the type of research ( quantitative vs. qualitative ). In qualitative research, such as in the Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) domain, the discussion and results from sections are often combined. In thesis studies involving quantitative research, such as in the Sciences domain, these sections are usually written separately.

The content in the thesis discussion section also overlaps with the conclusion section — the discussion section presents a detailed analysis and interpretation of the data, and the conclusion section summarizes the main findings of the discussion. The discussion and conclusion sections may also be combined into a single section in some fields of study. If you are unsure of which structure to use, ask your supervisor for guidance and check the requirements of your academic institution.

How to write a thesis discussion

The discussion section of a thesis starts with an interpretation of the results and then places the findings in the general context of the field of study.

The discussion section is the most critical section of your thesis and will probably be the hardest to write. The discussion section of a thesis starts with an interpretation of the results and then places the findings in the general context of the field of study. This section also demonstrates your ability to think critically and develop innovative solutions to problems based on your findings, resulting in a deeper understanding of the research problem.

Because it can be daunting to write the thesis discussion section in one go, first prepare a draft according to the following steps:

  • Prepare an outline that broadly states your argument and how your results support it.
  • Strengthen your argument by mapping out how your results fit into the outline.
  • Place unexpected or controversial results in context and describe what may have caused them.
  • Go back to your literature review to identify any studies that you might want to delve into in greater detail given the findings of your study.
  • Identify study limitations.
  • Briefly summarize the importance and implications of your findings.
  • Recommend any practical applications of your study findings.
  • Suggest future work that could build on your findings or address study limitations.

Once you are happy with your draft, it’s time to finalize the thesis discussion section. Use the steps below as a guideline:

  • First, restate your thesis question and hypothesis that were stated in the introduction.
  • Then, use your findings to support the answer to your thesis question.
  • Defend your answers by discussing other studies with correlating results.
  • Explain how your findings consistently fit in with the current literature and mention how they address knowledge gaps in the field.
  • Mention studies that conflict with your findings, and try to explain possible causes of these contradictions (e.g., population size, inclusion and excision criteria, differences in data collection and analysis methods).
  • Address any unexpected findings. Describe what happened and then discuss the potential causes (e.g., a skewed response rate, sampling bias, or changes in the equipment used). Because they could have been caused by a flawed sampling method or an incorrect choice of methodology, carefully check that you have adequately justified your methodological approach. In extreme cases, you may need to restructure your hypothesis or rewrite your introduction.
  • Research studies are expected to have limitations and weaknesses. Mention all of them and how they may have impacted the interpretation and validity of your findings. Some limitations could highlight areas that require further study.
  • Summarize the practical applications and theoretical implications of your findings.
  • Recommend potential areas for future research.

How do I interpret my results?

The thesis discussion section must concisely interpret the results and assign importance to them. This is achieved by:

  • Identifying relationships, patterns, and correlations in the data
  • Discussing whether the findings support your hypothesis
  • Considering alternative explanations while also justifying your chosen explanation
  • Emphasizing novel results and explaining how they fill knowledge gaps
  • Explaining unexpected results and determining their significance

How do I discuss the implications of my results?

The discussion section of your thesis explains how your findings fit in with and contribute to the existing literature. This refers back to the literature review section of your thesis. The following questions should be addressed:

  • Are your findings supported by other studies, and do they add to the body of knowledge or address a gap?
  • Do your findings disagree with other studies? If so, determine or suggest the reason(s) why.
  • Do your findings challenge or support existing theories?
  • What are the practical implications of your findings?

How do I acknowledge the limitations of my study?

It is expected that all studies will have limitations. When discussing your study limitations, don’t undermine your findings . A good discussion of the limitations will strengthen your study’s credibility.

Examples of study limitations: sample size, differences in methods used for data collection or analysis, study type (e.g., retrospective vs. prospective), inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study population, effects of confounders, researcher bias, and robustness of the data collection method.

How do I make recommendations for future research?

Recommendations should either be included in the discussion or the conclusion section of your thesis, but not in both. This could include:

  • Addressing questions related to your study that remain unanswered
  • Suggesting a logical progression of your research study using concrete ideas
  • Suggesting future work based on the study limitations you have identified
Example: Future studies using a larger sample size from multiple sites are recommended to confirm the generalizability of our findings. Example: We suggest that the participants are re-interviewed after 5 years to determine how their perception of this traumatic experience has changed.

Tips for writing the thesis discussion section

  • Use subheadings to break down the discussion into smaller sections that identify key points.
  • Maintain consistency with the introduction  and  literature review sections. Use the same point of view, tone, and terminology.
  • Be concise .
  • Be logical. Present the discussion in the same sequence as the results unless there is an unexpected or novel finding that should be emphasized first.
  • Do not use jargon, and define all technical terms and abbreviations/acronyms.
  • Cite all sources. The majority of references cited in the thesis discussion section should be recent (i.e., published within the past 10 years).
  • Avoid plagiarism .

A thesis is the most crucial document that you will write during your academic studies. For professional thesis editing and thesis proofreading services , visit Enago Thesis Editing for more information.

Editor’s pick

Get free updates.

Subscribe to our newsletter for regular insights from the research and publishing industry!

Review Checklist

Are your  key findings summarized in the thesis discussion section?

Have you  interpreted your findings in the context of your thesis question?

Have you shown how your findings fit in by  discussing differences and similarities with current literature as well as any gaps in the literature that your findings address?

Have you  explained the significance of your findings?

Have you  contemplated alternative explanations for your findings?

Have you  explained the practical and/or theoretical implications of your findings?

Have you identified and  evaluated the limitations of your study?

Have you  recommended practical actions or areas that require further studies based on your findings?

What tense is used to write the thesis discussion section? +

Use the present tense when referring to established facts. Use the past tense when referring to previous studies.

What is the difference between the discussion and conclusion sections of a thesis? +

The  discussion section is a detailed analysis and interpretation of the study results that place them in context with the associated literature. The  conclusion section is much shorter than the discussion section. It mentions the main points of the discussion section, tells the reader why your research is important, and makes recommendations based on your study findings.

What is the difference between the results and discussion sections of a thesis? +

The results section objectively reports the study findings without speculation. The discussion section interprets the findings, puts them into context, and assigns importance to them.

Thesis Helpers

discussion section master thesis

Find the best tips and advice to improve your writing. Or, have a top expert write your paper.

Thesis Discussion Writing Guide For All Levels

thesis discussion

A thesis discussion is the framing section of this paper. When writing this section, the author delves into the importance, meaning, and relevance of the results. The focus of this section should be on the explanation and evaluation of the findings. Here, you should show how your findings relate to the research questions and literature review. Your discussion should also make an argument that supports the overall conclusion.

The results and discussion in thesis form one of the most difficult parts to write. That’s because this section requires the author to think about the meaning and implication of their research. To be effective, the discussion chapter of a thesis should tell readers more about the meaning of the study and its importance. It should be well-written and organized to make it easier to read and understand.

Importance of Thesis Discussion

A discussion in thesis writing is a section that includes the interpretations and declaration of the writer’s opinions. It’s also the section where the writer explains the effects of their findings while making predictions and suggestions for future research. Here are some of the major reasons why the discussion section is important:

  • It answers the questions posed in the thesis introduction
  • It shows how the results of your research supported the answers to these questions
  • It explains how those answers fit in the existing knowledge body about your research subject

A Ph.D. thesis discussion chapter can be maybe considered very important. Therefore, you might have to make several attempts when writing this chapter. Our thesis writers can help you out if you got stuck.

How to Write a Discussion Chapter in a Thesis

There are different ways of writing discussion for thesis. But, this chapter should start with the reiteration of the research problem and a summary of the major findings. All reported data should not be repeated in this section. However, the section should include a statement of the results that answers the research question. This introduction should not exceed a paragraph.

When writing a discussion, make sure that the introduction of your discussion chapter in thesis tells the readers what the results indicate or demonstrate. You can also tell your readers what the findings suggest or whether they support a certain theory. The discussion section of a thesis should essentially be focused on the following key elements.
  • Identify patterns, correlations, and relationships of the data
  • Discuss whether the findings supported the expectations you had or your hypothesis
  • Contextualize the results within the existing theory or research
  • Consider alternative explanations while arguing for your stance
  • Explain the unexpected results and evaluate their significance
  • Do your findings agree with the previous research and what addition do they have?
  • Are your results different from those of previous studies and if so, why?
  • Do the findings challenge or support the existing theories?
  • What are the practical implications of your study?
The methodologies and research design that you use can cause limitations to your study. Unanticipated obstacles can also limit your study. Nevertheless, mention limitations only if they have direct relevance to the objectives of your research. Also, evaluate the impact of those limitations on the achievement of your research goals.

Good results and discussion thesis example can highlight a limited or small sample size as a limitation. This is a relevant limitation because it hinders the generalization of the findings.

Similarly, a discussion section can explain the problems encountered when analyzing or gathering data and how this influenced the findings. The effects of possible confounding variables that can’t be controlled should also be acknowledged in this section.

  • Recommendations In some cases, the results and discussion sample thesis can feature recommendations for further research or practical implementation. However, there are cases where recommendations are featured in the conclusion.But, you can suggest further research immediately after stating the limitations of your study and their impact. Instead of just stating that further research is necessary, provide concrete ideas for future work. Show the readers how future studies can be built on the areas that your study couldn’t address.

What to Discuss in Discussion Thesis Chapter

Many learners want to know how to write discussion chapter in Ph.D. thesis because they don’t know what to discuss. Some learners are even confused between the discussion and conclusion chapters of a thesis. But, these chapters are different and they should have varying content.

Here’s what the discussion chapter should cover:

Interpretation of the research results Comparison of the results with those of the previous studies Contributions of your research to the existing knowledge body Limitations of the study Unexpected results How the results support or refute a certain theory or findings of the previous studies

On the other hand, a conclusion should mainly restate the hypothesis and the most important results. It should also highlight the limitations and significance of the study while suggesting a future direction.

How to Make Your Discussion More Effective? Avoid These Things!

Your discussion chapter should look like an inverted pyramid. Ideally, you should start from a general perspective and then narrow down to the specifics. But, make sure that your findings are linked to the literature, theory, and practice if possible. However, many learners don’t know how to do this. This is one of the major reasons why they want to learn how to write discussion thesis section.

For even better discussions, follow these tips to help with dissertation or thesis and to make it the best it can be:

  • Restating your findings If you must remind your readers of the results of your study, use bridge sentences. For instance, tell your readers what a certain finding suggests instead of just re-stating it.
  • Repeating recommendations Do not include recommendations in both the discussion and the conclusion parts of your paper. Instead, include recommendations either in the conclusion or discussion section of your thesis.
  • Introducing new results Be careful to avoid introducing new results or information when trying to interpret a finding.
  • Over-using first person This is one of the most important things to note when learning how to write a thesis discussion. You can use the first person in your thesis. However, using it excessively will distract your readers from your major points.

Learning how to write discussion section of thesis can make all the difference in terms of the grade that you graduate with from college or university. Stylistically, this section should read like bulleted points that have been written in paragraph form. Subheadings can be used if that makes sense. And, the length of this section should also depend on the scope of the study.

Get Thesis Discussion Help Right Now

Now that you got all the rules, you have to write your thesis discussion. It might take awhile, and perhaps you have a lot of other things to take care of. Let us help you! Our professional custom dissertation services include some of the best writers in the biz. They are experts in their respective fields and help you succeed in your thesis writing. Research, editing, writing, whatever you might need, we can help you.

tertiary source

Make PhD experience your own

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Grad Coach (R)

What’s Included: Discussion Template

This template covers all the core components required in the discussion/analysis chapter of a typical dissertation or thesis, including:

  • The opening/overview section
  • Overview of key findings
  • Interpretation of the findings
  • Concluding summary

The purpose of each section is explained in plain language, followed by an overview of the key elements that you need to cover. The template also includes practical examples to help you understand exactly what’s required, along with links to additional free resources (articles, videos, etc.) to help you along your research journey.

The cleanly formatted Google Doc can be downloaded as a fully editable MS Word Document (DOCX format), so you can use it as-is or convert it to LaTeX.

PS – if you’d like a high-level template for the entire thesis, you can we’ve got that too .

FAQ: Thesis Discussion Template

What types of dissertations/theses can this template be used for.

The discussion chapter template follows the standard format for academic research projects, which means it will be suitable for the majority of dissertations, theses and research projects (especially those within the sciences).

Keep in mind that the exact requirements for the discussion chapter/section will vary between universities and degree programs. For example, your university may require that the discussion chapter and conclusion chapter are merged into one, or that the results and discussion are covered together (this is often the case with qualitative research). So, be sure to double-check your university’s requirements before you finalise your structure.

Is this template for an undergrad, Master or PhD-level thesis?

This template can be used for a dissertation, thesis or research project at any level of study. Doctoral-level projects typically require the discussion chapter to be more extensive/comprehensive, but the structure will typically remain the same. Again, be sure to check your university’s requirements and norms in terms of document structure.

How long should the discussion chapter be?

This can vary a fair deal, depending on the level of study (undergrad, Master or Doctoral), the field of research, as well as your university’s specific requirements. Therefore, it’s best to check with your university or review past dissertations from your program to get an accurate estimate.

Can I share this template with my friends/colleagues?

Yes, you’re welcome to share this template in its original format (no editing allowed). If you want to post about it on your blog or social media, please reference this page as your source.

What format is the template (DOC, PDF, PPT, etc.)?

The dissertation discussion chapter template is provided as a Google Doc. You can download it in MS Word format or make a copy to your Google Drive. You’re also welcome to convert it to whatever format works best for you, such as LaTeX or PDF.

Do you have templates for the other chapters?

Yes, we do. We are constantly developing our collection of free resources to help students complete their dissertations and theses. You can view all of our template resources here .

Can Grad Coach help me with my discussion/analysis?

Yes, we can provide coaching-based assistance with your discussion chapter (or any other chapter). If you’re interested, get in touch to discuss our private coaching services .

Free Webinar: Research Methodology 101

  • Translators
  • Graphic Designers
  • Editing Services
  • Academic Editing Services
  • Admissions Editing Services
  • Admissions Essay Editing Services
  • AI Content Editing Services
  • APA Style Editing Services
  • Application Essay Editing Services
  • Book Editing Services
  • Business Editing Services
  • Capstone Paper Editing Services
  • Children's Book Editing Services
  • College Application Editing Services
  • College Essay Editing Services
  • Copy Editing Services
  • Developmental Editing Services
  • Dissertation Editing Services
  • eBook Editing Services
  • English Editing Services
  • Horror Story Editing Services
  • Legal Editing Services
  • Line Editing Services
  • Manuscript Editing Services
  • MLA Style Editing Services
  • Novel Editing Services
  • Paper Editing Services
  • Personal Statement Editing Services
  • Research Paper Editing Services
  • Résumé Editing Services
  • Scientific Editing Services
  • Short Story Editing Services
  • Statement of Purpose Editing Services
  • Substantive Editing Services
  • Thesis Editing Services

Proofreading

  • Proofreading Services
  • Admissions Essay Proofreading Services
  • Children's Book Proofreading Services
  • Legal Proofreading Services
  • Novel Proofreading Services
  • Personal Statement Proofreading Services
  • Research Proposal Proofreading Services
  • Statement of Purpose Proofreading Services

Translation

  • Translation Services

Graphic Design

  • Graphic Design Services
  • Dungeons & Dragons Design Services
  • Sticker Design Services
  • Writing Services

Solve

Please enter the email address you used for your account. Your sign in information will be sent to your email address after it has been verified.

How to Write an Effective Thesis Discussion

ScienceEditor

Writing an effective thesis discussion can be challenging because it is so open ended. The purpose of the discussion is to (1) interpret your results, (2) discuss the significance of your results, (3) place your work in the context of previous work, (4) discuss the limitations of your study, and (5) suggest next steps to advance understanding and/or to improve real-world situations. The discussion section should expand upon ideas presented in the introduction, literature review, and results, and sometimes even the materials and methods. It should convince the reader that your work was worthwhile.

General considerations

Throughout a thesis or other scholarly manuscript, the results of completed studies should be described in the past tense (e.g. "36 of 43 patients showed improvement with treatment A, while only 25 of 44 patients showed improvement with treatment B"). In contrast, present tense is used to describe ideas that currently appear to be true based on available evidence (e.g. "treatment A is more effective than treatment B for most patients"). A good thesis discussion will typically progress from discussing specific results to discussing broader concepts that currently appear to be true.

You should include citations and modifying statements as needed (e.g. "Previous work by Lee et al. (2017) found no difference in the effectiveness of treatment A compared to treatment B. However , their study was limited to patients in advanced stages of the disease."). You will also need to include suggestions for further research, which can be described in present tense (e.g. "Additional studies are needed to determine. . .") or future tense (e.g. "Future studies will determine . . .").

I will now move into more detailed suggestions for each part of the discussion. Notice the occasional use of first-person pronouns (e.g. "I suggest. . ." or "We believe. . ."), which is now generally acceptable in many fields if used sparingly. Check the specific guidelines provided by your graduate program (and target journal). Also notice the use of subheadings to break the text into shorter sections on specific topics, which is recommended for any long manuscript.

Discussion part 1: Interpret your results

Your discussion should relate directly to the research question(s) you presented in the introduction, so a good way to start the discussion is to clearly restate your research question(s) (e.g. "The current study aimed to determine whether treatment A or treatment B was better for patients with condition X.") The discussion section follows the results section, so the next obvious step is to state what you can conclude from your results (e.g. "We found that a higher percentage of patients showed improvement with treatment A than with treatment B, and therefore conclude that treatment A is more effective than treatment B for most patients with condition X").

There are two general strategies for structuring the discussion of results. The first strategy is to discuss the results in the same order as they were presented in the results section. Alternatively, you can discuss your most interesting or surprising results first. This second strategy is most effective when the results are especially novel. As with any manuscript, the goal is to keep your reader engaged.

In some fields, the thesis discussion is expected to include comments on all of the results, even minor results that may not be statistically significant (e.g. "Treatments C, D, and E produced results that were statistically indistinguishable from placebo, leading to the conclusion that they were ineffective at the concentrations tested."). Note that you should not just state the results (e.g. "Treatments C, D, and E produced results that were statistically indistinguishable from placebo"), but should also state a conclusion (e.g. "they were ineffective at the concentrations tested").

In some other fields, brief comments on minor results are typically included in the results section, and the discussion section is used to elaborate on the most noteworthy results. In some cases, it may be appropriate to write a combined "results and discussion" section, where results are presented alongside initial conclusions, and broader implications are discussed toward the end. Check the requirements for your graduate program (and target journal).

Discussion part 2: Discuss the significance of your results

Clearly explain what is gained from your research. Sometimes a study is very significant (e.g. These results are among the first to show that treatment A is more effective than treatment B for condition X."). Other times—especially for undergraduate or master's theses based on a few months of data collection—the results primarily provide information about what doesn't work (e.g. "These results indicate that treatments C, D, and E are ineffective at physiologically relevant concentrations.)

Discuss some of the possibilities that your research opens up (e.g. "These results raise the possibility that early treatment could improve daily life for patients with mild cases of condition X, and might even delay disease progression.) but do not overstate (e.g. "These results prove that early treatment will improve daily life for patients with mild cases of condition X, and will delay disease progression."). Be optimistic but realistic, whether your results are highly significant or not (e.g. "These results suggest that the solubility of molecules like C, D, and E need to be improved before they can be effective.").

Discussing the significance of your results (part 2 of this essay) is a natural extension of discussing what your results mean (part 1 in this essay), and may not require a separate section.

Discussion part 3: Place your work in the context of previous work

Put your work into a broader context. Here you should revisit some of the previously published work that was described in your introduction and literature review, and clarify how your work expands upon or challenges that work. Most importantly, you should discuss how your work advances understanding in your research field.

For a thesis based on disappointing data, your ability to effectively discuss previous work and potential future work can support the argument that you have developed the necessary skills to move forward in research. These skills are further demonstrated by many other aspects of a well-researched and well-written thesis.

In some cases, your results may reveal unexpected connections. This may require you to discuss additional bodies of work in the discussion section, which can become a second literature review section. As you may be starting to see, there are many different topics you can include in your discussion section. You need to choose your topics carefully, and cover them in sufficient but not overwhelming detail. You want your discussion to cover all essential information, remain a manageable length, and retain the reader's interest. All of the different possibilities can make writing your discussion section very challenging.

If your results contradict previous work, you need to provide some possible explanations. As a rationale scholar, it is especially important to consider all reasonable options. It could be that (1) the earlier work was flawed, incomplete, or not exactly comparable to your work, or (2) your work is flawed, incomplete, or not exactly comparable to the earlier work. You might not be able to determine the exact cause of the discrepancy, but contradictions provide an obvious way to transition into the next section.

Discussion part 4: Discuss the limitations of your study

Every study has limitations, and here you should discuss the major limitations of your research. What can't the results tell us? In what situations are the findings not relevant or well supported? There may be limitations due to your sample population, experimental techniques, data analysis, etc. Discuss these limitations honestly, but then explain why your study is useful despite these limitations. You might point out that your study included multiple different populations, different experimental techniques, alternative methods of data analysis, etc. You might also emphasize that your conclusions are limited to a subset of a larger population, and that additional work needs to be done to determine whether the same conclusions apply to a larger population. This brings us to our next point.

Discussion part 5: Suggest next steps to advance understanding and/or to improve real-world situations

Once you've placed your work into a broader context, you can imagine the future possibilities. Here you might discuss questions that remain to be answered, or questions that have been newly raised by your work. There might be specific studies that would be an obvious extension of your work, and/or exploratory studies that would shed light on promising areas for novel research. Alternatively, you might suggest ways in which your research could be applied to real-world situations to improve outcomes.

Many manuscripts and presentations end with a discussion of possible next steps. I tend to like this type of ending for discussions of basic research, such as which genes are activated in which cells. However, other people recommend always ending with conclusions, where you restate the main findings of your research in a compact form. This might involve a separate "conclusions" section or as a final paragraph in the "discussion" section. Ending with conclusions makes a lot of sense for studies that might directly impact real-world situations (e.g. Treatment A it more effective than treatment B for condition X.).

In any event, you should follow departmental recommendations, and end with a compelling and memorable message for your readers.

Related Posts

How To Write a Strong Research Hypothesis

How To Write a Strong Research Hypothesis

Here's What You Need to Know About Reliability and Validity

Here's What You Need to Know About Reliability and Validity

  • Academic Writing Advice
  • All Blog Posts
  • Writing Advice
  • Admissions Writing Advice
  • Book Writing Advice
  • Short Story Advice
  • Employment Writing Advice
  • Business Writing Advice
  • Web Content Advice
  • Article Writing Advice
  • Magazine Writing Advice
  • Grammar Advice
  • Dialect Advice
  • Editing Advice
  • Freelance Advice
  • Legal Writing Advice
  • Poetry Advice
  • Graphic Design Advice
  • Logo Design Advice
  • Translation Advice
  • Blog Reviews
  • Short Story Award Winners
  • Scholarship Winners

Need an academic editor before submitting your work?

Need an academic editor before submitting your work?

  • USC Libraries
  • Research Guides

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  • 8. The Discussion
  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Reading Research Effectively
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Research Process Video Series
  • Executive Summary
  • The C.A.R.S. Model
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tiertiary Sources
  • Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Insiderness
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Writing Concisely
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • USC Libraries Tutorials and Other Guides
  • Bibliography

The purpose of the discussion section is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in relation to what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your research. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explains how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research.

Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674.

Importance of a Good Discussion

The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because it:

  • Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation;
  • Presents the underlying meaning of your research, notes possible implications in other areas of study, and explores possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research;
  • Highlights the importance of your study and how it can contribute to understanding the research problem within the field of study;
  • Presents how the findings from your study revealed and helped fill gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described; and,
  • Engages the reader in thinking critically about issues based on an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information.

Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674; Bitchener, John and Helen Basturkmen. “Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (January 2006): 4-18; Kretchmer, Paul. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Rules

These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results :

  • Do not be verbose or repetitive; be concise and make your points clearly
  • Avoid the use of jargon or undefined technical language
  • Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or a finding that can grab the reader's attention]
  • Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense
  • If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes

II.  The Content

The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes :

  • Explanation of results : Comment on whether or not the results were expected for each set of findings; go into greater depth to explain findings that were unexpected or especially profound. If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in relation to the research problem.
  • References to previous research : Either compare your results with the findings from other studies or use the studies to support a claim. This can include re-visiting key sources already cited in your literature review section, or, save them to cite later in the discussion section if they are more important to compare with your results instead of being a part of the general literature review of prior research used to provide context and background information. Note that you can make this decision to highlight specific studies after you have begun writing the discussion section.
  • Deduction : A claim for how the results can be applied more generally. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a situation, or highlighting best practices.
  • Hypothesis : A more general claim or possible conclusion arising from the results [which may be proved or disproved in subsequent research]. This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a consequence of your analysis.

III.  Organization and Structure

Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper:

  • Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate].
  • Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction.
  • Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction.
  • Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix].
  • Regardless of where it's mentioned, a good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each of them in the order they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings.
  • Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses if you do not plan to do so in the conclusion of the paper. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of your findings. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical [e.g., in retrospect, had you included a particular question in a survey instrument, additional data could have been revealed].
  • The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of their significance. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. This would demonstrate to the reader that you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data.

IV.  Overall Objectives

The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: I.  Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings

Briefly reiterate the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph.

II.  Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important

No one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think critically about the results and why they are important. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings presented in the results section.

III.  Relate the Findings to Similar Studies

No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. IV.  Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings

It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove . When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings.

V.  Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations

It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Note any unanswered questions or issues your study could not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. VI.  Make Suggestions for Further Research

You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [as opposed to offering suggestions in the conclusion of your paper]. Although your study can offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight hidden issues that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the limitations of your study [e.g., in future studies, the survey instrument should include more questions that ask..."] or linking to critical issues revealed from the data that were not considered initially in your research.

NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section . A few historical references may be helpful for perspective, but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results, to support the significance of a finding, and/or to place a finding within a particular context. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs.

V.  Problems to Avoid

  • Do not waste time restating your results . Should you need to remind the reader of a finding to be discussed, use "bridge sentences" that relate the result to the interpretation. An example would be: “In the case of determining available housing to single women with children in rural areas of Texas, the findings suggest that access to good schools is important...," then move on to further explaining this finding and its implications.
  • As noted, recommendations for further research can be included in either the discussion or conclusion of your paper, but do not repeat your recommendations in the both sections. Think about the overall narrative flow of your paper to determine where best to locate this information. However, if your findings raise a lot of new questions or issues, consider including suggestions for further research in the discussion section.
  • Do not introduce new results in the discussion section. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a specific finding for an interpretation because it may confuse the reader. The description of findings [results section] and the interpretation of their significance [discussion section] should be distinct parts of your paper. If you choose to combine the results section and the discussion section into a single narrative, you must be clear in how you report the information discovered and your own interpretation of each finding. This approach is not recommended if you lack experience writing college-level research papers.
  • Use of the first person pronoun is generally acceptable. Using first person singular pronouns can help emphasize a point or illustrate a contrasting finding. However, keep in mind that too much use of the first person can actually distract the reader from the main points [i.e., I know you're telling me this--just tell me!].

Analyzing vs. Summarizing. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University; Discussion. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. "How to Write an Effective Discussion." Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Sauaia, A. et al. "The Anatomy of an Article: The Discussion Section: "How Does the Article I Read Today Change What I Will Recommend to my Patients Tomorrow?” The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 74 (June 2013): 1599-1602; Research Limitations & Future Research . Lund Research Ltd., 2012; Summary: Using it Wisely. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide . Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009.

Writing Tip

Don’t Over-Interpret the Results!

Interpretation is a subjective exercise. As such, you should always approach the selection and interpretation of your findings introspectively and to think critically about the possibility of judgmental biases unintentionally entering into discussions about the significance of your work. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less.

MacCoun, Robert J. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results." Annual Review of Psychology 49 (February 1998): 259-287.

Another Writing Tip

Don't Write Two Results Sections!

One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretation of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself.

Azar, Beth. "Discussing Your Findings."  American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006).

Yet Another Writing Tip

Avoid Unwarranted Speculation!

The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. For example, if the purpose of your research was to measure the impact of foreign aid on increasing access to education among disadvantaged children in Bangladesh, it would not be appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim or if analysis of other countries was not a part of your original research design. If you feel compelled to speculate, do so in the form of describing possible implications or explaining possible impacts. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand your discussion of the results in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your effort to interpret the data in relation to the research problem.

  • << Previous: Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Next: Limitations of the Study >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 8, 2024 1:57 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide
  • Write my thesis
  • Thesis writers
  • Buy thesis papers
  • Bachelor thesis
  • Master's thesis
  • Thesis editing services
  • Thesis proofreading services
  • Buy a thesis online
  • Write my dissertation
  • Dissertation proposal help
  • Pay for dissertation
  • Custom dissertation
  • Dissertation help online
  • Buy dissertation online
  • Cheap dissertation
  • Dissertation editing services
  • Write my research paper
  • Buy research paper online
  • Pay for research paper
  • Research paper help
  • Order research paper
  • Custom research paper
  • Cheap research paper
  • Research papers for sale
  • Thesis subjects
  • How It Works

How To Write A Thesis Discussion Chapter

thesis discussion

Did you just realize you need to work a bit more on your thesis and write something called a “thesis discussion” chapter? We know most students don’t know what this is or why it is important. After all, you are not an expert academic writer. This is probably the first time you’re writing a thesis. To avoid being penalized and make sure you understand what the thesis discussion chapter is, we have put together this blog post.

We will explain what this chapter is and why it is useful. We will also show you a step-by-step guide on how to write the best possible master’s thesis discussion section. And if you need an example or some help with this section, don’t skip the end of the article.

What Is a Thesis Discussion Chapter?

Let’s start from the beginning. What is the master’s or Ph.D. thesis discussion chapter? This section is often one of the most difficult to write. It’s not because it should be too long, but because you need to present your findings in great detail and support your arguments with accurate scientific data.

In other words, the discussion section of a thesis should be like a very detailed presentation of your findings; a presentation that both explains and interprets the results of your research.

In many cases, you need to put your findings in context, taking into consideration previous research . You could also make some suggestions related to future research. Yes, this sounds like a very complicated thing to do. However, it’s not that difficult to write results and discussions in the thesis.

Why Is the Discussion Chapter of a Thesis Important?

A discussion in thesis writing is the section that comes after the Results section. There is a reason why it’s placed there. While you may be able to discuss your findings in the Results section in some cases, most often you have to discuss them in a completely separate section. Also, some universities require you to place your recommendations in a separate section, so be sure to check the guidelines of your school.

If you want to know why the discussion chapter in the thesis is so important (and so difficult to write), here are some of the most important benefits of writing this section perfectly:

  • You show the thesis committee that you’ve understood the results of your study or experiments. Of course, this means you didn’t simply copy the paper, or parts of the paper, from somewhere.
  • The discussion section clearly explains what your findings mean, how you got them, and how well they are supported by scientific evidence. By explaining your findings, even a person with no previous industry experience can understand what the results mean and why they are important.
  • Academics may not trust your data or your results. The discussion in a thesis shows everyone how the data was collected. Also, this section is used to shed more light on your findings and show your readers how your research fills the knowledge gap.

However, we are certain you want to know the most important reason why you should dedicate ample time to writing this section. Well, the main reason is the grade you get on your work. As we’ve said previously, the discussion chapter is very important. Be careful when writing a discussion for a thesis because you can lose valuable points if you don’t do a great job.

Learn How to Write a Discussion Chapter in a Thesis

We know that you want to learn how to write a discussion chapter in a thesis; and that you want to learn how to write this section as fast as possible. Because writing the discussion section is such a difficult task, you should dedicate a lot of time to it. And remember, if you need help with the discussion chapter, you can always count on our seasoned academic writers for some professional help. Let’s show you how to write a thesis discussion in just a couple of steps:

  • The first thing you need to do is summarize the key findings. For this, you need to read your Results section carefully and write down the most important data.
  • Use the findings you’ve identified in step 1 to write a phrase or two that present the results and that answer the research question of your thesis. You can start the discussion chapter of a thesis with something like “The data obtained suggest that … [answer to research question]”.
  • Write several paragraphs, each discussing and interpreting one single finding. You can identify correlations, put your findings in context, discuss previous research, discuss alternative explanations, and even talk about how your findings support or refute your hypotheses.
  • The next paragraph of the discussion in the thesis should discuss the implications of your findings and nothing else. What are the practical applications of your findings? Do your findings meet your expectations? Do they support your hypotheses? How are the results of your study different from other studies?
  • If you know of some limitations, you need to discuss them as well. Use a new paragraph for this. What are the limitations of your research methods? Were there any obstacles you couldn’t overcome? Don’t talk about errors, just about limitations.
  • The final paragraph, which acts as a conclusion, is used to present your recommendations. You can suggest that further research is needed or show your readers how your findings can be implemented in real life. If you recommend future research, be very specific. What exactly needs to be researched further so that the knowledge gap is filled?

Getting a Great Results and Discussion Thesis Example

If you were wondering what to discuss in the discussion thesis, the steps above already provide all the information you need. We are also very confident the quick guide above managed to show you how to write the discussion section of the thesis. All that is left now is to show you how you can get maximum points on your thesis discussion section. Don’t worry, you don’t have to rewrite it or send it to use for editing.

You just need a great results and discussion thesis example. Yes, this should be everything you need to get the maximum points. Why? Because an example shows you exactly how to properly structure your writing. It shows you how each paragraph should look like and what it should contain. You probably already know that following a great example is much easier than trying to do something all by yourself.

Unfortunately, it’s not enough to know how to write a discussion thesis. You need a great example. We know the first thing you will try to do is go online and search for this on Google. You will get plenty of results, of course. However, please note that most of these “samples” are very poorly written. Most of them are plagiarized and over 90% are written in a way that your professor would strongly disapprove of. And of course, you are unable to use any of the text because that would constitute plagiarism.

We Can Help You Today

Now that we’ve shown you how to write a discussion chapter in your Ph.D. thesis, we are happy to give you some more good news. You can get 100% original results and discussion sample thesis from our expert academic writers. Yes, our thesis writers will write the discussion section for you as quickly as possible. All we need is some information about the methods you’ve used and the results of your research.

You can use our perfectly written (and proofread) sample to get some great ideas, or you can include it in your thesis. After all, you are free to use the sample as you see fit. What we can guarantee is that you will get very good points in your thesis discussion chapter.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

How do I start my discussion chapter?

discussion section master thesis

If you are feeling anxious about the discussion section rest assured you are not alone . It’s an issue that comes up time and time again in my workshops. There’s no one answer that can help everyone because every project is original, so I thought I would offer a few thoughts on it by way of starting a conversation.

Evans, Gruba and Zobel, in their book “How to Write a Better Thesis” , describe the discussion chapter as the place where you:

“… critically examine your findings in the light of the previous state of the subject as outlined in the background, and make judgments as to what has been learnt in your work”

Essentially the discussion chapter tells your reader what your findings might mean, how valuable they are and why. I remember struggling with this section myself and, looking back, I believe there were two sources of anxiety.

The first is scholarly confidence . At the University of Melbourne we used to talk about how a good thesis has a ‘ Ph Factor’ . The Ph factor is somewhat elusive and hard to describe, but basically it means you have to make some knowledge claims. You need to have the confidence to say something is ‘true’ (at least, without getting too post modern about it, true within the confines of your thesis). This can feel risky because, if you have been approaching the thesis in the right spirit, you are likely to be experiencing Doubt.

The second source of anxiety is the need to think creatively. Most of the rest of the thesis asks us to think analytically; or, if you are in a practice based discipline, to make stuff; or perhaps, if you are an ethnographer, to observe the world in some way. Creative thinking involves your imagination , which means you have to switch gears mentally.

So the problem of the discussion chapter is a problem of creative thinking and confidence, but there are some stylistic conventions and knowledge issues that complicate the task. Every thesis needs to have discussion like elements, but they may do it in different ways.

In a conventional thesis, what we call the IMRAD type (introduction, methods, results, discussion and conclusion) the discussion chapter appears a discrete chapter. Before you worry about the discussion chapter too much, consider whether you need to treat the discussion as a separate section at all. You need to keep in mind that the IMRAD structure is best used to write up empirical research work (the type where you collect data of some kind).

In the past I have referred to the IMRAD formula as the ‘dead hand of the thesis genre’ ; a phrase I picked up from my colleague Dr Robyn Barnacle. It’s a dead hand because of the role it plays in the imagination of the research community throughout the world. The IMRAD formula is the most widely understood format because it is the type most widely described in the ‘how to’ genre and has a close and abiding relationship to the scientific method. Many students try to make their research fit into the IMRAD format, when it is not appropriate to do so.

I can be easy to feel ‘blocked’ if you are a non scientist trying to separate out the discussion from the rest of what you are writing. Remember there are many ways to skin the discussion cat . For example, an artist may discuss each project and what it means separately. An ethnographer might devote a chapter to each theory they have built from observation. Likewise a historian may break the thesis up into time periods and do critique and evaluation throughout the whole.

So I have diagnosed some of the problems, are there any easy solutions? Well, the best way to start in my view is just to write, but perhaps start to write without the specific purpose of the discussion chapter in mind. Write to try and work out what you think and then re-write it later.

You can use a couple of basic techniques to help you with this process:

  •  Try the old ‘compare and contrast’ technique. Draw up a table describing where your work is similar to others and where it differs. Use each of these points as a prompt to write a short paragraph on why.
  • Use the “The big machine” trick as suggested by Howard Becker in his book ‘tricks of the trade’ (now only $3.99 on Kindle? Bargain!). Pretend your results are produced by a machine then describe the machine. How would the machine work? What would it look like? What parts would it need? What might make the machine break?
  • Another useful suggestion from Howard Becker is the null hypothesis technique; write down why the results mean nothing. Sometimes forcing yourself to argue the reverse position can highlight the relationships or ideas worth exploring.
  • Sometimes having an audience can help. Explain the results to a friend and record yourself, or use voice recognition software to tell your computer some of your preliminary thoughts. Many people find talking an easier way to get ideas out. Alternatively write them in an email to someone.
  • Explain the limitations of the work: what is left out or yet to do? Sometimes, like the null hypothesis, talking about the limitations can help you better define the contribution your study has made.

I hope some of these suggestions help to get you started. Do you have any more? Are there ‘tricks’ you have used to help you get your creative juices flowing?

Related Posts

The Dead Hand of the Thesis Genre ?

Ambivalence: can it help with your PhD?

Love the Thesis whisperer and want it to continue? Consider becoming a $1 a month Patreon and get special, Patreon only, extra Thesiswhisperer content every two weeks!

Share this:

The Thesis Whisperer is written by Professor Inger Mewburn, director of researcher development at The Australian National University . New posts on the first Wednesday of the month. Subscribe by email below. Visit the About page to find out more about me, my podcasts and books. I'm on most social media platforms as @thesiswhisperer. The best places to talk to me are LinkedIn , Mastodon and Threads.

Search over 600,000 words of Thesis Whisperer content

Whisper to me.....

Enter your email address to get posts by email.

Email Address

Sign me up!

  • On the reg: a podcast with @jasondowns
  • Thesis Whisperer on Facebook
  • Thesis Whisperer on Instagram
  • Thesis Whisperer on Soundcloud
  • Thesis Whisperer on Youtube
  • Thesiswhisperer on Mastodon
  • Thesiswhisperer page on LinkedIn
  • Thesiswhisperer Podcast
  • 12,018,187 hits

Discover more from The Thesis Whisperer

Subscribe now to keep reading and get access to the full archive.

Type your email…

Continue reading

SkillsYouNeed

  • LEARNING SKILLS
  • Writing a Dissertation or Thesis
  • Results and Discussion

Search SkillsYouNeed:

Learning Skills:

  • A - Z List of Learning Skills
  • What is Learning?
  • Learning Approaches
  • Learning Styles
  • 8 Types of Learning Styles
  • Understanding Your Preferences to Aid Learning
  • Lifelong Learning
  • Decisions to Make Before Applying to University
  • Top Tips for Surviving Student Life
  • Living Online: Education and Learning
  • 8 Ways to Embrace Technology-Based Learning Approaches
  • Critical Thinking Skills
  • Critical Thinking and Fake News
  • Understanding and Addressing Conspiracy Theories
  • Critical Analysis
  • Study Skills
  • Exam Skills
  • How to Write a Research Proposal
  • Ethical Issues in Research
  • Dissertation: The Introduction
  • Researching and Writing a Literature Review
  • Writing your Methodology
  • Dissertation: Results and Discussion
  • Dissertation: Conclusions and Extras

Writing Your Dissertation or Thesis eBook

Writing a Dissertation or Thesis

Part of the Skills You Need Guide for Students .

  • Research Methods
  • Teaching, Coaching, Mentoring and Counselling
  • Employability Skills for Graduates

Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day.

You'll get our 5 free 'One Minute Life Skills' and our weekly newsletter.

We'll never share your email address and you can unsubscribe at any time.

Writing your Dissertation:  Results and Discussion

When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write.

You may choose to write these sections separately, or combine them into a single chapter, depending on your university’s guidelines and your own preferences.

There are advantages to both approaches.

Writing the results and discussion as separate sections allows you to focus first on what results you obtained and set out clearly what happened in your experiments and/or investigations without worrying about their implications.This can focus your mind on what the results actually show and help you to sort them in your head.

However, many people find it easier to combine the results with their implications as the two are closely connected.

Check your university’s requirements carefully before combining the results and discussions sections as some specify that they must be kept separate.

Results Section

The Results section should set out your key experimental results, including any statistical analysis and whether or not the results of these are significant.

You should cover any literature supporting your interpretation of significance. It does not have to include everything you did, particularly for a doctorate dissertation. However, for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably find that you need to include most of your work.

You should write your results section in the past tense: you are describing what you have done in the past.

Every result included MUST have a method set out in the methods section. Check back to make sure that you have included all the relevant methods.

Conversely, every method should also have some results given so, if you choose to exclude certain experiments from the results, make sure that you remove mention of the method as well.

If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your research questions and decide whether the results are relevant to them. It doesn’t matter whether they are supportive or not, it’s about relevance. If they are relevant, you should include them.

Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use. You could choose chronological, which should follow the methods, or in order from most to least important in the answering of your research questions, or by research question and/or hypothesis.

You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text. Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer.

Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title. Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. If you have more than about two or three, it’s often helpful to provide lists of tables and figures alongside the table of contents at the start of your dissertation.

Summarise your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points.

The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. Any that you don’t feel the need to refer to can safely be moved to an appendix, or even removed.

Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate. Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits.

While you don’t need to include all your primary evidence in this section, you should as a matter of good practice make it available in an appendix, to which you should refer at the relevant point.

For example:

Details of all the interview participants can be found in Appendix A, with transcripts of each interview in Appendix B.

You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. This discussion should evaluate the quality of the results and their reliability, but not stray too far into discussion of how far your results support your hypothesis and/or answer your research questions, as that is for the discussion section.

See our pages: Analysing Qualitative Data and Simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results.

Discussion Section

This section has four purposes, it should:

  • Interpret and explain your results
  • Answer your research question
  • Justify your approach
  • Critically evaluate your study

The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject.

You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. This section should be written in the present tense.

The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review . Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section.

Some universities require a separate section on recommendations for policy and practice and/or for future research, while others allow you to include this in your discussion, so check the guidelines carefully.

Starting the Task

Most people are likely to write this section best by preparing an outline, setting out the broad thrust of the argument, and how your results support it.

You may find techniques like mind mapping are helpful in making a first outline; check out our page: Creative Thinking for some ideas about how to think through your ideas. You should start by referring back to your research questions, discuss your results, then set them into the context of the literature, and then into broader theory.

This is likely to be one of the longest sections of your dissertation, and it’s a good idea to break it down into chunks with sub-headings to help your reader to navigate through the detail.

Fleshing Out the Detail

Once you have your outline in front of you, you can start to map out how your results fit into the outline.

This will help you to see whether your results are over-focused in one area, which is why writing up your research as you go along can be a helpful process. For each theme or area, you should discuss how the results help to answer your research question, and whether the results are consistent with your expectations and the literature.

The Importance of Understanding Differences

If your results are controversial and/or unexpected, you should set them fully in context and explain why you think that you obtained them.

Your explanations may include issues such as a non-representative sample for convenience purposes, a response rate skewed towards those with a particular experience, or your own involvement as a participant for sociological research.

You do not need to be apologetic about these, because you made a choice about them, which you should have justified in the methodology section. However, you do need to evaluate your own results against others’ findings, especially if they are different. A full understanding of the limitations of your research is part of a good discussion section.

At this stage, you may want to revisit your literature review, unless you submitted it as a separate submission earlier, and revise it to draw out those studies which have proven more relevant.

Conclude by summarising the implications of your findings in brief, and explain why they are important for researchers and in practice, and provide some suggestions for further work.

You may also wish to make some recommendations for practice. As before, this may be a separate section, or included in your discussion.

The results and discussion, including conclusion and recommendations, are probably the most substantial sections of your dissertation. Once completed, you can begin to relax slightly: you are on to the last stages of writing!

Continue to: Dissertation: Conclusion and Extras Writing your Methodology

See also: Writing a Literature Review Writing a Research Proposal Academic Referencing What Is the Importance of Using a Plagiarism Checker to Check Your Thesis?

  • Jump to menu
  • Student Home
  • Accept your offer
  • How to enrol
  • Student ID card
  • Set up your IT
  • Orientation Week
  • Fees & payment
  • Academic calendar
  • Special consideration
  • Transcripts
  • The Nucleus: Student Hub
  • Referencing
  • Essay writing
  • Learning abroad & exchange
  • Professional development & UNSW Advantage
  • Employability
  • Financial assistance
  • International students
  • Equitable learning
  • Postgraduate research
  • Health Service
  • Events & activities
  • Emergencies
  • Volunteering
  • Clubs and societies
  • Accommodation
  • Health services
  • Sport and gym
  • Arc student organisation
  • Security on campus
  • Maps of campus
  • Careers portal
  • Change password

Discussions

discussion section master thesis

Click circle for answer...

So, you've got most or all of your results, and now you have to discuss them, which is why this section is called the Discussion. It is also the most important section of your thesis, because it is where you give meaning to your results. This is probably why many students struggle when it comes to writing their Discussion.

On these pages, you'll find answers to some of the questions you may have been asking yourself (or your friends, or your supervisor), as well as some examples of Discussion sections from past theses. We've also included some suggestions from the experts about how to start writing your discussion.

1) What does your discussion section do?

  • Explains what the results mean;
  • interprets the data;
  • compares it with other research;
  • evaluates its importance;
  • points out the limitations of your research;
  • raises questions for future directions.

2) What information does the reader expect to find?

  • How your research relates to your aims;
  • how it confirms your aims;
  • an explanation of your results;
  • how your research relates to theory or previous research;
  • the significance of your research;
  • limitations or improvements that could be made to your research.

3) What information will you include?

  • A summary of the key findings;
  • how these relate to your aims;
  • confirmation of your aims;
  • comparison with theory/previous research;
  • explanation of unexpected results;
  • significance;
  • limitations/future directions.

4) What information will you leave out?

  • Anything that is not in the Results section;
  • results that are less significant:
  • results that do not relate directly to or confirm your aims/hypotheses;
  • tables and diagrams (usually: they belong in the Results section).

5) How will you organise your information?

Lots of possible variations here:

  • ONE way is to respond to the aims/hypothesis in the order that they are stated in your Introduction.
  • ANOTHER way is to start with the most significant results, comment on them and work your way down to the least significant.
  • A THIRD way is to follow the pattern outlined in sections 2 or 3 above.

See next: Discussion exercises

Engineering & science.

  • Report writing
  • Technical writing
  • Writing lab reports
  • Introductions
  • Literature review
  • Writing up results
  • Discussion exercises
  • Exercise 3: Sentence matching
  • Conclusions
  • Writing tools
  • Case study report in (engineering)
  • ^ More support

Study Hacks Workshops | All the hacks you need! 7 Feb – 10 Apr 2024

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, automatically generate references for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Dissertation
  • How to Write a Discussion Section | Tips & Examples

How to Write a Discussion Section | Tips & Examples

Published on 21 August 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 25 October 2022.

Discussion section flow chart

The discussion section is where you delve into the meaning, importance, and relevance of your results .

It should focus on explaining and evaluating what you found, showing how it relates to your literature review , and making an argument in support of your overall conclusion . It should not be a second results section .

There are different ways to write this section, but you can focus your writing around these key elements:

  • Summary: A brief recap of your key results
  • Interpretations: What do your results mean?
  • Implications: Why do your results matter?
  • Limitations: What can’t your results tell us?
  • Recommendations: Avenues for further studies or analyses

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing. Upload your document to correct all your mistakes.

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

What not to include in your discussion section, step 1: summarise your key findings, step 2: give your interpretations, step 3: discuss the implications, step 4: acknowledge the limitations, step 5: share your recommendations, discussion section example.

There are a few common mistakes to avoid when writing the discussion section of your paper.

  • Don’t introduce new results: You should only discuss the data that you have already reported in your results section .
  • Don’t make inflated claims: Avoid overinterpretation and speculation that isn’t directly supported by your data.
  • Don’t undermine your research: The discussion of limitations should aim to strengthen your credibility, not emphasise weaknesses or failures.

The only proofreading tool specialized in correcting academic writing

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts and by native English editors. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students.

discussion section master thesis

Correct my document today

Start this section by reiterating your research problem  and concisely summarising your major findings. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main  research question . This should be no more than one paragraph.

Many students struggle with the differences between a discussion section and a results section . The crux of the matter is that your results sections should present your results, and your discussion section should subjectively evaluate them. Try not to blend elements of these two sections, in order to keep your paper sharp.

  • The results indicate that …
  • The study demonstrates a correlation between …
  • This analysis supports the theory that …
  • The data suggest  that …

The meaning of your results may seem obvious to you, but it’s important to spell out their significance for your reader, showing exactly how they answer your research question.

The form of your interpretations will depend on the type of research, but some typical approaches to interpreting the data include:

  • Identifying correlations , patterns, and relationships among the data
  • Discussing whether the results met your expectations or supported your hypotheses
  • Contextualising your findings within previous research and theory
  • Explaining unexpected results and evaluating their significance
  • Considering possible alternative explanations and making an argument for your position

You can organise your discussion around key themes, hypotheses, or research questions, following the same structure as your results section. Alternatively, you can also begin by highlighting the most significant or unexpected results.

  • In line with the hypothesis …
  • Contrary to the hypothesised association …
  • The results contradict the claims of Smith (2007) that …
  • The results might suggest that x . However, based on the findings of similar studies, a more plausible explanation is x .

As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review . The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice.

Ask yourself these questions:

  • Do your results support or challenge existing theories? If they support existing theories, what new information do they contribute? If they challenge existing theories, why do you think that is?
  • Are there any practical implications?

Your overall aim is to show the reader exactly what your research has contributed, and why they should care.

  • These results build on existing evidence of …
  • The results do not fit with the theory that …
  • The experiment provides a new insight into the relationship between …
  • These results should be taken into account when considering how to …
  • The data contribute a clearer understanding of …
  • While previous research has focused on  x , these results demonstrate that y .

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Even the best research has its limitations. Acknowledging these is important to demonstrate your credibility. Limitations aren’t about listing your errors, but about providing an accurate picture of what can and cannot be concluded from your study.

Limitations might be due to your overall research design, specific methodological choices , or unanticipated obstacles that emerged during your research process.

Here are a few common possibilities:

  • If your sample size was small or limited to a specific group of people, explain how generalisability is limited.
  • If you encountered problems when gathering or analysing data, explain how these influenced the results.
  • If there are potential confounding variables that you were unable to control, acknowledge the effect these may have had.

After noting the limitations, you can reiterate why the results are nonetheless valid for the purpose of answering your research question.

  • The generalisability of the results is limited by …
  • The reliability of these data is impacted by …
  • Due to the lack of data on x , the results cannot confirm …
  • The methodological choices were constrained by …
  • It is beyond the scope of this study to …

Based on the discussion of your results, you can make recommendations for practical implementation or further research. Sometimes, the recommendations are saved for the conclusion .

Suggestions for further research can lead directly from the limitations. Don’t just state that more studies should be done – give concrete ideas for how future work can build on areas that your own research was unable to address.

  • Further research is needed to establish …
  • Future studies should take into account …
  • Avenues for future research include …

Discussion section example

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2022, October 25). How to Write a Discussion Section | Tips & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 19 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/thesis-dissertation/discussion/

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, how to write a results section | tips & examples, research paper appendix | example & templates, how to write a thesis or dissertation introduction.

Master’s Dissertations – The Discussion Chapter

The Discussion Chapter

Master’s Dissertations – The Discussion Chapter. The discussion chapter in the dissertation is your opportunity to demonstrate your ability to perform critical evaluation. Critical Evaluation is a key requirement of Master’s Level study. This blog will provide some ideas for writing the discussion chapter.

Here is a short video clip on the subject.

Three Elements of a Dissertation

Here is a reminder of the three essential elements in a dissertation :

  • Demonstration of Knowledge
  • Evidence of Application of Knowledge
  • Demonstration of Critical Evaluation

Together, these three will ‘tell a story’ through the dissertation showing a logical progression. “I know this, I’ve seen it used, and I can critically evaluate it”. Such an approach will show a Master’s Level of academic study.

Often, students find it difficult to create enough content in the discussion section. Be careful with adding discussion or evaluation in other chapters (in the literature review or analysis of results). Collect all the discussion together in a single place – the Discussion Chapter.

The discussion chapter is your own work. The other sections are a capture of what others are saying on the research topic, so make sure that the discussion chapter is substantial. This is a good reason to collect all of the discussion into a single chapter.

The Dissertation Objectives

You may have some specific objectives relating to critical evaluation so remind the reader what these objectives are at the beginning of the discussion chapter.

Discussion Means Debate

Discussion means debate – a to/fro argument looking at the pro’s/cos or strengths/weaknesses of any situation. Items that need debate should have been identified in the literature review and pointers made to the discussion chapter. Therefore debate these points rather than state opinions or findings.

Discussion Parallels the Literature Review

This means that it is great if the two chapters parallel each other. Work through the Literature Review, and pick up points in turn for debate. When that is completed, work through the analysis section in sequence, picking up items for discussion.

Discussion has Implications and Recommendations

When the item has been debated, what is to be concluded? The output of any discussion may be a decision, conclusions, recommendations, or further work. It may equally be undecided, open-ended, and with no correct answer. However, the discussion needs drawing to a conclusion with suggestions for recommendations or further research.

Make sure that your discussion on each point is concluded in some manner.

Critical Evaluation and Discussion in the Master’s Dissertation

Now is your opportunity to discuss your findings. Findings from the literature review, and findings from the data collection.

  • Comment on the differences discovered in the literature review chapter. Between authors, definitions, and/or theories. Why are they different?
  • Comment on the differences between the case studies or the collected data. Examine why differences exist.
  • Comment on how the theories studied in the literature review were applied (or not) in the case studies or supported (or not) in the data collected.
  • Discuss the Research Questions
  • Evaluate the objectives
  • Discuss the overall dissertation aim

The discussion chapter, by definition, is an interconnection and debate between the various sections in the dissertation. It should include your thoughts and recommendations, and be backed up by a limited number of citations. The discussion chapter may operate in parallel to the literature review chapter. It may follow the same order of topics. It will also point out the limitations, exceptions, and exclusions from the research.

I have an updated blog looking at the Discussion, Recommendations, and Limitations sub-chapters .

Save your discussion for the discussion chapter, ensure that you cover all the issues raised in the literature review and data analysis. Realise that discussion means debate, and will result in recommendations.

AbleSim Project Management Simulations YouTube Channel

AbleSim have a YouTube channel dedicated to work with Project Management Simulations, Masters Dissertation Support and MS Project.

Subscribe to this channel here!

Project Management Training YouTube Channel

Andrew Bell has a YouTube channel dedicated to Project Management Training with over 10 hours of video arranged by 97 videos in 20 playlists.

Follow 🔔 AbleSim 🔔 on twitter @AbleSim

Join the conversation #pmsim

  • Tweets could not be loaded at this time.

Like us on Facebook

On-line Project Management Simulations | AbleSim

  • Privacy Overview
  • Strictly Necessary Cookies
  • 3rd Party Cookies

This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible.

Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful.

Strictly necessary cookies should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings.

If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again.

This website uses Google Analytics to collect anonymous information such as the number of visitors to the site, and the most popular pages.

Keeping this cookie enabled helps us to improve our website.

Please enable Strictly Necessary Cookies first so that we can save your preferences!

Chat With Us

Call us +1 888 211 8005

  • Our Services
  • Testimonials

Chat With Us 1(888)958-6528

How to Write Discussion Part of Thesis

writing-a-thesis-analysis-discussion

January 13 2021 11:07 AM

  • Next >>

How to Write a Discussion (Analysis) Chapter in a Thesis

Discussion and analysis are probably the most critical components of any thesis. These are also the longest sections of your thesis, which require thoroughness, conciseness, attention to detail, brevity, and extensive use of primary and secondary evidence.

Place New Order

If you are here, you do not know how to write a thesis analysis chapter properly and are looking for help. That's why our company can offer our help to a student like you! Our thesis chapter writing service  can write or complete any of your thesis/discussion chapters:

  • analysis chapter
  • methodology chapter
  • discussion chapter
  • introduction chapter, etc.

If you are interested in our help, do not be afraid to ask our customer support service all your questions by online chat, telephone, or e-mail. It is completely free, and we can bet that our support service will answer all your questions and even offer you additional services and discounts.

TopThesis - TOP Quality THESIS Writing

Useful Tips on Writing Correct Thesis Discussion

The below article is meant to help students learn about proper thesis discussion   writing. We will provide you with major objectives and professional approaches to writing. After that, you will have an opportunity to learn about certain steps that can be taken to write a brilliant dissertation discussion chapter.

Objectives and Approaches Writing a Discussion Chapter

When you need to write a dissertation or thesis discussion   chapter ,  do not forget about the major objectives of writing. You should state the interpretations, declare your point of view, explain the effects of the research findings, and predict and suggest future research work.

Remember that dissertation or thesis discussion   chapter is perceived as the most crucial part of one's work. That is why it is normal for students to cope with this chapter, not for the first time.

Useful Steps for Writing Effective Discussion

It should be precise and short to ensure this chapter is easy to understand. However, the discussion chapter should also state, elaborate, support, provide an explanation and even defend all your logical conclusions. Remember that your writing should not simply repeat the results. It should be a commentary. Do not write about any distracting issues. They will only confuse the reader and hide your message's importance. It is difficult to create a perfect piece of writing, but you should try to make your readers distinguish between facts and speculation.

Follow the below-provided steps, and you will cope with your thesis or dissertation successfully:

  • The discussion chapter structure should start with specific information and end with general information. You should slowly transition from some narrow confines to the general facts about the selected discipline.
  • Try to stick to the general tone while writing the introduction. It is easy to do this, just use the same main terms, same viewpoint, and same tense use in the introductory paragraphs. 
  • You can also rewrite the research questions and restate the hypothesis presented in the introduction. After that, you can provide the answers to the major research questions. Remember that answers should be supported by the research findings.
  • Explain the relation of your results to the expectations of the study and course literature. Explain why the obtained results can be accepted and how they fit with existing knowledge about the selected subject. Correct and relevant citations should be used here. 
  • Pay close attention to the obtained results related to the posed research questions. It does not matter whether the findings were statistically important.  
  • Inform your targeted audience about the principles, patterns, and major relationships detected in your findings, and collect them into one perspective. This information should be sequential. First, give the answer, provide the results, and then cite reliable and academic sources. You can point readers to graphs and figures to enhance the main argument.   
  • All your answers should be defended. You can do it in the following two ways: explain the validity of the answers and present the other answers' shortcomings. You can strengthen your viewpoint by giving both sides of the argument.
  • The conflicting data should be identified in your work as well. Discuss and assess any explanations that conflict with your results. It can help to win with your targeted audience and make them feel sympathetic to the knowledge offered by your study. 
  • Discuss any findings that are perceived as unexpected. Start with the paragraph related to the finding and provide its description. Identify any potential weaknesses and limitations present in your study. Comment on the significance of the described limitations to your findings and their interpretation. Explain how they can influence their validity. This section cannot have an apologetic tone. Remember that every study has its limitations and weaknesses.    
  • You should summarize the main implications of the findings (this should be done regardless of statistical importance). Make a few recommendations regarding any further research. 
  • You should prove the significance of the study results and their conclusions and describe how they can influence our comprehension of the discussed issue(s).  
  • Finally, you should be specific but brief when discussing everything related to the study.

Now you know how to write a discussion paper. We hope that our article inspired you to start writing your paper. You can always find a dissertation discussion example and see its structure.

You cannot write a great thesis   without using a large body of literature. Every claim you make must be supported with credible and verifiable information. The data you provide in these sections will either support or nullify your hypotheses or assumptions. In either case, these results will inform the direction of future research activities.

Consider the requirements for your thesis and ask your thesis supervisor for more detail if you are unsure how much space your discussion and analysis chapter must take. Begin the section with the strongest evidence supporting or refuting your thesis. If you have any doubts, ask for help, and we will be happy to provide sufficient evidence to support your  conclusions .

While working on your project's analysis and discussion chapters, we will adhere to the rules and requirements provided by your supervisor. We will consider the terms and technical vocabulary that must be used in the body of your thesis. We try not to overload discussions with too many technical words so your readers can understand your conclusions.

Otherwise, we will include a glossary of terms to explain the meaning of the most complicated words. You will not have trouble submitting a perfect thesis on time with our writers!

discussion section master thesis

  • 300 or 600 words per page
  • Over 1000 PhD writers
  • Direct communication with a writer
  • Free editing of your paper
  • The largest source database

Get a price

Illustration

  • Dissertation & Thesis Guides
  • Basics of Dissertation & Thesis Writing
  • How to Write a Dissertation Discussion Chapter: Guide & Examples
  • Speech Topics
  • Basics of Essay Writing
  • Essay Topics
  • Other Essays
  • Main Academic Essays
  • Research Paper Topics
  • Basics of Research Paper Writing
  • Miscellaneous
  • Chicago/ Turabian
  • Data & Statistics
  • Methodology
  • Admission Writing Tips
  • Admission Advice
  • Other Guides
  • Student Life
  • Studying Tips
  • Understanding Plagiarism
  • Academic Writing Tips

Illustration

  • Essay Guides
  • Research Paper Guides
  • Formatting Guides
  • Basics of Research Process
  • Admission Guides

How to Write a Dissertation Discussion Chapter: Guide & Examples

dissertation_discussion

Table of contents

Illustration

Use our free Readability checker

Dissertation discussion section is a chapter that interprets the results obtained from research and offers an in-depth analysis of findings. In this section, students need to analyze the outcomes, evaluate their significance, and compare them to previous research. The discussion section may also explore the limitations of the study and suggest further research perspectives.

If you are stuck with your thesis or dissertation discussion chapter, you are in the right place to complete this section successfully. This article will outline our best solutions and methods on how to write the discussion of a dissertation or thesis. We also will share advanced dissertation discussion examples to help you finalize your PhD work.  Feel like academic writing gives you hassles? Remember that you can always rely on academic experts qualified in your field to get professional dissertation help online .

What Is a Dissertation Discussion?

First and foremost, students need to have a clear understanding of what dissertation discussion is. This is not the same as your results section , where you share data from your research. You are going deeper into the explanation of the existing data in your thesis or dissertation discussion section. In other words, you illustrate practical implications of your research and how the data can be used, researched further, or limited.  What will make your discussion section of a dissertation excellent:

  • clear structure
  • practical implication
  • elaboration on future work on this topic.

This section should go after research methodology and before the dissertation conclusion . It should be directly relevant to questions posed in your introduction.  The biggest mistake you can make is to rewrite your result chapter with other words and add some limitations and recommendation paragraphs. However, this is an entirely different type of writing you need to complete.

Purpose of a Dissertation Discussion Chapter

A dissertation discussion section is critical to explaining students’ findings and the application of data to real-life cases. As we mentioned before, this section will often be read right after the dissertation methods . It evaluates and elaborates on findings and helps to understand the importance of your performed thesis research.  A dissertation discussion opens a new perspective on further research on the same field or topic. It also outlines critical data to consider in subsequent studies. In a nutshell, this is the section where you explain your work to a broad audience.

Structure of a Dissertation Discussion Section

Let’s start your writing journey of this research part with a clear delineation of what it should include and then briefly discuss each component. Here are some basic things you need to consider for an excellent discussion chapter of dissertation :

  • Brief summary It does not mean copying an introduction section. However, the first few paragraphs will make an overview of your findings and topic.
  • Interpretations This is a critical component of your work — elaborate on your results and explain possible ways of using them.
  • Implication Research work is not just 100+ pages of text. Students should explain and illustrate how it could be used for solving practical problems.
  • Constraints This is where you outline your limitations. For instance, your research was done only on students, and it may have different results with elderly people.
  • Recommendations You can also define possible ways of future research on the exact topic when writing a discussion for your thesis or dissertation. Tell readers, for example, that it would be helpful to run similar research in other specific circumstances.

How to Write a Dissertation Discussion Chapter?

One of the most commonly asked questions for our experts is how to write the discussion section of a dissertation or thesis. We understand why it can be complicated to get a clear answer. Students often think that this section is similar to the result chapter and just retells it in other words. But it is not so. Let’s go through all steps to writing a discussion in a dissertation, and share our best examples from academic papers.

1. Remind Your Research Questions & Objectives

Writing the discussion chapter of a dissertation is not a big deal if you understand its aim and each component in a text structure. First of all, you need to evaluate how your results help to answer research questions you defined in the beginning. It is not about repeating the result, you did it in previous paragraphs.  However, dissertation or thesis discussion should underline how your findings help to answer the research problem. Start writing from a brief intro by recalling research questions or hypotheses . Then, show how your results answer them or support a hypothesis in your work.

2. Sum Up Key Findings

Next part of your discussion for dissertation is to provide a short summary of previous data. But do not respite the same summary paragraphs from results or introduction of a dissertation . Here researchers should be more thoughtful and go deeper into the work’s aims.  Try to explain in a few sentences what you get from running research. For instance, starters usually write the statement that “our data proves that…” or “survey results illustrate a clear correlation between a and b that is critical for proving our working hypothesis…”.  A discussion chapter of your dissertation is not just a fixation on results but a more profound summary connected to research goals and purpose. Here is an example: Summary of Findings Example

According to the data, implementing the co-orientation theory was successful and can be used for the same circumstances in the future. As we found, most participants agreed with the importance of those theses on the five fundamental reforms. It means that the results identified a successful government work in choosing the messages to communicate about examined reforms. At the same time, the situation is not so favorable with implementing the principles of two-way symmetrical communications. According to the results, people did not feel that the government had a mutual, open, and equal dialogue with the public about the reforms.

3. Interpret the Results

The most critical part of a discussion section is to explain and enact the results you’ve got. It is the most significant part of any text. Students should be clear about what to include in these paragraphs. Here is some advice to make this elaboration structured:

  • Identify correlations or patterns in the data for dissertation discussion.
  • Underline how results can answer research questions or prove your hypothesis.
  • Emphasize how your findings are connected to the previous topic studies.
  • Point out essential statements you can use in future research.
  • Evaluate the significance of your results and any unexpected data you have.
  • What others can learn from your research and how this work contributes to the field.
  • Consider any possible additional or unique explanation of your findings.
  • Go deeper with options of how results can be applied in practice.

Writing a dissertation discussion chapter can be tough, but here is a great sample to learn from. Example of Interpretations in Disssertation Discussion

Our study underlines the importance of future research on using TikTok for political communication. As discussed above, TikTok is the most commonly used social media platform for many young voters. This means that political discussion will also move to this platform. Our research and typology of political communication content can be used in the future planning of effective political campaigns. For example, we can assume that “play videos” have enormous potential to facilitate complicated topics and provide specific agenda settings. We also identified additional affordances of TikTok used for political communication, such as built-in video editors, playlists for specific topics, a green screen for news explainers, and duets for reflection on news and discussion. It means that these features make TikTok suitable for efficient political communications.

4. Discuss How Your Findings Relate to the Literature

Here we came to the implications of your findings for the dissertation discussion. In other words, this is a few sentences on how your work is connected to other studies on the same research topic or what literature gap you are going to fill with the data and research you launched. Remember to mention how your study address the limitations you have discovered while writing a literature review .  First, outline how your hypothesis relates to theories or previous works in the field. Maybe, you challenged some theories or tried to define your own. Be specific in this section. Second, define a practical implementation of your work. Maybe, it can support recommendations or change legislation.  Discussion chapter of a thesis is a place where you explain your work, make it valuable, and incorporate additional meaning for some specific data.  Example of Implications in Disssertation Discussion

As we pointed out in the literature review, there are few works on using TikTok affordances for political communications, and this topic can be expanded in the future. Government institutions have already understood the importance of this platform for efficient communication with younger audiences, and we will see more political projects on TikTok. That is why expanding research on using TikTok for political communication will be enormous in the following years. Our work is one of the first research on the role of emerging media in war communication and can be used as a practical guide for government's strategic planning in times of emergencies.

5. Mention Possible Limitations

It is pretty tricky to conduct research without limitations. You will always have some, which does not mean that your work is not good. When you write a discussion chapter in a thesis or dissertation, focus on what may influence your results and how changing independent variables can affect your data collection methods and final outcomes.  Here are some points to consider when you structure your dissertation discussion limitation part:

  • If results can change in case you change the reference group?
  • What will happen with data if it changes circumstances?
  • What could influence results?

Critical thinking and analysis can help you to outline possible limitations. It can be the age of the reference group, change of questionnaire in a survey, or specific use of data extraction equipment. Be transparent about what could affect your results.  Example of Complications

Although this study has provided critical first insights into the effects of multimodal disinformation and rebuttals, there are some limitations. First and most importantly, the effects of multimodal disinformation and rebuttals partially depend on the topic of the message. Although fact-checkers reduce credibility of disinformation in both settings, and attitudinal congruence plays a consistent role in conditioning responses to multimodal disinformation, visuals do not have the same impact on affecting the credibility of news on school shootings and refugees.

6. Provide Recommendations for Further Research

Writing a dissertation discussion also makes a connection to possible future research. So, other scientists may complete that. While elaborating on possible implementations of your study, you may also estimate future approaches in topic research.  Here are some points to consider while your discussion in thesis writing:

  • Outline questions related to your topic that you did not answer in defined study or did not outline as research questions. There are other possible gaps to research.
  • Suggest future research based on limitations. For example, if you define surveyed people’s age as a limitation, recommend running another survey for older or younger recipients.

Example of Recommendations

As we mentioned before, our study has some limitations, as the research was conducted based on data from United State citizens. However, for a better understanding of government communication practices, it would be productive to implement the same research in other countries. Some cultural differences can influence the communication strategies the government uses in times of emergency. Another possible way to examine this topic is to conduct research using a specific period of time. For future studies, it will be beneficial to expand the number of survey recipients. 

7. Conclude Your Thesis/ Dissertation Discussion

You are almost done, the last step is to provide a brief summary of a section. It is not the same as a conclusion for whole research. However, you need to briefly outline key points from the dissertation discussion.  To finalize writing the discussion section of a dissertation, go through the text and check if there is no unimportant information. Do not overload the text with relevant data you did not present in the result section. Be specific in your summary paragraphs. It is a holistic view of everything you pointed out. Provide a few sentences to systemize all you outlined in the text. Example of a Concluding Summary in a Dissertation Discussion Section

To summarize, Airbnb has expertise in communicating CSR and CSA campaigns. We defined their communication strategy about the program for Ukrainian refugees as quite successful. They applied all the principles of CSR communication best practices, used dialogic theory to engage with the public on social media, and created clear messaging on applying for the program. Airbnb examples of CSR communication can be used by other businesses to create a communication strategy for unplanned CSR campaigns. Moreover, it can be further researched how Airbnb's CSR campaign influenced the organizational reputation in the future. 

Dissertation Discussion Example

If we need to share one piece of practical advice, it would be to use thesis or dissertation discussion examples when writing your own copy. StudyCrumb provides the best samples from real students' work to help you understand the stylistic and possible structure of this part. It does not mean you need to copy and paste them into your work.  However, you can use a  dissertation discussion example for inspiration and brainstorming ideas for breaking writing blocks. Here’s a doctoral thesis discussion chapter example.

Illustration

Dissertation Discussion Writing Tips

Before reading this blog, you should already know how to write a thesis discussion. However, we would share some essential tips you need to have in mind while working on the document. 

  • Be consistent Your dissertation discussion chapter is a part of bigger research, and it should be in line with your whole work.
  • Understand your reader You are writing an academic text that will be analyzed by professionals and experts in the same field. Be sure that you are not trying to simplify your discussion.
  • Be logical Do not jump into a new line of discussion if you did not delineate it as a research question at the beginning.
  • Be clear Do not include any data that was not presented in the result section.
  • Consider word choice Use such terms as “our data indicate…” or “our data suggests…” instead of “the data proves.”
  • Use proper format Follow the formatting rules specified by a specific paper style (e.g., APA style format , MLA format , or Chicago format ) or provided by your instructor.

Bottom Line on Writing a Dissertation Discussion Chapter

At this stage, it should not be a question for you on how to write a discussion chapter in a PhD thesis or dissertation. Let’s make it clear. It is not a result section but still a place to elaborate on data and go deeper with explanations. Dissertation discussion section includes some intro, result interpretations, limitations, and recommendations for future research. Our team encourages you to use examples before starting your own piece of writing. It will help you to realize the purpose and structure of this chapter and inspire better texts! If you have other questions regarding the PhD writing process, check our blog for more insights. From detailed instruction on how to write a dissertation or guide on formatting a dissertation appendix , we’ve got you covered.

Illustration

Order dissertation discussion from our proficient writers. They will take a significant burden off of you. Instead, they will carry out high-level academic work in a short time.

FAQ About Dissertation Discussion Chapter

1. where does a discussion section go in a dissertation.

Dissertation discussion section is used to go right after the result chapter. The logic is simple — you share your data and then go to the elaboration and explanation of it. Check the sample thesis we provide to students for details on structure.

2. How long should a dissertation discussion chapter be?

It is not a surprise that dissertation discussion chapter is extremely significant for the research. Here you will go into the details of your study and interpret results to prove or not your hypothesis. It should take almost 25% of your work. 

3. What tense should I use in a dissertation discussion?

Thesis or dissertation discussion used to have some rules on using tenses. You need to use the present tense when referring to established facts and use the past tense when referring to previous studies. And check your text before submission to ensure that you did not miss something.

4. What not to include in a dissertation discussion section?

The answer is easy. Discussion section of a dissertation should not include any new findings or describe some unsupported claims. Also, do not try to feel all possible gaps with one research. It may be better to outline your ideas for future studies in recommendations.

Joe_Eckel_1_ab59a03630.jpg

Joe Eckel is an expert on Dissertations writing. He makes sure that each student gets precious insights on composing A-grade academic writing.

You may also like

Dissertation Results

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

Students’ Rhetorical Structure Mastery Of The Finding And Discussion Section In English Thesis

Profile image of Alamsyah Harahap

2022, JEES (Journal of English Educators Society)

This study aimed to determine the rhetorical structure of the finding and discussion chapters on the thesis and their problems. This study applied a mixed method. The sample of this research was 30 parts of the finding and discussion of the theses of Bengkulu University English Education postgraduate students who graduated from 2019 to 2020. This study used a checklist as a research instrument. The data obtained were analyzed qualitatively by applying several stages such as data reduction, data presentation and drawing conclusions, while quantitative data were obtained through SPSS. The results indicated that students&#39; mastery of rhetorical structures, especially in the finding and discussion section, is categorized as high and medium, where in the finding section, the average value of students was 41 which is categorized as high, while the average value in the discussion section is 37 which is included in the medium category. The next finding was that some students had difficul...

Related Papers

Rizki Denarti

This research is aimed to find out kind of moves, the dominant moves and steps and the most common pattern of rhetorical moves in Postgraduate Theses of English Education Study Program Students at the University of Bengkulu in the academic year 2018 and 2019. The documentation technique and checklist were used in this research. Twenty six theses were analyzed by using checklist analysis from Swales’ CARS Model (1990). The results showed that Move 1 (Establishing a Territory), Move 2 (Establishing a Niche) and Move 3 (Occupying the Niche) were found in each thesis. The writers dominantly use Move 2 and Step 1B (Indicating a Gap) and the other step is Step 1A (Outlining Purposes) of Move 3. That is to say, the writers understood that Move 2 was the key component of Problem Statement (PS), and that makes Move 2 as the obligatory move. Further, the most common pattern is Incomplete Pattern. The PS which has this pattern only involved one move in it. Meanwhile, the other PS which has two...

discussion section master thesis

IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education)

Safnil Arsyad

ABSTRACTThis study is aimed at investigating the rhetorical structure of Introduction chapters of English master theses written by Indonesian postgraduate students and identifying the frequency of communicative moves and their constituent steps as well as finding how the students justify their research projects reported in their Introduction chapters. The research design was mixed method research combining quantitative and qualitative method. Twenty Introduction chapters of English master theses were taken from two different fields; English language education and applied linguistics, and they were analyzed using checklists. The results: (1) three moves and fifteen steps are found in the introduction chapters of master theses and three newly identified steps other than those specified in Bunton’s are also found in the corpus of this study and (2) three moves are considered obligatory moves, seven steps are classified as obligatory, four Steps are conventional and seven Steps are opti...

English Education Journal

iskandar samad

IDEAS: Journal on English Language Teaching and Learning, Linguistics and Literature

Agung Suhadi

This paper presents the study of rhetorical moves on thesis abstracts of accounting students at the Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu. The motive of this research is to examine how far students&#39; understanding is in using rhetorical moves in their thesis abstracts. Under the qualitative descriptive method, 20 abstracts are taken randomly based on the thesis abstract, which was being proofread at Language Center Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu, 2021. Data were further discussed in the light of rhetorical moves by Swales. Based on the results of the analysis, this study revealed different forms of rhetorical moves; the highest sequence and frequency on Move 3 (research method) and Move 4 (results) were 100% occurrences according to Jhon Swales&#39; concept. Furthermore, move 2 (research aim) has a higher sequence and frequency, it was 80% occurrence. Unsimilar, move 1 (situating research) and Move 5 (conclusion) as the smallest sequence and are frequent due to the abstracts n...

Alamsyah Harahap

The discussion section is considered the most important section of a thesis but also the most difficult to write especially by university students. This study investigated the move-step and rhetorical pattern of discussion section in 20 English Master Theses written by Indonesian EFL postgraduate students. Following the model suggested by Loan and Pramoolsook (2015), this study found that students constructed the discussion section according to their perceived communicative purposes of discussion section. The most noticeable feature of the section is the occurrence of Move 2 (reporting results) and Move 4 (Commenting on results) occurring in all texts making them obligatory moves. In terms of step, interpreting results and referring to other studies in Move 4 are also considered as obligatory steps. The findings of this study are useful particularly for EFL students; that is to facilitate them to better understand the rhetorical structure of thesis discussion section when written in English. ABSTRAK Bagian pembahasan dianggap sebagai bagian yang paling penting dalam tesis tetapi juga yang paling sulit ditulis terutama oleh mahasiswa atau penulis baru. Penelitian ini penting untuk menyelidiki pola retorika bagian pembahasan tesis mahasiswa magister bahasa Inggris yang ditulis oleh mahasiswa Indonesia. Mengikuti model yang disarankan oleh Loan and Pramoolsook (2015), penelitian ini menemukan bahwa mahasiswa mengorganisir bagian pembahasan sesuai dengan tujuan komunikatif yang mereka anggap penting. Tujuan komunikatif yang paling menonjol dari bagian ini adalah 'Move' 2 (tahapan melaporkan hasil peneitian) dan 'Move' 4 (tahapan mengomentari hasil penelitian) yang ditemukan di semua teks sehingga dianggap wajib. Dalam hal langkah (Steps), langkah menafsirkan hasil penelitian dan langkah mengacu pada penelitian terdahuluan dalam 'Move' 4 dianggap sebagai langkah wajib. Temuan penelitian ini berguna terutama untuk mahasiswa magister bahasa Inggris, yaitu untuk memudahkan mereka memahami struktur retorika dari bagian pembahasan tesis yang ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris.

ZAHRA TARVIRDIZADEH , Nur Izyan Syamimi Mat Hussin

The Problem Statement (PS) section of a thesis, usually a subsection of the first chapter, is supposed to justify the objectives of the study. Postgraduate students are often ignorant of the rhetorical moves that they are expected to make in their PS. This descriptive study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of the PS in Iranian master's (MA) degree theses. The study focused on 30 PSs written by MA Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) students. The samples were analyzed based on Swales' (1990) Create-a-research-space (CARS) model. The findings revealed the students' flaws in writing the PS where they typically presented the significance of their study. The results of the analysis of their written samples also showed that some of the students failed to address a problem as an academic issue based on the existing gap in the previous studies and failed to recommend ways to solve the problem. Students' awareness of the rhetorical structure of the PS may help them create higher-quality works in academic settings. This study has theoretical and pedagogical implications, a discussion of which concludes the paper.

Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics

Priyatno Ardi

Undergraduate students are required to write a thesis to obtain a degree. One of the most important chapters in the thesis is introduction. Introduction section plays an important role because it describes what the research is all about. To write an introduction chapter, Swales (1990) proposed Create-a-Research-Space (CARS) model, which include three moves, namely establishing a territory, establishing a niche, and occupying the niche. Every move consists of several steps. This study aims to analyze Swales’ CARS model in the introduction chapters of undergraduate theses written by English major students. Furthermore, the lexical and syntactical signals in each move and step are investigated. This research employed discourse analysis, which focuses on how texts are structured. The researchers analyzed 18 introduction chapters of undergraduate theses written by the English major students of Sanata Dharma University who graduated in 2017. In analyzing the corpus, the researcher used to...

Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Sciences and Teacher Profession (ICETeP 2018)

Arono Arono

Wacana (Bengkulu)

Mei Hardiah

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

Wilmar Salazar Obeso

The Problem Statement (PS) section communicates the issue that targets a study. Having a clear understanding of its rhetorical moves facilitates its communication. However, undergraduate students are not generally worried about this important writing aspect. The purpose of this descriptive study intended to explore the rhetorical moves in Colombian FL undergraduate monographs. 20 samples of PS written in English by Foreign Languages (FL) Undergraduate students were analyzed following Swales’ (1990) Create-a-research-space (CARS) model. Findings revealed that the lack of knowledge about rhetorical aspects on the part of the students affects negatively the writing of the PS. The analysis also showed that some students did not communicate the problem due to an unbalanced frequency of moves and steps. Students’ awareness of the genre, its formal instruction, and frequent training might contribute to improve their academic writing.

RELATED PAPERS

CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences

Ann Karagozian

Environmental Pollution

Kevin Cailleaud

Esam Alqaralleh

Journal of Food Quality

Muhammad Ahmad

Mohammed Abdulsattar

Revista Brasileira de Sementes

Franco Da Rosa

Ian Van Tets

Filosofia e Educação

Ruth Maria de Paula

Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

John Paul Wanner

International Conference on Networks

Nelson F Fernandes

Applied Organometallic Chemistry

Aliye Gediz Ertürk

Science & public policy

Thomas Griessen

UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) eBooks

Maria Murmis Cucullu

Urban Ecosystems

Yvan Kraepiel

BMC Neurology

Mahtab Ramezani

Antônio Hohlfeldt

Amina Bouattour

The Proceedings of Conference of Tokai Branch

Toshihiko Shakouchi

Reinhard Brandner

Neuroscience

Renato Corradetti

Hamed Saber

International Journal of Vehicle Design

Javad Ahmadi

Journal of physics

I KETUT ASTAWA

Luis Carlos Velandia

Beatriz E . Cagnolati

Nagoya University Asian Law Bulletin

Aziz Ismatov

RELATED TOPICS

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024

IMAGES

  1. How to Write a Discussion Section for a Research Paper

    discussion section master thesis

  2. Master thesis structure

    discussion section master thesis

  3. Results And Discussion In Research Example : Sharing of Research

    discussion section master thesis

  4. Writing The Findings Chapter Of A Dissertation

    discussion section master thesis

  5. (PDF) Discussion Section

    discussion section master thesis

  6. How to Write Discussion Section of Dissertation

    discussion section master thesis

VIDEO

  1. Thesis Seminar: Method Section

  2. Mastering Research: Choosing a Winning Dissertation or Thesis Topic

  3. How to make Dissertation? Complete Details about Dissertation / Thesis for Bachelors/ Masters Degree

  4. FULL THESIS DIPLOMA, DEGREE, MASTER & PhD UiTM

  5. Master's Thesis

  6. Master's Thesis

COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Discussion Section

    Table of contents. What not to include in your discussion section. Step 1: Summarize your key findings. Step 2: Give your interpretations. Step 3: Discuss the implications. Step 4: Acknowledge the limitations. Step 5: Share your recommendations. Discussion section example. Other interesting articles.

  2. How To Write A Dissertation Discussion Chapter

    Step 4: Acknowledge the limitations of your study. The fourth step in writing up your discussion chapter is to acknowledge the limitations of the study. These limitations can cover any part of your study, from the scope or theoretical basis to the analysis method (s) or sample.

  3. How to Write Your Thesis Discussion Section

    The content in the thesis discussion section overlaps with the results section—the results section presents the data, and the discussion section interprets it. The structure of the discussion section differs according to the type of research (quantitative vs. qualitative).In qualitative research, such as in the Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) domain, the discussion and results from ...

  4. How To Write A Thesis Discussion

    A thesis discussion is the framing section of this paper. When writing this section, the author delves into the importance, meaning, and relevance of the results. The focus of this section should be on the explanation and evaluation of the findings. Here, you should show how your findings relate to the research questions and literature review.

  5. How to write a discussion chapter for your masters degree or PhD thesis

    Crafting a discussion chapter is undoubtedly a formidable task. By following this structured outline, you'll navigate through each section with clarity and purpose. Need more help with your discussion chapter? Then take a look at my PhD Survival Guide - also suitable for highly ambitious masters degree students. Click here to check it out!

  6. Thesis Discussion Chapter Template (Word Doc + PDF)

    What's Included: Discussion Template. This template covers all the core components required in the discussion/analysis chapter of a typical dissertation or thesis, including: The opening/overview section. Overview of key findings. Interpretation of the findings. Concluding summary. The purpose of each section is explained in plain language ...

  7. How to Write an Effective Thesis Discussion

    Writing an effective thesis discussion can be challenging because it is so open ended. The purpose of the discussion is to (1) interpret your results, (2) discuss the significance of your results, (3) place your work in the context of previous work, (4) discuss the limitations of your study, and (5) suggest next steps to advance understanding ...

  8. 8. The Discussion

    The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because it: ... "Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section." Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (January 2006): 4-18; Kretchmer, Paul. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion ...

  9. Dissertation Discussion Chapter: How To Write It In 6 Steps (With

    Learn exactly how to write a clear and compelling discussion chapter or section for your dissertation, thesis or research project. We explain how to craft th...

  10. How do I write the discussion section?

    The helpful Manchester Academic Phrase Bank 'discussing the findings' section, gives you some sentences that you can use as the 'steps' for each move. Try some of these sentence starters to get you going: Restate Results: "The current study found that …". "The results of this study show/indicate that …".

  11. Thesis Discussion

    Let's show you how to write a thesis discussion in just a couple of steps: The first thing you need to do is summarize the key findings. For this, you need to read your Results section carefully and write down the most important data. Use the findings you've identified in step 1 to write a phrase or two that present the results and that ...

  12. How do I start my discussion chapter?

    Well, the best way to start in my view is just to write, but perhaps start to write without the specific purpose of the discussion chapter in mind. Write to try and work out what you think and then re-write it later. You can use a couple of basic techniques to help you with this process: Try the old 'compare and contrast' technique.

  13. PDF Thesis writing: Sample discussion

    Sample discussion BIOLOGY EXAMPLE In this thesis example, each chapter reports on a separate issue of the behavioural ecology of the yellow-bellied glider, and each chapter has a discussion section. This discussion section from one of the chapters combines the discussion with the conclusion. Example: discussion section of a thesis 2.4 DISCUSSION

  14. Dissertation Writing: Results and Discussion

    When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write. ... for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably find that you need to include most of your work. You should write your results section in the past tense: you are describing ...

  15. Dissertation findings and discussion sections

    Since 2006, Oxbridge Essays has been the UK's leading paid essay-writing and dissertation service. We have helped 10,000s of undergraduate, Masters and PhD students to maximise their grades in essays, dissertations, model-exam answers, applications and other materials. If you would like a free chat about your project with one of our UK staff ...

  16. Discussions

    It is also the most important section of your thesis, because it is where you give meaning to your results. This is probably why many students struggle when it comes to writing their Discussion. On these pages, you'll find answers to some of the questions you may have been asking yourself (or your friends, or your supervisor), as well as some ...

  17. How to write the discussion section in master thesis?

    The discussion section is the most critical aspect of your thesis. It is written after presenting your data in the results section. The thesis discussion includes explanations and interpretations ...

  18. Q: How to write the Discussion section in a qualitative paper?

    1. Begin by discussing the research question and talking about whether it was answered in the research paper based on the results. 2. Highlight any unexpected and/or exciting results and link them to the research question. 3. Point out some previous studies and draw comparisons on how your study is different. 4.

  19. How to Write a Discussion Section

    Table of contents. What not to include in your discussion section. Step 1: Summarise your key findings. Step 2: Give your interpretations. Step 3: Discuss the implications. Step 4: Acknowledge the limitations. Step 5: Share your recommendations. Discussion section example.

  20. Master's Dissertations

    The discussion chapter in the dissertation is your opportunity to demonstrate your ability to perform critical evaluation. Critical Evaluation is a key requirement of Master's Level study. This blog will provide some ideas for writing the discussion chapter. Here is a short video clip on the subject. Discussion Chapter in a Masters Dissertation.

  21. Thesis

    First order price $ 11.99. Order now: $ 10.19. And if you are here, it means that you do not know how to write a thesis analysis chapter properly and looking for help. That's why our company can offer our help to a student like you! Our thesis chapter writing service can write or complete any of your thesis/discussion chapters: analysis chapter.

  22. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Discussion & Examples

    Dissertation discussion section is a chapter that interprets the results obtained from research and offers an in-depth analysis of findings. In this section, students need to analyze the outcomes, evaluate their significance, and compare them to previous research. The discussion section may also explore the limitations of the study and suggest ...

  23. Students' Rhetorical Structure Mastery Of The Finding And Discussion

    The discussion section is considered the most important section of a thesis but also the most difficult to write especially by university students. This study investigated the move-step and rhetorical pattern of discussion section in 20 English Master Theses written by Indonesian EFL postgraduate students.