The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Conclusions

What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Conclusions

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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.

Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:

In a general way,

  • Restate your topic and why it is important,
  • Restate your thesis/claim,
  • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  • Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:

Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).

Tell them (body).

Tell them what you told them (conclusion).

One of the most common questions we receive at the Writing Center is “what am I supposed to do in my conclusion?” This is a difficult question to answer because there’s no one right answer to what belongs in a conclusion. How you conclude your paper will depend on where you started—and where you traveled. It will also depend on the conventions and expectations of the discipline in which you are writing. For example, while the conclusion to a STEM paper could focus on questions for further study, the conclusion of a literature paper could include a quotation from your central text that can now be understood differently in light of what has been discussed in the paper. You should consult your instructor about expectations for conclusions in a particular discipline.

With that in mind, here are some general guidelines you might find helpful to use as you think about your conclusion.  

Begin with the “what”  

In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.

So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”

In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Highlight the “so what”  

At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.

In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”

She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Leave your readers with the “now what”  

After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.

In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”

To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:

  • What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?  
  • What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?  
  • Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?  
  • What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?  
  • What larger context might my argument be a part of?  

What to avoid in your conclusion  

  • a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.  
  • a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.  
  • an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.  
  • fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
  • picture_as_pdf Conclusions

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OASIS: Writing Center

Writing a paper: conclusions, writing a conclusion.

A conclusion is an important part of the paper; it provides closure for the reader while reminding the reader of the contents and importance of the paper. It accomplishes this by stepping back from the specifics in order to view the bigger picture of the document. In other words, it is reminding the reader of the main argument. For most course papers, it is usually one paragraph that simply and succinctly restates the main ideas and arguments, pulling everything together to help clarify the thesis of the paper. A conclusion does not introduce new ideas; instead, it should clarify the intent and importance of the paper. It can also suggest possible future research on the topic.

An Easy Checklist for Writing a Conclusion

It is important to remind the reader of the thesis of the paper so he is reminded of the argument and solutions you proposed.
Think of the main points as puzzle pieces, and the conclusion is where they all fit together to create a bigger picture. The reader should walk away with the bigger picture in mind.
Make sure that the paper places its findings in the context of real social change.
Make sure the reader has a distinct sense that the paper has come to an end. It is important to not leave the reader hanging. (You don’t want her to have flip-the-page syndrome, where the reader turns the page, expecting the paper to continue. The paper should naturally come to an end.)
No new ideas should be introduced in the conclusion. It is simply a review of the material that is already present in the paper. The only new idea would be the suggesting of a direction for future research.

Conclusion Example

As addressed in my analysis of recent research, the advantages of a later starting time for high school students significantly outweigh the disadvantages. A later starting time would allow teens more time to sleep--something that is important for their physical and mental health--and ultimately improve their academic performance and behavior. The added transportation costs that result from this change can be absorbed through energy savings. The beneficial effects on the students’ academic performance and behavior validate this decision, but its effect on student motivation is still unknown. I would encourage an in-depth look at the reactions of students to such a change. This sort of study would help determine the actual effects of a later start time on the time management and sleep habits of students.

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conclusions when writing

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

conclusions when writing

By the time you get to the final paragraph of your paper, you have already done so much work on your essay, so all you want to do is to wrap it up as quickly as possible. You’ve already made a stunning introduction, proven your argument, and structured the whole piece as supposed – who cares about making a good conclusion paragraph?

The only thing you need to remember is that the conclusion of an essay is not just the last paragraph of an academic paper where you restate your thesis and key arguments. A concluding paragraph is also your opportunity to have a final impact on your audience. 

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How to write a conclusion paragraph that leaves a lasting impression – In this guide, the team at EssayPro is going to walk you through the process of writing a perfect conclusion step by step. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment.

Instead of Intro: What Is a Conclusion?

Before we can move on, let’s take a moment here to define the conclusion itself. According to the standard conclusion definition, it is pretty much the last part of something, its result, or end. However, this term is rather broad and superficial.

When it comes to writing academic papers, a concluding statement refers to an opinion, judgment, suggestion, or position arrived at by logical reasoning (through the arguments provided in the body of the text). Therefore, if you are wondering “what is a good closing sentence like?” – keep on reading.

What Does a Good Conclusion Mean?

Writing a good conclusion for a paper isn’t easy. However, we are going to walk you through this process step by step. Although there are generally no strict rules on how to formulate one, there are some basic principles that everyone should keep in mind. In this section, we will share some core ideas for writing a good conclusion, and, later in the article, we will also provide you with more practical advice and examples.

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay _ 4 MAJOR OBJECTIVES THAT CONCLUSION MUST ACCOMPLISH

Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete:

  • “Wrap up” the entire paper;
  • Demonstrate to readers that the author accomplished what he/she set out to do;
  • Show how you the author has proved their thesis statement;
  • Give a sense of completeness and closure on the topic;
  • Leave something extra for your reader to think about;
  • Leave a powerful final impact on a reader.

Another key thing to remember is that you should not introduce any new ideas or arguments to your paper's conclusion. It should only sum up what you have already written, revisit your thesis statement, and end with a powerful final impression.

When considering how to write a conclusion that works, here are the key points to keep in mind:

  • A concluding sentence should only revisit the thesis statement, not restate it;
  • It should summarize the main ideas from the body of the paper;
  • It should demonstrate the significance and relevance of your work;
  • An essay’s conclusion should include a call for action and leave space for further study or development of the topic (if necessary).

How Long Should a Conclusion Be? 

Although there are no strict universal rules regarding the length of an essay’s final clause, both teachers and experienced writers recommend keeping it clear, concise, and straight to the point. There is an unspoken rule that the introduction and conclusion of an academic paper should both be about 10% of the overall paper’s volume. For example, if you were assigned a 1500 word essay, both the introductory and final clauses should be approximately 150 words long (300 together).

Why You Need to Know How to End an Essay:

A conclusion is what drives a paper to its logical end. It also drives the main points of your piece one last time. It is your last opportunity to impact and impress your audience. And, most importantly, it is your chance to demonstrate to readers why your work matters. Simply put, the final paragraph of your essay should answer the last important question a reader will have – “So what?”

If you do a concluding paragraph right, it can give your readers a sense of logical completeness. On the other hand, if you do not make it powerful enough, it can leave them hanging, and diminish the effect of the entire piece.

Strategies to Crafting a Proper Conclusion

Although there are no strict rules for what style to use to write your conclusion, there are several strategies that have been proven to be effective. In the list below, you can find some of the most effective strategies with some good conclusion paragraph examples to help you grasp the idea.

One effective way to emphasize the significance of your essay and give the audience some thought to ponder about is by taking a look into the future. The “When and If” technique is quite powerful when it comes to supporting your points in the essay’s conclusion.

Prediction essay conclusion example: “Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children’s requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion in them, we must let our children take care of pets.”

Another effective strategy is to link your conclusion to your introductory paragraph. This will create a full-circle narration for your readers, create a better understanding of your topic, and emphasize your key point.

Echo conclusion paragraph example: Introduction: “I believe that all children should grow up with a pet. I still remember the exact day my parents brought my first puppy to our house. This was one of the happiest moments in my life and, at the same time, one of the most life-changing ones. Growing up with a pet taught me a lot, and most importantly, it taught me to be responsible.” Conclusion:. “I remember when I picked up my first puppy and how happy I was at that time. Growing up with a pet, I learned what it means to take care of someone, make sure that he always has water and food, teach him, and constantly keep an eye on my little companion. Having a child grow up with a pet teaches them responsibility and helps them acquire a variety of other life skills like leadership, love, compassion, and empathy. This is why I believe that every kid should grow up with a pet!”

Finally, one more trick that will help you create a flawless conclusion is to amplify your main idea or to present it in another perspective of a larger context. This technique will help your readers to look at the problem discussed from a different angle.

Step-up argumentative essay conclusion example: “Despite the obvious advantages of owning a pet in childhood, I feel that we cannot generalize whether all children should have a pet. Whereas some kids may benefit from such experiences, namely, by becoming more compassionate, organized, and responsible, it really depends on the situation, motivation, and enthusiasm of a particular child for owning a pet.”

What is a clincher in an essay? – The final part of an essay’s conclusion is often referred to as a clincher sentence. According to the clincher definition, it is a final sentence that reinforces the main idea or leaves the audience with an intriguing thought to ponder upon. In a nutshell, the clincher is very similar to the hook you would use in an introductory paragraph. Its core mission is to seize the audience’s attention until the end of the paper. At the same time, this statement is what creates a sense of completeness and helps the author leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Now, since you now know what a clincher is, you are probably wondering how to use one in your own paper. First of all, keep in mind that a good clincher should be intriguing, memorable, smooth, and straightforward.

Generally, there are several different tricks you can use for your clincher statement; it can be:

  • A short, but memorable and attention-grabbing conclusion;
  • A relevant and memorable quote (only if it brings actual value);
  • A call to action;
  • A rhetorical question;
  • An illustrative story or provocative example;
  • A warning against a possibility or suggestion about the consequences of a discussed problem;
  • A joke (however, be careful with this as it may not always be deemed appropriate).

Regardless of the technique you choose, make sure that your clincher is memorable and aligns with your introduction and thesis.

Clincher examples: - While New York may not be the only place with the breathtaking views, it is definitely among my personal to 3… and that’s what definitely makes it worth visiting. - “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars”, Divine Comedy - Don’t you think all these advantages sound like almost life-saving benefits of owning a pet? “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”, The Great Gatsby

strategies

Conclusion Writing Don'ts 

Now, when you know what tricks and techniques you should use to create a perfect conclusion, let’s look at some of the things you should not do with our online paper writing service :

  • Starting with some cliché concluding sentence starters. Many students find common phrases like “In conclusion,” “Therefore,” “In summary,” or similar statements to be pretty good conclusion starters. However, though such conclusion sentence starters may work in certain cases – for example, in speeches – they are overused, so it is recommended not to use them in writing to introduce your conclusion.
  • Putting the first mention of your thesis statement in the conclusion – it has to be presented in your introduction first.
  • Providing new arguments, subtopics, or ideas in the conclusion paragraph.
  • Including a slightly changed or unchanged thesis statement.
  • Providing arguments and evidence that belong in the body of the work.
  • Writing too long, hard to read, or confusing sentences.

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Conclusion Paragraph Outline

The total number of sentences in your final paragraph may vary depending on the number of points you discussed in your essay, as well as on the overall word count of your paper. However, the overall conclusion paragraph outline will remain the same and consists of the following elements:

conclusion ouline

  • A conclusion starter:

The first part of your paragraph should drive readers back to your thesis statement. Thus, if you were wondering how to start a conclusion, the best way to do it is by rephrasing your thesis statement.

  • Summary of the body paragraphs:

Right after revisiting your thesis, you should include several sentences that wrap up the key highlights and points from your body paragraphs. This part of your conclusion can consist of 2-3 sentences—depending on the number of arguments you’ve made. If necessary, you can also explain to the readers how your main points fit together.

  • A concluding sentence:

Finally, you should end your paragraph with a last, powerful sentence that leaves a lasting impression, gives a sense of logical completeness, and connects readers back to the introduction of the paper.

These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of “Every Child Should Own a Pet:

  • Sentence 1: Starter
  • ~ Thesis: "Though taking care of a pet may be a bit challenging for small children. Parents should not restrict their kids from having a pet as it helps them grow into more responsible and compassionate people."
  • ~ Restated thesis for a conclusion: "I can say that taking care of a pet is good for every child."
  • Sentences 2-4: Summary
  • ~ "Studies have shown that pet owners generally have fewer health problems."
  • ~ "Owning a pet teaches a child to be more responsible."
  • ~ "Spending time with a pet reduces stress, feelings of loneliness, and anxiety."
  • Sentence 5: A concluding sentence
  • ~ "Pets can really change a child life for the better, so don't hesitate to endorse your kid's desire to own a pet."

This is a clear example of how you can shape your conclusion paragraph.

How to Conclude Various Types of Essays

Depending on the type of academic essay you are working on, your concluding paragraph's style, tone, and length may vary. In this part of our guide, we will tell you how to end different types of essays and other works.

How to End an Argumentative Essay

Persuasive or argumentative essays always have the single goal of convincing readers of something (an idea, stance, or viewpoint) by appealing to arguments, facts, logic, and even emotions. The conclusion for such an essay has to be persuasive as well. A good trick you can use is to illustrate a real-life scenario that proves your stance or encourages readers to take action. More about persuasive essay outline you can read in our article.

Here are a few more tips for making a perfect conclusion for an argumentative essay:

  • Carefully read the whole essay before you begin;
  • Re-emphasize your ideas;
  • Discuss possible implications;
  • Don’t be afraid to appeal to the reader’s emotions.

How to End a Compare and Contrast Essay

The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to emphasize the differences or similarities between two or more objects, people, phenomena, etc. Therefore, a logical conclusion should highlight how the reviewed objects are different or similar. Basically, in such a paper, your conclusion should recall all of the key common and distinctive features discussed in the body of your essay and also give readers some food for thought after they finish reading it.

How to Conclude a Descriptive Essay

The key idea of a descriptive essay is to showcase your creativity and writing skills by painting a vivid picture with the help of words. This is one of the most creative types of essays as it requires you to show a story, not tell it. This kind of essay implies using a lot of vivid details. Respectively, the conclusion of such a paper should also use descriptive imagery and, at the same time, sum up the main ideas. A good strategy for ending a descriptive essay would be to begin with a short explanation of why you wrote the essay. Then, you should reflect on how your topic affects you. In the middle of the conclusion, you should cover the most critical moments of the story to smoothly lead the reader into a logical closing statement. The “clincher”, in this case, should be a thought-provoking final sentence that leaves a good and lasting impression on the audience. Do not lead the reader into the essay and then leave them with dwindling memories of it.

How to Conclude an Essay About Yourself

If you find yourself writing an essay about yourself, you need to tell a personal story. As a rule, such essays talk about the author’s experiences, which is why a conclusion should create a feeling of narrative closure. A good strategy is to end your story with a logical finale and the lessons you have learned, while, at the same time, linking it to the introductory paragraph and recalling key moments from the story.

How to End an Informative Essay

Unlike other types of papers, informative or expository essays load readers with a lot of information and facts. In this case, “Synthesize, don’t summarize” is the best technique you can use to end your paper. Simply put, instead of recalling all of the major facts, you should approach your conclusion from the “So what?” position by highlighting the significance of the information provided.

How to Conclude a Narrative Essay

In a nutshell, a narrative essay is based on simple storytelling. The purpose of this paper is to share a particular story in detail. Therefore, the conclusion for such a paper should wrap up the story and avoid finishing on an abrupt cliffhanger. It is vital to include the key takeaways and the lessons learned from the story.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report

Unlike an essay, a lab report is based on an experiment. This type of paper describes the flow of a particular experiment conducted by a student and its conclusion should reflect on the outcomes of this experiment.

In thinking of how to write a conclusion for a lab, here are the key things you should do to get it right:

  • Restate the goals of your experiment
  • Describe the methods you used
  • Include the results of the experiment and analyze the final data
  • End your conclusion with a clear statement on whether or not the experiment was successful (Did you reach the expected results?)

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer . Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem. Therefore, a conclusion for such a paper should be even more sophisticated and powerful. If you're feeling difficulty writing an essay, you can buy essay on our service.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

However, given that a research paper is the second most popular kind of academic paper (after an essay), it is important to know how to conclude a research paper. Even if you have not yet been assigned to do this task, be sure that you will face it soon. So, here are the steps you should follow to create a great conclusion for a research paper:

  • Restate the Topic

Start your final paragraph with a quick reminder of what the topic of the piece is about. Keep it one sentence long.

  • Revisit the Thesis

Next, you should remind your readers what your thesis statement was. However, do not just copy and paste it from the introductory clause: paraphrase your thesis so that you deliver the same idea but with different words. Keep your paraphrased thesis narrow, specific, and topic-oriented.

  • Summarise Your Key Ideas

Just like the case of a regular essay’s conclusion, a research paper’s final paragraph should also include a short summary of all of the key points stated in the body sections. We recommend reading the entire body part a few times to define all of your main arguments and ideas.

  • Showcase the Significance of Your Work

In the research paper conclusion, it is vital to highlight the significance of your research problem and state how your solution could be helpful.

  • Make Suggestions for Future Studies

Finally, at the end of your conclusion, you should define how your findings will contribute to the development of its particular field of science. Outline the perspectives of further research and, if necessary, explain what is yet to be discovered on the topic.

Then, end your conclusion with a powerful concluding sentence – it can be a rhetorical question, call to action, or another hook that will help you have a strong impact on the audience.

  • Answer the Right Questions

To create a top-notch research paper conclusion, be sure to answer the following questions:

  • What is the goal of a research paper?
  • What are the possible solutions to the research question(s)?
  • How can your results be implemented in real life? (Is your research paper helpful to the community?)
  • Why is this study important and relevant?

Additionally, here are a few more handy tips to follow:

  • Provide clear examples from real life to help readers better understand the further implementation of the stated solutions;
  • Keep your conclusion fresh, original, and creative.

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So, What Is a Good Closing Sentence? See The Difference

One of the best ways to learn how to write a good conclusion is to look at several professional essay conclusion examples. In this section of our guide, we are going to look at two different final paragraphs shaped on the basis of the same template, but even so, they are very different – where one is weak and the other is strong. Below, we are going to compare them to help you understand the difference between a good and a bad conclusion.

Here is the template we used: College degrees are in decline. The price of receiving an education does not correlate with the quality of the education received. As a result, graduated students face underemployment, and the worth of college degrees appears to be in serious doubt. However, the potential social and economic benefits of educated students balance out the equation.

Strong Conclusion ‍

People either see college as an opportunity or an inconvenience; therefore, a degree can only hold as much value as its owner’s skillset. The underemployment of graduate students puts the worth of college degrees in serious doubt. Yet, with the multitude of benefits that educated students bring to society and the economy, the equation remains in balance. Perhaps the ordinary person should consider college as a wise financial investment, but only if they stay determined to study and do the hard work.

Why is this example good? There are several key points that prove its effectiveness:

  • There is a bold opening statement that encompasses the two contrasting types of students we can see today.
  • There are two sentences that recall the thesis statement and cover the key arguments from the body of the essay.
  • Finally, the last sentence sums up the key message of the essay and leaves readers with something to think about.

Weak Conclusion

In conclusion, with the poor preparation of students in college and the subsequent underemployment after graduation from college, the worth associated with the college degree appears to be in serious doubt. However, these issues alone may not reasonably conclude beyond a doubt that investing in a college degree is a rewarding venture. When the full benefits that come with education are carefully put into consideration and evaluated, college education for children in any country still has good advantages, and society should continue to advocate for a college education. The ordinary person should consider this a wise financial decision that holds rewards in the end. Apart from the monetary gains associated with a college education, society will greatly benefit from students when they finish college. Their minds are going to be expanded, and their reasoning and decision making will be enhanced.

What makes this example bad? Here are a few points to consider:

  • Unlike the first example, this paragraph is long and not specific enough. The author provides plenty of generalized phrases that are not backed up by actual arguments.
  • This piece is hard to read and understand and sentences have a confusing structure. Also, there are lots of repetitions and too many uses of the word “college”.
  • There is no summary of the key benefits.
  • The last two sentences that highlight the value of education contradict with the initial statement.
  • Finally, the last sentence doesn’t offer a strong conclusion and gives no thought to ponder upon.
  • In the body of your essay, you have hopefully already provided your reader(s) with plenty of information. Therefore, it is not wise to present new arguments or ideas in your conclusion.
  • To end your final paragraph right, find a clear and straightforward message that will have the most powerful impact on your audience.
  • Don’t use more than one quote in the final clause of your paper – the information from external sources (including quotes) belongs in the body of a paper.
  • Be authoritative when writing a conclusion. You should sound confident and convincing to leave a good impression. Sentences like “I’m not an expert, but…” will most likely make you seem less knowledgeable and/or credible.

Good Conclusion Examples

Now that we've learned what a conclusion is and how to write one let's take a look at some essay conclusion examples to strengthen our knowledge.

The ending ironically reveals that all was for nothing. (A short explanation of the thematic effect of the book’s end) Tom says that Miss Watson freed Jim in her final will.Jim told Huck that the dead man on the Island was pap. The entire adventure seemingly evaporated into nothingness. (How this effect was manifested into the minds of thereaders).
All in all, international schools hold the key to building a full future that students can achieve. (Thesis statement simplified) They help students develop their own character by learning from their mistakes, without having to face a dreadful penalty for failure. (Thesis statement elaborated)Although some say that kids emerged “spoiled” with this mentality, the results prove the contrary. (Possible counter-arguments are noted)
In conclusion, public workers should be allowed to strike since it will give them a chance to air their grievances. (Thesis statement) Public workers should be allowed to strike when their rights, safety, and regulations are compromised. The workers will get motivated when they strike, and their demands are met.
In summary, studies reveal some similarities in the nutrient contents between the organic and non-organic food substances. (Starts with similarities) However, others have revealed many considerable differences in the amounts of antioxidants as well as other minerals present in organic and non-organic foods. Generally, organic foods have higher levels of antioxidants than non-organic foods and therefore are more important in the prevention of chronic illnesses.
As time went by, my obsession grew into something bigger than art; (‘As time went by’ signals maturation) it grew into a dream of developing myself for the world. (Showing student’s interest of developing himself for the community) It is a dream of not only seeing the world from a different perspective but also changing the perspective of people who see my work. (Showing student’s determination to create moving pieces of art)
In conclusion, it is evident that technology is an integral part of our lives and without it, we become “lost” since we have increasingly become dependent on its use. (Thesis with main point)

You might also be interested in reading nursing essay examples from our service.

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How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

Matt Ellis

Wrapping up a paper may seem simple enough, but if you don’t know how to write a research paper conclusion, it can sometimes be the hardest part of the paper-writing process.

In this guide, we share expert advice on how to write a research paper conclusion. We explain what to put (and what not to put) in a research paper conclusion, describe the different types of conclusions, and show you a few different research paper conclusion examples.

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What is a research paper conclusion?

A research paper conclusion should summarize the main points of the paper, help readers contextualize the information, and as the last thing people read, be memorable and leave an impression. The research paper conclusion is the best chance for the author to both reiterate their main points and tie all the information together. All in all, it’s one of the most important parts of writing a research paper .

Research paper conclusions are generally one paragraph long , although more complicated topics may have longer conclusions. Although conclusions don’t normally present new information or data that wasn’t mentioned in the article, they often reframe the issues or offer a new perspective on the topic.

6 elements to include in a research paper conclusion

1 urgency or consequences.

A good conclusion answers the question, Why should the reader care? To connect the information to the reader, point out why your topic should matter to them. What happens if the problem persists, or how can the problem be solved? Feel free to mention common obstacles that feed the problem, implications of the data, or a recommended action for fixing it.

2 Reminder of thesis statement

Research paper conclusions are a great place to revisit your initial thesis statement , a sentence that encapsulates the main topic or problem your paper addresses. Thesis statements are discussed heavily at the beginning of a paper, but they can be even stronger when you reintroduce them at the end, after you’ve presented all your evidence.

3 Recap of main points

Although you don’t want to repeat yourself just for the sake of repetition, a recap of your main points can be helpful to your reader. Think of these as your paper’s “key takeaways,” the parts you want readers to remember. Save the details for the body text and use the conclusion to remind the reader of your strongest supporting evidence before they put your paper down.

4 Parallels to the introduction

The introduction and the conclusion are two sides of the same coin. A useful strategy to consider as you approach writing a research paper conclusion is to follow the same structure or address the same themes as you do in the introduction. For example, if you pose a question in your introduction, you can answer it directly in your conclusion. Keep this in mind when writing your research paper outline so you can properly plan both parts.

5 Limitations of the study

Although this isn’t applicable to every research paper, if you’re writing about actual tests or studies you’ve conducted, there are some ethical requirements for what you put in a research paper conclusion. Specifically, you’re expected to address the limitations of your study; these may include criticisms or flaws in your process that might have affected the results, such as using suboptimal participation groups. It’s best to call these out yourself rather than having a colleague call them out later.

6 Conciseness

Above all, every research paper conclusion should be written with conciseness . In general, conclusions should be short, so keep an eye on your word count as you write and aim to be as succinct as possible. You can expound on your topic in the body of your paper, but the conclusion is more for summarizing and recapping.

5 elements not to include in a research paper conclusion

1 dry summary.

Summarizing may be a crucial part of research paper conclusions, but it’s not the only part. Your conclusion should be more than just a summary; it should shape the way your reader thinks about your topic. Don’t just repeat the facts: Contextualize them for the reader, offer a new perspective, or suggest a step for solving the problem.

2 Generic or clichéd phrasing

Just like our advice for how to write a conclusion for a more general essay, you should also avoid generic or clichéd phrasing in research paper conclusions. Some words or phrases are overused in conclusions to the point of becoming trite. If you want your conclusion to seem fresh and well-written, avoid these phrases:

  • in conclusion
  • in summary or in summation

3 New data or evidence

Conclusions are not the place to introduce new evidence or data, especially if they are significant enough to reframe your entire argument. Hard facts and supporting evidence belong in the body of the paper; when the reader is absorbing this section, they’re still actively learning about the topic. By the conclusion, the reader is almost done forming their opinion. The conclusion is more about retrospection; introducing unexpected information there can frustrate readers just as much as it surprises them.

4 Ignoring negative results

It might be tempting to sugarcoat negative results or ignore them completely, but that will only harm your paper in the end. It’s always best to own up to any shortcomings in your research and admit them overtly. Your transparency not only helps validate your other research, but it also prevents critics from pointing out these same shortcomings in a more damaging way.

5 Ambiguous resolutions

Part of the appeal of research paper conclusions is the closure they bring; they’re supposed to wrap up arguments and clean up any loose ends. If your conclusion is ambiguous, it can give the impression that your research was incomplete, inadequate, or fundamentally flawed. Rather, write your conclusion with direct language and take a firm stance. Even if the data was inconclusive, state definitively that it was inconclusive. This kind of clarity in writing makes you sound both confident and competent.

Types of research paper conclusions with examples

Although there are no formal types of research paper conclusions, in general they tend to fall into the categories of summary , commentary , and new perspective . Bear in mind that these aren’t mutually exclusive—the same research paper conclusion can summarize and present a new perspective at the same time. Consider mixing and matching parts from each to create the unique blend your own paper needs.

Research paper conclusion example: Summary

The most common type of research paper conclusion is the straight summary, which succinctly repeats the key points of the paper. Keep in mind that a conclusion should do more than merely summarize, so be sure to add some lines that offer extra value or insight.

Like all great scientists, Isaac Newton was able to condense his ideas, however complicated, into the simple and brief laws discussed above. Newton’s law of inertia, his law of action/reaction, and his equation of F=ma —along with his law of gravity, also discussed above—combine to form the very foundation of classical mechanics. Without his laws, physics as we know it wouldn’t exist.

Research paper conclusion example: Commentary

The conclusion can be an opportunity for a writer to share their own personal views. This is especially useful in scientific writing, where the body of the paper is reserved for data and facts, and the conclusion is the only section for personal opinion. Just be careful about getting too subjective—this is still a research paper, not a personal essay .

As you can see by the cause-and-effect relationships pointed out above, an attack on journalism in one part of the world is an attack on journalism everywhere. Though the issue might seem distant, it’s actually right on our doorstep. All of us need to start standing up to the powers that censor the truth and defend the brave journalists who risk their lives to deliver it.

Research paper conclusion example: New perspective

Research paper conclusions are the perfect place to offer a new perspective on your topic. After presenting all your evidence and research, you can now draw connections and synthesize the data to create a unifying theory or new angle. The conclusion is the best place to include this, as the reader is already familiar with all the essential details.

You’ll notice that the studies we examined all come to the same conclusion: Remote working increases both production and employee satisfaction. Ultimately, the idea that remote work hinders productivity is a lie. In fact, the research suggests clearly that remote work should be increased, not done away with. If remote work becomes the norm instead of the exception, businesses could actually achieve new heights.

Research paper conclusion FAQs

What is the purpose of a research paper conclusion.

The purpose of a research paper conclusion is to summarize the main points of the paper, help the reader contextualize the information, and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

What should you include in a research paper conclusion?

A research paper conclusion should include a summary of the key points in your paper. Additionally, the conclusion can reframe the research in a way that’s easier for the reader to understand, often by adding urgency or explaining consequences. The conclusion is also used to mention the limitations of your research, such as an inadequate number of participants.

What are the different kinds of research paper conclusions?

Although there are no formal categories of research paper conclusion, in general research paper conclusions tend to fall into the categories of summary, commentary, and new perspective. Bear in mind that these aren’t mutually exclusive—the same research paper conclusion can both summarize the paper and present a new perspective.

conclusions when writing

Academic Phrasebank

Academic Phrasebank

Writing conclusions.

  • GENERAL LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
  • Being cautious
  • Being critical
  • Classifying and listing
  • Compare and contrast
  • Defining terms
  • Describing trends
  • Describing quantities
  • Explaining causality
  • Giving examples
  • Signalling transition
  • Writing about the past

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Writing conclusions

Conclusions are shorter sections of academic texts which usually serve two functions. The first is to summarise and bring together the main areas covered in the writing, which might be called ‘looking back’; and the second is to give a final comment or judgement on this. The final comment may also include making suggestions for improvement and speculating on future directions.

In dissertations and research papers, conclusions tend to be more complex and will also include sections on the significance of the findings and recommendations for future work. Conclusions may be optional in research articles where consolidation of the study and general implications are covered in the Discussion section. However, they are usually expected in dissertations and essays.

Restating the aims of the study

This study set out to … This paper has argued that … This essay has discussed the reasons for … In this investigation, the aim was to assess … The aim of the present research was to examine … The purpose of the current study was to determine … The main goal of the current study was to determine … This project was undertaken to design … and evaluate … The present study was designed to determine the effect of … The second aim of this study was to investigate the effects of …

Summarising main research findings

This study has identified … The research has also shown that … The second major finding was that … These experiments confirmed that … X made no significant difference to … This study has found that generally … The investigation of X has shown that … The results of this investigation show that … X, Y and Z emerged as reliable predictors of … The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that … The relevance of X is clearly supported by the current findings. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that …

Suggesting implications for the field of knowledge

The results of this study indicate that … These findings suggest that in general … The findings of this study suggest that … Taken together, these results suggest that … An implication of this is the possibility that … The evidence from this study suggests that … Overall, this study strengthens the idea that … The current data highlight the importance of … The findings of this research provide insights for …

The results of this research support the idea that … These data suggest that X can be achieved through … The theoretical implications of these findings are unclear. The principal theoretical implication of this study is that … This study has raised important questions about the nature of … Taken together, these findings suggest a role for X in promoting Y. The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies. These findings have significant implications for the understanding of how … Although this study focuses on X, the findings may well have a bearing on …

Explaining the significance of the findings or contribution of the study

The findings will be of interest to … This thesis has provided a deeper insight into … The findings reported here shed new light on … The study contributes to our understanding of … These results add to the rapidly expanding field of … The contribution of this study has been to confirm … Before this study, evidence of X was purely anecdotal. This project is the first comprehensive investigation of … The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to … This work contributes to existing knowledge of X by providing …

Prior to this study it was difficult to make predictions about how … The analysis of X undertaken here, has extended our knowledge of … The empirical findings in this study provide a new understanding of … This paper contributes to recent historiographical debates concerning … This approach will prove useful in expanding our understanding of how … This new understanding should help to improve predictions of the impact of … The methods used for this X may be applied to other Xs elsewhere in the world. The X that we have identified therefore assists in our understanding of the role of … This is the first study of substantial duration which examines associations between … The findings from this study make several contributions to the current literature. First,…

Recognising the limitations of the current study

A limitation of this study is that … Being limited to X, this study lacks … The small sample size did not allow … The major limitation of this study is the … This study was limited by the absence of … X makes these findings less generalisable to … Thirdly, the study did not evaluate the use of … It is unfortunate that the study did not include … The scope of this study was limited in terms of …

The study is limited by the lack of information on … The most important limitation lies in the fact that … The main weakness of this study was the paucity of … Since the study was limited to X, it was not possible to .. An additional uncontrolled factor is the possibility that … It was not possible to assess X; therefore, it is unknown if … An issue that was not addressed in this study was whether… The generalisability of these results is subject to certain limitations. For instance, … One source of weakness in this study which could have affected the measurements of X was …

Acknowledging limitation(s) whilst stating a finding or contribution

Notwithstanding these limitations, the study suggests that … Whilst this study did not confirm X, it did partially substantiate … Despite its exploratory nature, this study offers some insight into … In spite of its limitations, the study certainly adds to our understanding of the … Notwithstanding the relatively limited sample, this work offers valuable insights into … Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, the findings suggest …

Making recommendations for further research work

Future studies should… The question raised by this study is … The study should be repeated using … This would be a fruitful area for further work. Several questions still remain to be answered. A natural progression of this work is to analyse … More research using controlled trials is needed to … More broadly, research is also needed to determine … A further study could assess the long-term effects of … What is now needed is a cross-national study involving …

Considerably more work will need to be done to determine … The precise mechanism of X in plants remains to be elucidated. These findings provide the following insights for future research: … Large randomised controlled trials could provide more definitive evidence. This research has thrown up many questions in need of further investigation. A greater focus on X could produce interesting findings that account more for … The issue of X is an intriguing one which could be usefully explored in further research. If the debate is to be moved forward, a better understanding of X needs to be developed. I suggest that before X is introduced, a study similar to this one should be carried out on … More information on X would help us to establish a greater degree of accuracy on this matter.

Setting out recommendations for practice or policy

Other types of X could include: a), b). … There is, therefore, a definite need for … Greater efforts are needed to ensure … Provision of X will enhance Y and reduce Z. Another important practical implication is that … Moreover, more X should be made available to … The challenge now is to fabricate Xs that contain … Unless governments adopt X, Y will not be attained. These findings suggest several courses of action for … A reasonable approach to tackle this issue could be to …

Continued efforts are needed to make X more accessible to … The findings of this study have a number of practical implications. There are a number of important changes which need to be made. Management to enhance bumble-bee populations might involve … This study suggests that X should be avoided by people who are prone to … A key policy priority should therefore be to plan for the long-term care of … This information can be used to develop targetted interventions aimed at … Taken together, these findings do not support strong recommendations to … Ensuring appropriate systems, services and support for X should be a priority for … The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice.

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  • 9. The Conclusion
  • Purpose of Guide
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The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. For most college-level research papers, one or two well-developed paragraphs is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, more paragraphs may be required in summarizing key findings and their significance.

Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of a Good Conclusion

A well-written conclusion provides you with important opportunities to demonstrate to the reader your understanding of the research problem. These include:

  • Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your paper . Just as the introduction gives a first impression to your reader, the conclusion offers a chance to leave a lasting impression. Do this, for example, by highlighting key findings in your analysis that advance new understanding about the research problem, that are unusual or unexpected, or that have important implications applied to practice.
  • Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study . The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly re-emphasize  the "So What?" question by placing the study within the context of how your research advances past research about the topic.
  • Identifying how a gap in the literature has been addressed . The conclusion can be where you describe how a previously identified gap in the literature [described in your literature review section] has been filled by your research.
  • Demonstrating the importance of your ideas . Don't be shy. The conclusion offers you the opportunity to elaborate on the impact and significance of your findings. This is particularly important if your study approached examining the research problem from an unusual or innovative perspective.
  • Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem . This does not refer to introducing new information [which should be avoided], but to offer new insight and creative approaches for framing or contextualizing the research problem based on the results of your study.

Bunton, David. “The Structure of PhD Conclusion Chapters.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (July 2005): 207–224; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Rules

The function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument . It reminds the reader of the strengths of your main argument(s) and reiterates the most important evidence supporting those argument(s). Do this by stating clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem you investigated in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found in the literature. Make sure, however, that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary of the findings. This reduces the impact of the argument(s) you have developed in your essay.

When writing the conclusion to your paper, follow these general rules:

  • Present your conclusions in clear, simple language. Re-state the purpose of your study, then describe how your findings differ or support those of other studies and why [i.e., what were the unique or new contributions your study made to the overall research about your topic?].
  • Do not simply reiterate your findings or the discussion of your results. Provide a synthesis of arguments presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem and the overall objectives of your study.
  • Indicate opportunities for future research if you haven't already done so in the discussion section of your paper. Highlighting the need for further research provides the reader with evidence that you have an in-depth awareness of the research problem and that further investigations should take place.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is presented well:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
  • If, prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from the data. 

The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate the research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic . Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented. However, the nature of being introspective about the research you have conducted will depend on the topic and whether your professor wants you to express your observations in this way.

NOTE : If asked to think introspectively about the topics, do not delve into idle speculation. Being introspective means looking within yourself as an author to try and understand an issue more deeply, not to guess at possible outcomes or make up scenarios not supported by the evidence.

II.  Developing a Compelling Conclusion

Although an effective conclusion needs to be clear and succinct, it does not need to be written passively or lack a compelling narrative. Strategies to help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your research paper may include any of the following strategies:

  • If your essay deals with a critical, contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem proactively.
  • Recommend a specific course or courses of action that, if adopted, could address a specific problem in practice or in the development of new knowledge.
  • Cite a relevant quotation or expert opinion already noted in your paper in order to lend authority and support to the conclusion(s) you have reached [a good place to look is research from your literature review].
  • Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change.
  • Restate a key statistic, fact, or visual image to emphasize the most important finding of your paper.
  • If your discipline encourages personal reflection, illustrate your concluding point by drawing from your own life experiences.
  • Return to an anecdote, an example, or a quotation that you presented in your introduction, but add further insight derived from the findings of your study; use your interpretation of results to recast it in new or important ways.
  • Provide a "take-home" message in the form of a succinct, declarative statement that you want the reader to remember about your study.

III. Problems to Avoid

Failure to be concise Your conclusion section should be concise and to the point. Conclusions that are too lengthy often have unnecessary information in them. The conclusion is not the place for details about your methodology or results. Although you should give a summary of what was learned from your research, this summary should be relatively brief, since the emphasis in the conclusion is on the implications, evaluations, insights, and other forms of analysis that you make. Strategies for writing concisely can be found here .

Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues In the introduction, your task was to move from the general [the field of study] to the specific [the research problem]. However, in the conclusion, your task is to move from a specific discussion [your research problem] back to a general discussion [i.e., how your research contributes new understanding or fills an important gap in the literature]. In short, the conclusion is where you should place your research within a larger context [visualize your paper as an hourglass--start with a broad introduction and review of the literature, move to the specific analysis and discussion, conclude with a broad summary of the study's implications and significance].

Failure to reveal problems and negative results Negative aspects of the research process should never be ignored. These are problems, deficiencies, or challenges encountered during your study should be summarized as a way of qualifying your overall conclusions. If you encountered negative or unintended results [i.e., findings that are validated outside the research context in which they were generated], you must report them in the results section and discuss their implications in the discussion section of your paper. In the conclusion, use your summary of the negative results as an opportunity to explain their possible significance and/or how they may form the basis for future research.

Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to be able to discuss how your research fits within your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem. This element of your conclusion may be only a few sentences long.

Failure to match the objectives of your research Often research objectives in the social sciences change while the research is being carried out. This is not a problem unless you forget to go back and refine the original objectives in your introduction. As these changes emerge they must be documented so that they accurately reflect what you were trying to accomplish in your research [not what you thought you might accomplish when you began].

Resist the urge to apologize If you've immersed yourself in studying the research problem, you presumably should know a good deal about it [perhaps even more than your professor!]. Nevertheless, by the time you have finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you have produced. Repress those doubts! Don't undermine your authority by saying something like, "This is just one approach to examining this problem; there may be other, much better approaches that...." The overall tone of your conclusion should convey confidence to the reader.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Concluding Paragraphs. College Writing Center at Meramec. St. Louis Community College; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Freedman, Leora  and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Leibensperger, Summer. Draft Your Conclusion. Academic Center, the University of Houston-Victoria, 2003; Make Your Last Words Count. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin Madison; Miquel, Fuster-Marquez and Carmen Gregori-Signes. “Chapter Six: ‘Last but Not Least:’ Writing the Conclusion of Your Paper.” In Writing an Applied Linguistics Thesis or Dissertation: A Guide to Presenting Empirical Research . John Bitchener, editor. (Basingstoke,UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 93-105; Tips for Writing a Good Conclusion. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Writing Conclusions. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

Don't Belabor the Obvious!

Avoid phrases like "in conclusion...," "in summary...," or "in closing...." These phrases can be useful, even welcome, in oral presentations. But readers can see by the tell-tale section heading and number of pages remaining to read, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your readers if you belabor the obvious.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Another Writing Tip

New Insight, Not New Information!

Don't surprise the reader with new information in your conclusion that was never referenced anywhere else in the paper and, as such, the conclusion rarely has citations to sources. If you have new information to present, add it to the discussion or other appropriate section of the paper. Note that, although no actual new information is introduced, the conclusion, along with the discussion section, is where you offer your most "original" contributions in the paper; the conclusion is where you describe the value of your research, demonstrate that you understand the material that you’ve presented, and locate your findings within the larger context of scholarship on the topic, including describing how your research contributes new insights or valuable insight to that scholarship.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

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Essay Writing Guide

How To Write A Conclusion

Last updated on: Jun 16, 2023

How to Write a Conclusion - Examples & Tips

By: Nova A.

13 min read

Reviewed By: Rylee W.

Published on: Mar 26, 2019

How to Write a Conclusion

Do you find yourself struggling to write a strong conclusion while writing essays or academic papers, leaving your work feeling unfinished?

The conclusion is the opportunity to leave a final impression on your readers and effectively wrap up your arguments. Yet, many students struggle to find the right balance between summarizing their main points and delivering a powerful closing statement.

But fear not, as we're here to help! 

In this blog, we will provide you with a comprehensive guide on how to write a compelling conclusion. We will share valuable techniques and strategies to ensure your conclusion leaves a memorable impact, providing a sense of closure and reinforcing the significance of your work. So, let's dive into the blog!

How to Write a Conclusion

On this Page

What is a Conclusion?

In the context of academic or formal writing, a conclusion refers to the final part of an essay, research paper, or any other written piece. It serves as a summary of the main points discussed and provides a final perspective or judgment on the topic.

The purpose of a conclusion is to: 

  • Summarize the main points and arguments presented in the text.
  • Restates the thesis statement or main argument.
  • Provides closure to the piece of writing.
  • Leaves a lasting impression on the reader.
  • Demonstrates the significance or implications of the ideas discussed.
  • Avoids introducing new information or arguments.
  • May offer recommendations, propose further areas of research, or provide a call to action.
  • Encourages reflection and deeper understanding of the topic.

Remember writing a conclusion does not mean simply repeating all the points but providing a broader implication of the discussed topic while sticking to the main idea.

Conclusion Outline

Here's an outline for structuring a conclusion:

How to Write a Conclusion?

In this section, we will outline the essential steps to help you craft an engaging and impactful conclusion.

How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph -5StarEssays.com

1. Restate the Thesis Statement and Introduction

Begin your conclusion by revisiting the thesis statement and the key points introduced in the essay's introduction. This ensures a cohesive ending that reinforces the main idea and purpose of your work.  Consider tweaking the wording and incorporating the main idea from your thesis statement to create a seamless connection.

2. Create a Connection between the Opening and Closing

Maintain continuity in your essay by linking the ending to the introduction. Reflect on the main points discussed initially and demonstrate how they have been addressed and expanded upon in the body of your work.  This connection enhances the overall flow and coherence of your essay.

3. Revise and Summarize the Main Points

If your essay comprises multiple body paragraphs exploring a complex topic, take the opportunity to revise. Condense the main points discussed in each paragraph.  Rather than simply summarizing, emphasize the significance and relevance of these points to the overall topic.

For instance , if your essay focused on the causes of obesity, highlight the main reasons and their implications in your concluding sentence.

4. Provide an Insight and Call to Action

Make your conclusion thought-provoking by offering insights or suggesting further action related to the topic. This leaves a lasting impact on your readers and encourages them to contemplate the subject matter beyond your essay. 

For example, you can conclude by stating, " Taking proactive measures such as monitoring your calorie intake using dedicated apps can contribute significantly to the fight against obesity ."

Want to craft a conclusion in under 5 minutes? Check out this video!

Types of Conclusion

When it comes to writing conclusions, there are various types that you can employ based on the purpose and nature of your essay or paper. Here are some common types of conclusions:

  • Summary Conclusion: This type of conclusion provides a concise summary of the main points discussed in the essay or paper. It briefly restates the key arguments or findings without introducing new information.
  • Synthesis Conclusion: A synthesis conclusion goes beyond summarizing the main points and aims to connect different ideas presented in the essay. It emphasizes the relationships and connections between various arguments or evidence.
  • Call to Action Conclusion: In a call-to-action conclusion, the writer encourages the reader to take a specific course of action. This type of conclusion is often used in persuasive essays or argumentative essays.
  • Implication or Significance Conclusion: An implication or significance conclusion discusses the broader implications and significance of the essay's findings or arguments. It explains the relevance and impact of the topic in a larger context, highlighting its importance and potential consequences.
  • Future Research Conclusion: When writing a research paper, a future research conclusion suggests potential areas for further exploration or study. It identifies gaps in the existing research and proposes questions or topics that could be addressed in future research endeavors.
  • Personal Reflection Conclusion: A personal reflection conclusion allows the writer to share their own thoughts, insights, or experiences related to the topic. It adds a personal touch and perspective to the conclusion, helping to create a deeper connection with the reader.

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Helpful Conclusion Examples

Here are some good conclusion examples:

Research Paper Conclusion Example

‘How to write a conclusion for a research paper ?’

Here is a research paper conclusion example that begins with restating the problem discussed in the paper and ends with a call to action.

Report Conclusion Example

‘How to write a conclusion for a report ?’

Reports serve different purposes, such as providing a deeper understanding of a subject and motivating readers to take action. They can cover various forms of content, including book reviews and general reports.

Here is a sample report conclusion;

Thesis Conclusion Example

‘How to write a conclusion for a thesis ?’

Argumentative Essay Conclusion Example

How to write a conclusion for an argumentative essay ?

Persuasive Essay Conclusion Example

‘How to write a conclusion for a persuasive essay ?’

Example of Conclusion For Assignment

How To Write a Conclusion In An Essay

How To Write a Conclusion Sentence

How To Write a Conclusion To a Paper

Good Conclusion vs Poor Conclusion

Tough Essay Due? Hire Tough Writers!

Tips to Write a Good Conclusion

Here are some tips to write an effective and great conclusion:

  • End the essay and conclusion with a positive note .
  • Remind the importance of your idea or research question.
  • Link back to the themes discussed in the introduction.
  • Summarize the main points without repeating them.
  • Propose a course of action and implications of your arguments.
  • Do not introduce any new information at this stage.
  • Don’t include every single detail shared in the body.
  • If your essay isn’t in the first person, don’t end with your personal thoughts .
  • Avoid using sentences such as “I’m no expert, but this is my opinion…”
  • Don’t start with phrases such as “To conclude, to sum it up, in conclusion…”
  • Don’t share any evidence in this section that should’ve been stated in the body.

Mistakes to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion

Here are the mistakes to avoid when writing a conclusion:

  • Introducing new information not previously discussed.
  • Repeating the introduction without adding a fresh perspective.
  • Being vague or general without depth or precision.
  • Neglecting to emphasize the significance or implications of your work.
  • Ending abruptly without a clear final thought or statement.
  • Ignoring the expectations and needs of your target audience.
  • Failing to revise and edit for clarity and impact.

Wrapping Up! Crafting a strong and effective conclusion paragraph is essential to provide coherence and closure to your essay. It should avoid introducing new ideas, themes, or evidence, as this can confuse readers and diminish the impact of your paper. By implementing these guidelines, you can ensure that your assignments conclude on a memorable and impressive note. However, if you still find yourself in need of assistance, don't hesitate to consult the essay experts at 5StarEssays.com. 

Request our " write my essay " service today and let us guide you every step of your writing journey. Reach out to us now!

Frequently Asked Questions

How many sentences are in conclusion.

Usually, a conclusion is two to three sentences long. The aim of a conclusion is to conclude the main ideas and not to introduce any new points for the readers.

What is a concluding sentence in a body paragraph?

In a body paragraph, the last line is the concluding sentence. It provides closure to the paragraph and connects all the ideas together. However, it does not repeat any ideas and transits to the next section or paragraph.

Can you have quotes in your conclusion?

Ideally, no, you must not place any quotes in the concluding sentence. However, quotes could be added here only when you are referencing someone.

Nova A.

Marketing, Law

As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.

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How to Write a Strong Blog Conclusion (+7 Examples)

How to Write a Strong Blog Conclusion (+7 Examples)

Table of contents

conclusions when writing

Christian Rigg

An effective conclusion is often a simple one:

An effective conclusion is often a simple one:

Writing a conclusion for your blog article can feel a bit like a necessary evil.

You know it’s important. A strong conclusion helps your readers understand the importance of your article. It can encourage them to come back, participate in a discussion, share your content, and more.

But it's not always obvious how to write a conclusion that checks all the right boxes. And after spending all your time and energy writing the rest of your article, the conclusion might seem like a chore.

Fortunately, there are simple and effective methods you can use to write an impactful conclusion every time.

As a writer, editor, and account manager for a writing agency, I've written and edited dozens of conclusions — and learned a lot along the way. In this article, I'll look at the different parts of a strong conclusion and explore seven different kinds of conclusions, with helpful examples you can use for inspiration.

Instantly write the conclusion with this tool > Get AI blog conclusion suggestions >

AI helping with conclusion

Anatomy of a strong conclusion

A good conclusion clearly and concisely summarizes the key points of your article, explains why they matter, and leaves some kind of lasting impression on readers. Including a call to action (CTA) can be an excellent way to engage your audience even after they finish the post, but if you do, it should be tactful and with clear benefit to the reader.

Let's take a look at what you should include and how to go about it.

1. Start with a topic sentence.

Briefly restate the main idea or thesis of your article. This reminds your reader of the overall context and purpose of what they’ve just read, and how all the parts of the article fit together. 

Provided the topic sentence from your introduction is clear and concise, feel free to simply adapt this.

It’s important to write this concisely. Wordtune ’s Shorten feature can help ensure this is to the point.

Wordtune’s “Shorten” feature gives helpful suggestions for writing concisely.

2. Summarize your article's main points.

Don't introduce any new information in your conclusion. Instead, summarize your main points concisely. Make it clear to the reader how these points relate to your introduction, referring to it as needed. If you've made any claims, summarize the evidence. If you've made any promises, explain how you've fulfilled them.

3. Leave a lasting emotional impression.

Appeal to your reader’s emotions by connecting the solutions you have offered in the article to the audience’s pain points, interests, or needs.

A few quick pointers on creating an emotional impact with your writing:

  • Use active voice.
  • Don't shy away from personal pronouns (e.g. "I", "we", "you").
  • Choose powerful adjectives like "bold," "tremendous," or "outstanding." 
  • Create empathy by clearly naming emotions: "frustration," "disappointment," "apprehension," "excitement," "enthusiasm," "relief," etc.

If you’re stuck looking for creative emotional phrasing, ask Wordtune to Rewrite the section for you and choose from one of the suggestions. 

conclusions when writing

4. Wrap up with a closing sentence.

Your closing sentence will depend largely on your topic and what you hope to achieve. For example, if your article is promotional or commercial in nature, close with a call to action (CTA). If it's educational, focus on what readers can do with their new knowledge. Try to connect your article to some broader context: How does it relate to the world? To the industry? To the problem solved?

Seven ways to write a conclusion

Of course, there's no end to the number of ways you can write a solid conclusion. Nonetheless, these seven strategies work in a wide range of situations and are simple to get right.

1. The sell conclusion

What: Offer your product as a solution.

Good for : Marketing material.

Marketing articles demonstrate to the reader how a product, service, or feature will benefit them. Your introduction presents a problem, and the body of your article expands on it. It may also explain how your product or service can help. Your conclusion should make the connection between the problem and your solution clear and impactful.

Here’s an example from bikepacking company Apidura .

Apidura

Here, Apidura reiterates a problem from the article (long stretches between resupply) and ties it to a solution: hydration vests, specifically the company’s Racing Hydration Vest.

2. The further resources conclusion

What: Offer a resource to the reader. (Call to action)

Good for : Articles with templates or downloadable materials.

Offering a resource for the reader to use is a great way to provide a concrete solution to a problem. This can be especially beneficial when readers are looking for a solution they can start using right away. 

Here’s an example from the Wordtune blog article How to Write a Business Case (+Free Template):

Business case: The stepping stone to a project’s success

A business case isn’t just a theoretical document — it’s a breathing file that lays the groundwork for your action plan and helps you get tangible results.

Building a solid business case doesn’t just get stakeholders' buy-in, but also gives you a crystal clear vision for your project and makes execution less daunting. 

‍ Download the business case template  to make your own easily and use  Wordtune  to make it tight as a drum. I hope you receive an overwhelming “yes” to your proposal!

To help readers get started straight away, the conclusion includes a link to a downloadable business case template. Free resources like these offer great value to readers and encourage them to come back for more.

3. The discussion conclusion

What: Start a discussion with questions

Good for : Opinion pieces, LinkedIn articles, and others with comments

Whether on your own blog, a forum, or LinkedIn, encouraging readers to leave a comment is a great way to boost its visibility and get feedback. This is a very popular way to end a YouTube script , but it works well for articles, too. Wordtune can even suggest Counterarguments for you, which you can frame as questions for readers. 

conclusions when writing

Here's an example I cooked up:

Writing a conclusion can seem like a daunting task. Fortunately, there are simple steps and tips you can follow for crafting the perfect conclusion with ease. Following examples like the ones given above can greatly simplify the task.

Of course, there are many ways to write an impactful conclusion. Some writers argue that a conclusion should simply state the main points, without trying to introduce anything new—including a question. What do you think? We'd love to hear about it in the comments!

Alternatively, you may have specific questions related to opinions or solutions regarding your topic. Here's an example from an article on DebatingEurope . Notice the article has garnered 17 comments already.

conclusions when writing

4. The related links conclusion

What: Offer links to further reading.

Good for : Introductory articles on big topics.

Providing the reader with links to other articles on your website or blog is a great way to increase the time they spend there. Not only is this important for SEO, it means you capture more of your readers' time and attention. As a result, you have even more opportunities to provide them with value, offer solutions, and promote your product or service.

You can do this by weaving links directly into the text, like in this conclusion from TechRadar:

If you’re interested in diving into the world of livestreaming, now’s a good time to give it a shot so you can be prepared for when YouTube expands Go Live Together – since, let's be honest, a desktop version feels like an inevitability. Be sure to check out TechRadar’s list of the best free streaming software featuring the likes of OBS Studio and Steamlabs on there.

You may even want to provide a list of links, like in the next TechRadar conclusion .

conclusions when writing

5. The share request conclusion

What: Invite the reader to post and share. (Call to action)

Good for : Tips, listicles, advice pieces, and more.

Encouraging your readers to share your content is a simple way to increase its reach. It allows you to impact new audiences without any additional cost or effort on your part. People sharing your content, whether by linking to it on their own blog or via social media, is also hugely beneficial for SEO. Google — and readers — see it as a mark of expertise, authority, and trustworthiness.

You can go with the standard, "If you liked this article, be sure to comment, like, share and subscribe."

But more creative formulations can go much further. Here’s an example that appeals to the reader's sense of empathy:

We hope you found these tips and examples useful! If so, we'd really appreciate it if you could share this article with one or two of your friends or colleagues. In doing so, you'll be helping us create more useful content for readers like you.

Did somebody share this article with you? If so, you may have a friend or colleague who'd be interested in it. You can click any of the links below to share this article and all the resources in it.

Just be sure it's easy for your readers to share your article. If your blog or website doesn't already include one-click share buttons for Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and other popular social media platforms, add them now.

6. The sign up conclusion

What: Invite the reader to sign up for a newsletter or podcast. (Call to action)

Good for : News pieces and articles with high value to readers.

Subscribers to your newsletter, podcast, or other regular content are hugely valuable assets. They've already demonstrated loyalty and interest by signing up, and you can easily keep them engaged with regular content.

This works especially well for news pieces, as you can encourage the reader to sign up for more news like it. It also works well for pieces where you've been able to offer a lot of value to the reader and show them the possible benefits of hearing from you on a regular basis.

Here's another example from the Apidura blog :

conclusions when writing

7. The "up ahread" conclusion

What: Tell the reader what to expect next

Good for : Article series.

Turning occasional readers into loyal fans is hard, but well worth the effort. Writing a series of articles that looks at a topic from different angles or walks readers through some complex task or subject can help achieve this. To keep readers engaged, be sure they know what the next article will focus on and when they can expect it.

Here’s another original example:

In this article, we looked at how to write a great conclusion to any article. As a general rule, you should start with a topic sentence that reiterates the main problem or subject of the article. Then, summarize your main points with emotive language for greater impact. Finally, wrap up with a closing sentence—something that leaves the reader thinking or calls on them to act (CTA).

This is the second article in our series on how to write a great blog article. In the first article, we looked at How to Write an Introduction . Next week, we'll show you how to create an outline for any article, how it can help you write more clearly and quickly, and what needs to be included. Plus, we'll offer some examples from successful articles of our own.

In addition to teasing the next article, we can also link to the first article — two birds with one stone.

Conclusion (see what we did there?)

Ready to get a bit meta? Here we go: concluding our article on conclusions!

People often get stuck on conclusions because they're so important. It’s a critical skill and essential to writing top-ranking blog posts . 

But there's a simple formula you can use to simplify the process. Start with a topic sentence borrowed from the introduction (like the first sentence of this paragraph). Summarize your main points (like this). Then close with a sentence that encourages the reader to think or act (see below — did we get it right?). Refer to the examples above for inspiration. (In fact, why not bookmark this page?)

Author Dan Chaon said, “A conclusion is simply the place where you got tired of thinking.” But I'd say it’s where you decide to pass the baton to your reader. What do you think?

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An Overview of the Writing Process

Conclusions, what this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate your drafted conclusions, and suggest conclusion strategies to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult parts of papers to write. While the body is often easier to write, it needs a frame around it. An introduction and conclusion frame your thoughts and bridge your ideas for the reader.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to summarize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion.

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then  ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go:

You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass.

Friend: So what?

You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen.

Friend: Why should anybody care?

You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally.

You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.

  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize: Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes. 
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave  community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find the latest publications on this topic. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial .

All quotations are from:

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave , edited and with introduction by Houston A. Baker, Jr., New York: Penguin Books, 1986.

Strategies for Writing a Conclusion. Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University. 18 May 2005 < http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html >.

Conclusions. Nesbitt-Johnston Writing Center, Hamilton College. 17 May 2005 <http://www.hamilton.edu/academic/Resource/WC/SampleConclusions.html>.

  • Conclusions. Provided by : The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Located at : http://writingcenter.unc.edu/ . License : CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives

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  • College essay

How to End a College Admissions Essay | 4 Winning Strategies

Published on October 16, 2021 by Meredith Testa . Revised on May 31, 2023.

The ending of your college essay should leave your reader with a sense of closure and a strong final impression.

Table of contents

Endings to avoid, option 1: return to the beginning, option 2: look forward, option 3: reveal your main point, option 4: end on an action, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about college application essays.

A bad conclusion can bring your whole essay down, so make sure to avoid these common mistakes.

Summarizing

Unlike an academic essay, an admissions essay shouldn’t restate your points. Avoid ending with a summary; there’s no need to repeat what you’ve already written.

Phrases like “in conclusion,” “overall,” or “to sum it up” signal that you have nothing to add to what you’ve already written, so an admissions officer may stop reading.

Stating the obvious

Instead of stating the obvious, let your work speak for itself and allow readers to draw their own conclusions. If your essay details various times that you worked tirelessly to go above and beyond, don’t finish it by stating “I’m hardworking.” Admissions officers are smart enough to figure that out on their own.

You should also avoid talking about how you hope to be accepted. Admissions officers know you want to be accepted—that’s why you applied! It’s okay to connect what you discuss in the essay to your potential future career or college experience, but don’t beg for admission. Stay focused on your essay’s core topic.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Many successful essays follow a “sandwich,” or full-circle, structure , meaning that they start with some image or idea, veer away from it in the middle, and then return to it at the end.

This structure is clean, self-contained, and satisfying for readers, so it’s a great choice if it works with the topic you’ve chosen.

In the “sandwich” essay outlined below, a student discusses his passion for musical theater. Instead of simply stating that interest, his essay starts with a funny anecdote about a minor fire that erupted on set. At the end, it returns to this anecdote, creating a sense of closure.

  • Intro: I may be the world’s worst firefighter.
  • Flashback to working on the school musical
  • Demonstrate my passion for theatre
  • Detail the story of the theater set catching fire
  • Show how I made the most of the situation
  • Conclusion: I proved my value as a director, an actor, and a writer that week一even if I was a terrible firefighter.

Many successful essays end by looking forward to the future. These endings are generally hopeful and positive—always great qualities in an admissions essay—and often connect the student to the college or their academic goals.

Although these endings can be highly effective, it can be challenging to keep them from sounding cliché. Keep your ending specific to you, and don’t default to generalities, which can make your essay seem bland and unoriginal.

Below are a good and a bad example of how you could write a “looking forward” ending for the musical theater “firefighter” essay.

Sometimes, holding back your main point can be a good strategy. If your essay recounts several experiences, you could save your main message for the conclusion, only explaining what ties all the stories together at the very end.

When done well, this ending leaves the reader thinking about the main point you want them to take from your essay. It’s also a memorable structure that can stand out.

However, if you choose this approach, it can be challenging to keep the essay interesting enough that the reader pays attention throughout.

In the essay outlined below, a student gives us snapshots of her experience of gymnastics at different stages in her life. In the conclusion, she ties the stories together and shares the insight that they taught her about different aspects of her character and values.

  • Passionate, excited
  • Sister born that day—began to consider people beyond myself
  • Realizing that no matter how much I love gymnastics, there are more important things
  • I’d been working especially hard to qualify for that level
  • It came after many setbacks and failures
  • I had to give up time with friends, first homecoming dance of high school, and other activities, and I considered quitting
  • Conclusion: I’m still all of those selves: the passionate 7-year-old, the caring 11-year-old, and the determined 15-year-old. Gymnastics has been a constant throughout my life, but beyond the balance beam, it has also shown me how to change and grow.

Ending on an action can be a strong way to wrap up your essay. That might mean including a literal action, dialogue, or continuation of the story.

These endings leave the reader wanting more rather than wishing the essay had ended sooner. They’re interesting and can help you avoid boring your reader.

Here’s an example of how this ending could work for the gymnastics essay.

If you want to know more about academic writing , effective communication , or parts of speech , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Academic writing

  • Writing process
  • Transition words
  • Passive voice
  • Paraphrasing

 Communication

  • How to end an email
  • Ms, mrs, miss
  • How to start an email
  • I hope this email finds you well
  • Hope you are doing well

 Parts of speech

  • Personal pronouns
  • Conjunctions

There are a few strategies you can use for a memorable ending to your college essay :

  • Return to the beginning with a “full circle” structure
  • Reveal the main point or insight in your story
  • Look to the future
  • End on an action

The best technique will depend on your topic choice, essay outline, and writing style. You can write several endings using different techniques to see which works best.

Unlike a five-paragraph essay, your admissions essay should not end by summarizing the points you’ve already made. It’s better to be creative and aim for a strong final impression.

You should also avoid stating the obvious (for example, saying that you hope to be accepted).

There are no set rules for how to structure a college application essay , but these are two common structures that work:

  • A montage structure, a series of vignettes with a common theme.
  • A narrative structure, a single story that shows your personal growth or how you overcame a challenge.

Avoid the five-paragraph essay structure that you learned in high school.

When revising your college essay , first check for big-picture issues regarding message, flow, tone, style , and clarity. Then, focus on eliminating grammar and punctuation errors.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Testa, M. (2023, May 31). How to End a College Admissions Essay | 4 Winning Strategies. Scribbr. Retrieved February 21, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/college-essay/conclusion-college-essay/

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Why the release of Michael Gallup is a foregone conclusion for the Cowboys this offseason

The writing has been on the wall for a certain Cowboys veteran wide receiver.

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Dallas Cowboys v Philadelphia Eagles

It was around this time two years ago the Dallas Cowboys had to make a big decision about what they wanted to do at wide receiver. The team had rising star CeeDee Lamb under player control for three more seasons, but that was the only given for the team’s wide receiver group. The Cowboys needed to decide if they wanted to continue to pay Amari Cooper $20 million a year despite a slight dip in production where he was coming off his worst per-game totals in receptions, yards, and catch percentage over his past four seasons with the team. If not, the Cowboys could choose a cheaper route and pay unrestricted free agent Michael Gallup after already proving he could be a viable WR2 for this offense.

Ultimately, the team went with the latter as they traded away Cooper in a salary dump move and signed Gallup to a five-year, $57.5 million deal. From a financial sense, this move looked smart. Cooper, while still very good, was now the second fiddle to Lamb and the team felt like they wouldn’t be losing much with Gallup at WR2 at almost half the price. And Gallup’s $11.5 million annual cost would look better and better with each new season.

Sadly, things did not go as expected. Cooper has been tearing it up in Cleveland putting up over 2,400 yards over the past two seasons with his new team. In terms of yardage, it’s the best two-year stretch Cooper has ever had throughout his entire career. And to make matters worse, Gallup has been almost non-existent. In 2022, he only had 39 catches and 424 yards across 14 games, putting up just 30.3 yards per game, his worst per-game outage over his five-year career. Most of us chalked that up to the slow recovery as he was coming off a knee injury in the regular-season finale the year prior.

With another year removed from his knee surgery, fans expected bigger things from him this past season, but despite playing in all 17 games, his numbers were even worse. He only had 34 catches for 418 yards with a new career-low per-game outage of just 24.6 yards a game. His production had become just 33% of the prime Gallup we were seeing back in 2019.

Something is just not right with Gallup. It’s sad to see things play out this way. Gallup is such a high-character guy and his teammates love him. He also brought a unique flare to the Cowboys' receiving game. Whether he was galloping through traffic with that hitch in his giddy-up, high-pointing the ball on contested passes, or showing remarkable concentration on sideline toe drags, he never ceased to amaze us with fun highlights over his career.

Sadly, those moments have become few and far between. He was once believed to be a nice bang for the Cowboys' buck, but now, he’s just a waste of money. The financial situation for Gallup breaks down like this ( numbers courtesy of spotrac.com ).

conclusions when writing

Some things to understand about his contract - the Cowboys still must account for all of his remaining signing bonus ($2M x 3) and his restructure money ($2.35M x 3), which amounts to a smidge over $13 million. That money will count against the cap one way or another. If they released him this offseason, that would be his dead money hit which the Cowboys could absorb all at once or spread out across two years if they designated him a post-June 1st cut.

If the Cowboys decided to hang on to him, it would tack on the base salary + roster bonus figures for any additional season. Or, to simplify things, here are the financial implications of keeping Gallup around for the following scenarios:

Cost of doing business with Michael Gallup...

It’s just not sensible to pay Gallup another $8.5 million for what he’s giving the team. And considering Lamb and Brandin Cooks already take up $28 million of this year’s cap, adding another chunk of change to that amount wouldn’t be smart.

With Lamb and Cooks on the team, the Cowboys can find a cheaper way to supplement WR3 productions. The two Jalen’s, Tolbert and Brooks, are young and on cheap rookie deals. They both had great training camps last year and could be more productive with an expanded role. The same is true for last year’s UDFA David Durden who was flashing something in camp before an injury ended his season before it started. And Kavontae Turpin is also still under player control for one more season.

Between the guys the Cowboys already have and maybe another upcoming draft pick, the team has options, but hanging on to Gallup isn’t one of them. This team is strapped for cash and it seems inevitable that they will move on from him. And that decision will be made soon because $4 million of Gallup’s 2024 base salary becomes guaranteed on March 18th and the Cowboys won’t want to add on any additional costs.

The Cowboys had a plan, but it didn’t work out, so now it’s time to come up with a new plan. Gallup is a sunk cost, and the Cowboys need to be careful to not compound past mistakes with new ones.

More From Blogging The Boys

  • Florida State wide receiver Keon Coleman is an appealing draft prospect for the Dallas Cowboys
  • Cowboys ‘unlikely’ to use the franchise tag on pending free agents
  • A behind-the-scenes look at the Cowboys’ analytics overhaul under Mike McCarthy: Part 2
  • Cowboys news: What some ‘all-in’ moves could look like for Dallas
  • NFC East news: Free agency decisions for Giants, Eagles; Joe Whitt Jr. excited to coach Allen, Payne
  • Cowboys QB Dak Prescott could command around $60M per year in contract extension conversations

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  1. How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay: Expert Tips and Examples

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  2. Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper

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  3. How to write a conclusion in a college essay

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  4. Best Tips and Help on How to Write a Conclusion for Your Essay

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  5. Guide to Writing Conclusions

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  1. Conclusions

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  4. How to draw meaningful and data-driven research conclusions

  5. Tips for Writing Better Conclusions

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COMMENTS

  1. Conclusions

    Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject.

  2. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    1 Restate your thesis As you set out to write your conclusion and end your essay on an insightful note, you'll want to start by restating your thesis. Since the thesis is the central idea of your entire essay, it's wise to remind the reader of the purpose of your paper.

  3. Ending the Essay: Conclusions

    Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion. To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:

  4. How to Write a Conclusion (With Tips and Examples)

    How to write a conclusion An effective conclusion is created by following these steps: 1. Restate the thesis An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the purpose of the essay. However, avoid repeating the thesis verbatim. Paraphrase your argument slightly while still preserving the primary point. 2.

  5. Conclusions

    Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang (!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message. The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers: Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).

  6. Conclusions

    Conclusions | Writing Advice: The Barker Underground Blog Tips for Reading an Assignment Prompt What Do Introductions Across the Disciplines Have in Common? Anatomy of a Body Paragraph Strategies for Essay Writing: Downloadable PDFs Brief Guides to Writing in the Disciplines English Grammar and Language Tutor Harvard Guide to Using Sources

  7. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction. Example: Returning to the thesis

  8. Conclusions

    A conclusion is an important part of the paper; it provides closure for the reader while reminding the reader of the contents and importance of the paper. It accomplishes this by stepping back from the specifics in order to view the bigger picture of the document. In other words, it is reminding the reader of the main argument.

  9. How to Write a Conclusion for Your Next Writing Project

    Conclusions are at the end of nearly every form of writing. A good conclusion paragraph can change a reader's mind when they reach the end of your work, and knowing how to write a thorough, engaging conclusion can make your writing more impactful.

  10. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    Conclusions aren't especially difficult to write and can even be fun, but you still need to put in effort to make them work. Ultimately, a strong conclusion is just as important as an effective introduction for a successful paper. Here, we explain the purpose of a conclusion and how to write a conclusion paragraph using a simple three-step process.

  11. How to Write a Conclusion: Full Writing Guide with Examples

    How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper. Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer. Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem.

  12. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

    Step 1: Answer your research question. Step 2: Summarize and reflect on your research. Step 3: Make future recommendations. Step 4: Emphasize your contributions to your field. Step 5: Wrap up your thesis or dissertation. Full conclusion example. Conclusion checklist. Other interesting articles.

  13. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    Step 1: Restate the problem Step 2: Sum up the paper Step 3: Discuss the implications Research paper conclusion examples Frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions Step 1: Restate the problem The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem.

  14. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

    Research paper conclusions are a great place to revisit your initial thesis statement, a sentence that encapsulates the main topic or problem your paper addresses. Thesis statements are discussed heavily at the beginning of a paper, but they can be even stronger when you reintroduce them at the end, after you've presented all your evidence.

  15. How to Write a Conclusion (With Examples and Tips)

    Here are the basic parts of a conclusion: 1. Topic sentence. A topic sentence is where you repeat your thesis statement. Make sure it is rephrased to avoid redundancy, but it is still a compelling and well-written sentence. The topic sentence should make an impact and catch the reader's attention. 2.

  16. Conclusions

    Conclusions | Writing Skills Lab Conclusions Learning Objectives Identify successful strategies for writing introductions and conclusions Evaluate successful strategies for writing introductions and conclusions First off, try to avoid beginning your conclusion with the words "In conclusion."

  17. Academic Phrasebank

    Conclusions are shorter sections of academic texts which usually serve two functions. The first is to summarise and bring together the main areas covered in the writing, which might be called 'looking back'; and the second is to give a final comment or judgement on this. The final comment may also include making suggestions for improvement ...

  18. Introductions & Conclusions

    Introductions and conclusions are important components of any academic paper. Introductions and conclusions should also be included in non-academic writing, such as emails, webpages, or business and technical documents. The following provides information on how to write introductions and conclusions in both academic and non-academic writing.

  19. 9. The Conclusion

    "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8. Structure and Writing Style. I. General Rules. The function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument. It reminds the reader of the strengths of your main argument(s) and reiterates the most important ...

  20. How to Write a Conclusion

    When it comes to writing conclusions, there are various types that you can employ based on the purpose and nature of your essay or paper. Here are some common types of conclusions: Summary Conclusion: This type of conclusion provides a concise summary of the main points discussed in the essay or paper. It briefly restates the key arguments or ...

  21. Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper

    Your conclusion should also refer back to your introduction, summarize three main points of your essay and wrap it all up with a final observation. If you conclude with an interesting insight, readers will be happy to have spent time on your writing. See how a professional writer creates a thought-provoking conclusion.

  22. How to Write a Strong Blog Conclusion (+7 Examples)

    Conclusion example #1 (Backlinko) Writing a conclusion for your blog article can feel a bit like a necessary evil. You know it's important. A strong conclusion helps your readers understand the importance of your article. It can encourage them to come back, participate in a discussion, share your content, and more.

  23. Conclusions

    The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to summarize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

  24. Takeaways from Fani Willis' stunning testimony in Georgia

    The Georgia election subversion case against Donald Trump and 14 of his allies took a stunning turn Thursday when two top prosecutors testified under oath about their romantic relationship at a ...

  25. How to End a College Admissions Essay

    The conclusion is often harder to write than the college essay introduction, and you may need to rework it when revising your essay, ... Conclusion: I'm still all of those selves: the passionate 7-year-old, the caring 11-year-old, and the determined 15-year-old. Gymnastics has been a constant throughout my life, but beyond the balance beam ...

  26. Why the release of Michael Gallup is a foregone conclusion for the

    Keep Galup for three more years. $43,550,000. It's just not sensible to pay Gallup another $8.5 million for what he's giving the team. And considering Lamb and Brandin Cooks already take up ...