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How to Cite a Thesis/Dissertation in Chicago/Turabian

Academic theses and dissertations can be a good source of information when writing your own paper. They are usually accessed via a university’s database or a third party database, or found on the web. The main difference between a thesis and a dissertation is the degree type they are submitted for:

  • Thesis—A document submitted to earn a degree, such as a master’s degree, at a university.
  • Dissertation—A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.

This guide will show you how to create notes-bibliography style citations for theses and dissertations in a variety of formats using the 17th edition of the  Chicago Manual of Style.

Guide Overview

  • Citing a thesis or dissertation from a database
  • Citing a thesis or dissertation from the web
  • Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation

Citing a Thesis or Dissertation from a Database

Citation structure.

1. First name Last name, “Title” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published), page number, Database (Identification Number).

Bibliography:

Last name, First name. “Title.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published. Database (Identification Number).

Screen Shot 2014-04-07 at 1.23.21 PM

Citation Example

1. Kimberly Knight,  “Media Epidemics: Viral Structures in Literature and New Media” (PhD diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2011), 17, MLA International Bibliography (2013420395).

Knight, Kimberly.  “Media Epidemics: Viral Structures in Literature and New Media.” PhD diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2011. MLA International Bibliography (2013420395).

Citing a Thesis or Dissertation from the Web

1. First name Last name, “Title” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published), page number, URL.

Last name, First name. “Title.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., University Name, year published. URL.

ThesisDissertationImage

1. Peggy Lynn Wilson, “Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County” (PhD diss., University of Maryland, College Park, 2011), 25, https://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/11801/1/Wilson_umd_0117E_12354.pdf.

Wilson, Peggy Lynn. “Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, College Park, 2011. https://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/11801/1/Wilson_umd_0117E_12354.pdf.

Citing an Unpublished Thesis or Dissertation

In rare cases, you may need to cite a thesis or dissertation that has not yet been published. This is particularly the case if you want to cite your own work or the work of a colleague.

1. First name Last name, “Title” (unpublished manuscript, Month Day, Year last modified), format.

Last name, First name. “Title.” Unpublished manuscript, last modified Month Day, Year. Format.

1. John Doe, “A Study of Generic Topic” (unpublished manuscript, June 19, 2021), Microsoft Word file.

Doe, John. “A Study of Generic Topic.” Unpublished manuscript, last modified June 19, 2021. Microsoft Word file.

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  • Introduction to Turabian Style | Citations & Formatting

Introduction to Turabian Style | Citations & Formatting

Published on May 28, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 1, 2022.

Turabian is a version of Chicago style that’s specifically designed for students and researchers. If you’ve been told to follow Chicago style when writing your academic research paper , thesis , or dissertation , it’s usually the Turabian guidelines that will be most useful to you.

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Table of contents

What is turabian style, how do citations work in turabian style, notes and bibliography style, author-date style, turabian formatting guidelines.

Kate L. Turabian published the first edition of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations —often called “Turabian” for short—in 1937. The ninth and latest edition was published in 2018.

Where the Chicago Manual of Style is mainly aimed at publishers, Turabian is specifically aimed at students. Turabian is not a separate style from Chicago, but rather presents Chicago guidelines in a way that prioritizes student needs.

As such, Turabian differs from Chicago only in minor ways—formatting advice tailored to student papers, greater detail regarding specific citation formats —and the Turabian guidelines are the ones you should follow in your papers.

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Chicago and Turabian style both offer a choice between two citation styles: notes and bibliography, and author-date:

  • In notes and bibliography style , citations appear in footnotes or endnotes, with a bibliography or annotated bibliography at the end listing all your sources in full. This style is popular in the humanities.
  • In author-date style , in-text citations appear in parentheses, with a reference list listing all your sources at the end. This style is mainly used in the sciences.

There are two parts to a notes and bibliography citation: a Chicago footnote in the text, and an entry in your bibliography . You add a citation for all sources, whether they are primary or secondary sources , or tertiary sources .

Footnotes and endnotes

Citations in your text appear in footnotes or endnotes; the first citation of each source provides full information, while subsequent citations of the same source are usually shortened to save space.

A note is signaled by a superscript number appearing at the end of the clause or sentence the citation relates to. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear at the end of the paper. Use one or the other, not a mix of footnotes and endnotes.

Each culture “erects its own musical signposts, melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic devices to represent emotion.” 1

Bibliography

The bibliography lists full information on all the sources cited in your text. It appears at the end of your text. Bibliography entries are alphabetized by authors’ last names, so names are inverted in the bibliography with a comma separating them (e.g. “Smith, John”).

Each source is listed on a new line, with a hanging indent applied when an entry for a single source extends onto additional lines. An example of a properly formatted Turabian bibliography is shown below.

Turabian style bibliography

In the tabs below, you can explore examples of various common source types cited in Turabian notes and bibliography style. It’s always important to make sure you use credible sources .

Notes and bibliography citation examples

  • Book chapter
  • Journal article

Author-date style consists of short parenthetical in-text citations that correspond to entries in your reference list .

In-text citations

Author-date in-text citations consist of the author’s last name, the year of publication, and a page number (or other locator) if relevant. They appear at the end of the relevant clause or sentence, before any closing punctuation .

Each culture “erects its own musical signposts, melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic devices to represent emotion” (Swafford 1992, 518).

Reference list

The reference list provides full information on all the sources cited. It is presented in a similar format to the bibliography, except that the year comes immediately after the author’s name, to allow for easy cross-referencing with the in-text citations.

Turabian Reference list

Explore the tabs below to see examples of author-date citations for various common source types.

Author-date citation examples

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Unlike the Chicago Manual itself, Turabian presents guidelines for formatting an academic paper, thesis, or dissertation. The following general format guidelines should be followed unless your university provides different ones:

  • Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman.
  • Double-space the text.
  • Use 1 inch margins or larger.
  • Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch.
  • Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.

The image below shows an example of a page formatted according to Turabian guidelines.

Turabian formatting guidelines

You can also download one of our template documents for Turabian style. Just select the citation style you need to follow; the appropriate formatting is already set up in the document.

Author-date Notes and bibliography

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Caulfield, J. (2022, November 01). Introduction to Turabian Style | Citations & Formatting. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/chicago-style/turabian/

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A MANUAL FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS —also known as “Turabian”—is the gold standard for college and graduate students in virtually all academic areas. An introduction to Chicago-style formatting and citation generation, the manual aids students in clear writing, citing, and research practice. At the heart of Turabian is the idea that, no matter the format, the foundations of good research remain the same: to do it carefully, present it clearly and accurately, and follow academic standards for citation, style, and format.

THE NINTH EDITION INCLUDES:

  • comprehensive guidelines for formatting papers and preparing them for submission
  • authoritative guidance on all matters of style
  • updated to reflect The Chicago Manual of  Style , 17th edition
  • thorough coverage of Chicago-style formatting and citation
  • extensive guidelines on conducting research in digital environments

Writers need a strong research question, an evidence-based argument, to structure their work in a logical way, and to cite their sources. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , remains one of the most popular books for writers because of its timeless focus on achieving these goals. The ninth edition filters decades of expertise into modern standards. Recognizing that most students will be doing their work largely or entirely online and on screens, this new edition builds information literacy by addressing digital forms of both research and writing.

Through eight decades and millions of copies, A Manual for Writers has helped generations shape their ideas into compelling research papers. This new edition continues as the gold standard for college and graduate students in virtually all academic disciplines.

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Music Citations: Turabian/Chicago Style: Dissertations, Theses, and Papers

  • Chapters & Essays
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  • Secondary Sources: One Source Quoted in Another
  • Dissertations, Theses, and Papers
  • Citing M2s: Monuments of Music Scores
  • Citing M3s: Collected Editions of Composers
  • Sound Recordings, Film, Online Videos, and Live Performances
  • Websites, Blogs, and Social Media
  • Bibliography Tips

Dissertations (19.7.1)

B : Authors Last Name, First. "Title ."  PhD diss., University of Wherever, Year.

N : 1 AuthorFirst Name Last, "Title" (PhD diss., University of Wherever, Year), page numbers.

B : McMann, Sam. "A Harmonic Analysis of John Cage's 4'33." PhD diss., University of Smartsville, 2004.

N : 1 Sam McMann, "A Harmonic Analysis of John Cage's 4'33" (PhD diss., University of Smartsville, 2004), 16.

For a thesis, use the citation style for a dissertation, but replace "PhD diss." with "master's thesis."

Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings (19.7.2)

B : Carvalho Filho, Irineu de, and Renato P. Colistete. "Education Performance: Was It All Determined 100 Years Ago? Evidence from São Paolo, Brazil." Paper presented at the 70th annual meeting of the Economic History Association, Evanston, IL, September 24-26, 2010. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24494/1/MPRA_paper-24494.pdf.

N : 1 Viviana Hong, "Censorship in Children's Literature during Argentina's Dirty War (1976-1983)" (lecture, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, April 30, 2015).

N : 2 Julie Leininger Pycior, "Trailblazers and Harbingers: Mexicans in New York before 1970" (paper presented at the 130th annual meeting of the American Historical Society, Atlanta, GA, January 8, 2016).

The Doctor of Musical Arts ( DMA ) is a doctoral academic degree in music. The DMA combines advanced studies in an applied area of specialization (usually music performance, music composition, or conducting) with graduate-level academic study in subjects such as music history, music theory, or music pedagogy. The DMA degree usually takes about three to four years of full-time study to complete (in addition to the master's and bachelor's degrees), preparing students to be professional performers, conductors, and composers. As a terminal degree, the DMA qualifies its recipient to work in university, college, and conservatory teaching/research positions. Students seeking doctoral training in musicology or music theory typically enter a PhD program, rather than a DMA program. 

A  thesis is the name given to document (often under 100 pages of writing) that is a part of the student's graduation requirement for a DMA along with other capstone projects usually in performance.

A Doctor of Philosophy ( PhD , Ph.D., or DPhil) is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are usually required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields.

A dissertation is the name given to the only capstone work of a student's graduation for a PhD and is usually several hundred pages of scholarly study on a musical topic .

For further examples, please consult: Kate L. Turabian,  A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , 9th ed., rev. by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018).

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Citation Help: Dissertations & Theses

  • Getting Started
  • Audio/Visual
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A quick note:

The following examples follow the Notes-Bibliography style. For Author-Date style, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition.

Chicago AND Turabian Citation Examples: Dissertations & Theses

Chicago and Turabian use the exact same format for citing dissertations and theses.

Important Elements:

  • Author 
  • Title of Dissertation or Thesis
  • Type of Document (Dissertation or Thesis)
  • Name of Degree Granting Institution

Thesis or dissertation

1. Author First Last, "Title of Dissertation or Theis" (Doctoral diss. or Master's Thesis, Name of Institution, Year), pp.-pp.

1. Dana S. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools" (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010), 101-2.

Shortened note

2. Author Last, "Shortened Title," pp.

2. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex," 98.

Bibliography Entry

Author Last, First. "Title of Dissertation or Thesis." Doctoral diss. or Master's Thesis, Name of Institution, Year.

Levin, Dana S. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.

Examples courtesy of  The Turabian 8th edition .

Chicago/Turabian Examples by Source

  •    Articles
  •    Audio & Video
  •    Books
  •    Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
  •    Dissertations & Theses
  •    Websites, Including Social Media
  •    Other Source Types

Ask a Librarian

Librarians are available to help you with your questions. Please don't hesitate to contact us with any questions you might have regarding citation styles, citation management, etc.

Ask a question below or contact your subject specialist librarian for more help!

Useful Resources for Chicago/Turabian

Check out the  Chicago Manual of Style's Shop Talk website  for more great information about using the Chicago Manual of Style through the links below!

  • Shop Talk for Students
  • Formatting a paper in Chicago Style
  • What's the difference between Chicago and Turabian?!?

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Citation Styles

  • About This Guide
  • In-Text Citations - Basics
  • Reference List - Basics
  • Examples of APA Style
  • Works Cited - Basics
  • Examples of MLA Style - Basics
  • Notes-Bibliography System
  • Author-Date System
  • Turabian Style

What is Turabian Citation Style?

Examples of turabian style, turabian style guide and other resources.

  • Examples of AMA Style
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Turabian Style is a variation of Chicago Manual of Style that is geared for students and researchers. Like Chicago, Turabian Style is used in some disciplines within the humanities, sciences and social sciences. Additionally, like Chicago Style, Turabian Style shares the same systems: notes-bibliography and author-date.

Unlike Chicago Style's focus on guidelines for publication, Turabian Styles focuses more on the creation, formatting and submission of academic works such as theses, dissertations and research papers.

The 9th edition of Turabian Style corresponds to the 17th edition of Chicago Style, albeit with minor differences geared towards student writing.

Since Turabian Style is nearly identical to Chicago Style, you can view basic guidelines and examples from notes-bibliography or author-date systems by visiting their respective tabs. You can also visit Chapters 16 and 17 of the Turabian Style Manual to see more specific examples not included in this Library Guide. 

Cover for the 9th edition of Turabian Style Guide

ASU Library has one copy of the most recent edition — the 9th edition — available for 2-hour loan at the Music Library.

Additional resources include: 

  • Turabian Citation Quick Guide - Sponsored by University of Chicago Press, this online guide offers examples for both notes-bibliography and author-date systems. 
  • Turabian Student Paper-Formatting Tip Sheets - Sponsored by University of Chicago Press, this has 14 PDF tip sheets reflecting 9th edition Turabian Style, from margins and page numbers to in-text entries and reference lists. 
  • UW-Madison Writer's Handbook on Chicago/Turabian Documentation  - Offers overviews and examples for both note-bibliography and author-date systems, noting the differences between Chicago Style and Turabian Style.
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  • URL: https://libguides.asu.edu/citing

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Turabian 9th edition Style Guide

  • Formatting Your Paper
  • Notes-Bibliography style citations
  • Author-Date citations

citing dissertation turabian

Turabian 9th edition

Disclaimer :  this guide is designed to provide a brief overview of turabian 9th edition and does not replace the style handbook.  please refer to the style handbook for more details on citing sources.   you can also contact savannah patterson ([email protected]) or make a research coach appointment.  .

The Turabian citation style is a shortened form of Chicago citation style.  Developed by the secretary of the graduate school's dissertation department at the University of Chicago, Kate Turabian, this citation style is used in social sciences, humanities, natural and physical sciences and depending on the class/professor.  

There are two different styles of Turabian that students can follow given their professors' requests (1) notes- bibliography (or notes style) and (2) author-date style. Both styles require in-text citations and formal references in a bibliography or reference, but each style differs regarding the in-text citation.  The notes style require footnotes (indicated by a superscript number after a reference) that are at the bottom of the page or at the end of the text.  The author-date citation style uses parenthetical citations to cite the references in the text.  Make sure to consult your professor if you are not sure which style to use.  

This guide provides brief examples and descriptions of how to cite works in a paper for footnotes, author-date citations, and the bibliography.  Additional information regarding inclusive language is included in the 9th edition handbook which can be found in the library.  

Click the tabs to see examples and descriptions of citations for various types of resources. 

Information on this guide was found from a combination of sources: 

Purdue Online Writing Lab. "General Format."                                                                                         https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html   Accessed   12/6/2021. 

Turabian, Kate.  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations; Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Edited by   Wayne C. Booth, 

    Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, Joseph Bizup, and William T. Fitzgerald. 9th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018. 

Turabian: A Manual for Writers: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. "Turabian Citation Quick Page." Accessed December 6,             

     2021.  https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/turabian/citation-guide.html    

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  • Last Updated: Jan 3, 2024 12:49 PM
  • URL: https://guides.uu.edu/turabian

Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

Table of Contents: Books E-books Journal Articles (Print) Journal Articles (Online) Magazine Articles (Print) Magazine Articles (Online) Newspaper Articles Review Articles Websites For More Help

The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition) .  Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style ; the seventh edition of Turabian is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual . For types of resources not covered in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further detail and examples, please consult the websites listed at the end of this guide, the handbook itself or a reference librarian .

Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source. Traditionally, disciplines in the humanities (art, history, music, religion, theology) require the use of bibliographic footnotes or endnotes in conjunction with a bibliography to cite sources used in research papers and dissertations. For the parenthetical reference (author-date) system (commonly used in the sciences and social sciences), please refer to the separate guide Turabian Parenthetical/Reference List Style . It is best to consult with your professor to determine the preferred citation style.

Indicate notes in the text of your paper by using consecutive superscript numbers (as demonstrated below). The actual note is indented and can occur either as a footnote at the bottom of the page or as an endnote at the end of the paper. To create notes, type the note number followed by a period on the same line as the note itself. This method should always be used for endnotes; it is the preferred method for footnotes. However, superscript numbers are acceptable for footnotes, and many word processing programs can generate footnotes with superscript numbers for you.

When citing books, the following are elements you may need to include in your bibliographic citation for your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author or editor; 2. Title; 3. Compiler, translator or editor (if an editor is listed in addition to an author); 4. Edition; 5. Name of series, including volume or number used; 6. Place of publication, publisher and date of publication; 7. Page numbers of citation (for footnote or endnote).

Books with One Author or Corporate Author

Author: Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the "lithotint" process in 1840. 1

Editor: Human beings are the sources of "all international politics"; even though the holders of political power may change, this remains the same. 1

Corporate Author: Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem. 1

First footnote:

1 Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

1 Valerie M. Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997), 5.

1 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union , edited by Alexander Zouev (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999), 44.

Note the different treatment of an editor's name depending on whether the editor takes the place of an author (second example) or is listed in addition to the author (third example). 

Subsequent footnotes:

       Method A: Include the author or editor's last name, the title (or an abbreviated title) and the page number cited.

2 Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850, 50.

2 Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy, 10.

2 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy, 48.

       Method B: Include only the author or editor's last name and the page number, leaving out the title.  

2 Twyman, 50.

2 Hudson, ed., 10.

2 UNICEF, 48.

Use Method A if you need to cite more than one reference by the same author.

1. Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850  (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

Ibid., short for ibidem, means "in the same place."  Use ibid. if you cite the same page of the same work in succession without a different reference intervening.  If you need to cite a different page of the same work, include the page number.  For example:   2 Ibid., 50.

Bibliography:

Hudson, Valerie, N., ed. Culture and Foreign Policy . Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997.

Twyman, Michael. Lithography 1800-1850 . London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

UNICEF.  Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the             Former Soviet Union . Edited by Alexander Zouev. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Books with Two or More Authors or Editors

1 Russell Keat and John Urry, Social Theory as Science, 2d ed. (London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982), 196.

1 Toyoma Hitomi, "The Era of Dandy Beauties," in Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities,  eds. Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker ( Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), 157.

For references with more than three authors, cite the first named author followed by "et al." Cite all the authors in the bibliography.

1 Leonard B. Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , ed. Berel Lang (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979), 56.

2 Keat and Urry, Social Theory as Science , 200.

2 Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , 90.

Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science , 2d. ed. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982.

Hitomi, Toyoma. "The Era of Dandy Beauties." In Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities,  edited by Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker, 153-165.   Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Meyer, Leonard B., Kendall Walton, Albert Hofstadter, Svetlana Alpers, George Kubler, Richard Wolheim, Monroe Beardsley, Seymour Chatman, Ann Banfield, and Hayden White. The Concept of Style . Edited by Berel Lang.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.  

Electronic Books

Follow the guidelines for print books, above, but include the collection (if there is one), URL and the date you accessed the material.

1 John Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy (Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834), in The Making of the Modern World,   http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14  (accessed June 22, 2009).  

2 Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy .

Rae, John.  Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834. In The Making of the Modern World,   http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14  (accessed June 22, 2009).  

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

For periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper, etc.) articles, include some or all of the following elements in your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author; 2. Article title; 3. Periodical title; 4. Volume or Issue number (or both); 5. Publication date; 6. Page numbers.

For online periodicals   , add: 7. URL and date of access; or 8. Database name, URL and date of access. (If available, include database publisher and city of publication.)

For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever version you used.

Journal Articles (Print)

1 Lawrence Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 52.

Here you are citing page 52.  In the bibliography (see below) you would include the full page range: 39-56.

If a journal has continuous pagination within a volume, you do not need to include the issue number:

1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 520.

Subsequent footnotes :

2 Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," 49.   

2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 545.

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict."   Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 39-56.

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor."  American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 517-554.  

Journal Articles (Online)

Cite as above, but include the URL and the date of access of the article.

On the Free Web

1 Molly Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Through a Subscription Database

1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html  (accessed June 25, 2009).

1 Michael Moon, et al., "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 32, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Subsequent Footnotes:

2 Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia."

2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 527. 

2 Moon, "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," 34. 

Shea, Molly. "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Moon, Michael, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Benjamin Gianni, and Scott Weir. "Queers in (Single-Family) Space." Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 30-7, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Magazine Articles (Print)

Monthly or Bimonthly

           1 Paul Goldberger, "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile," Architectural Digest, October 1996, 82.

1 Steven Levy and Brad Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," Newsweek , March 25, 2002, 45.

          2 Goldberger, "Machines for Living," 82.

          2 Levy and Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," 46.

Goldberger, Paul.  "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile." Architectural Digest, October 1996.

Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. "Silicon Valley Reboots." Newsweek , March 25, 2002.

Magazine Articles (Online)

Follow the guidelines for print magazine articles, adding the URL and date accessed.

1 Bill Wyman, "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble," Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).

1 Sasha Frere-Jones, "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Wyman, Bill. "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble." Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).

Frere-Jones, Sasha. "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Newspaper Articles

In most cases, you will cite newspaper articles only in notes, not in your bibliography. Follow the general pattern for citing magazine articles, although you may omit page numbers.

        1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition.

        1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed June 27, 2009).

Note: In the example above, there was no stable URL for the article in LexisNexis, so the name of the database was given rather than a URL.

Review Articles

Follow the pattern below for review articles in any kind of periodical.

1 Alanna Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard," review of Basket Case, by Carl Hiassen, New York Times , February 3, 2002, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=105338185&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5604&RQT=309&VName=PQD (accessed June 26, 2009).  

1 David Denby, "Killing Joke," review of No Country for Old Men , directed by Ethan and Joel Coen,  New Yorker, February 25, 2008, 72-73, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=30033248&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009). 

Second footnote:

2 Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard."

2 Denby, "Killing Joke."

In most cases, you will be citing something smaller than an entire website. If you are citing an article from a website, for example, follow the guidelines for articles above. You can usually refer to an entire website in running text without including it in your reference list, e.g.: "According to its website, the Financial Accounting Standards Board requires ...".

If you need to cite an entire website in your bibliography, include some or all of the following elements, in this order:

1. Author or editor of the website (if known) 2. Title of the website 3. URL 4. Date of access

Financial Accounting Standards Board .  http://www.fasb.org  (accessed April 29, 2009).

FOR MORE HELP

Following are links to sites that have additional information and further examples:

Turabian Quick Guide (University of Chicago Press)

Chicago Manual of Style Online

RefWorks Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of Turabian style.

Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.

Citing Sources Duke University's guide to citing sources. The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA , Chicago , MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.

How to Cite Electronic Sources From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats like films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.

Uncle Sam: Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications The examples in this excellent guide from the University of Memphis are based on the Chicago Manual of Style and Kate Turabian's Manual .

University of Pittsburgh Library System

University of Pittsburgh Library System

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Citation styles: apa, mla, chicago, turabian, ieee.

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Books on Turabian Citing

citing dissertation turabian

What is Turabian Style?

Based on Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , Turabian citation style presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (previously called parenthetical citations–reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style with slight modifications for the needs of student writers. It is always a good idea to double-check the style guide or official online resources; do not rely on these examples for formatting such as indents.

Notes/Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography.

Author-date style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author’s last name and date of publication. The parenthetical citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

(Sources: Turabian Guide website ;  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations , 9th ed.)

Online Chicago Citation Resources

  • Turabian Citation Guide A quick guide on proper Turabian style citation offered by the Chicago University Press.
  • Writer's Handbook An online sample of Chicago/Turabian styles.
  • Official Chicago Style Homepage A quick guide with citation examples offered by the Chicago Style manual homepage.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

General Format

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), which was issued in 2017.

Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

A Note on Citations

Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System.  As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.

By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.

If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:

Author-Date Sample Paper

NB Sample Paper

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
  • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
  • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
  • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
  • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
  • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).

Major Paper Sections

  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
  • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
  • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
  • Double-space each line of the title page.

This image shows the title page of a CMS paper.

CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
  • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
  • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
  • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
  • Titles of plays should be italicized.
  • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.
  • Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
  • For two to three authors, write out all names.
  • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
  • Write out publishers’ names in full.
  • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
  • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
  • If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
  • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

This image shows the bibliography page of a CMS paper.

CMOS Bibliography Page

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
  • Note numbers are superscripted.
  • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
  • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
  • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
  • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper .

While  The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods.

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

This image shows the levels of heading in a CMS paper.

CMOS Headings

Tables and Figures

  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
  • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
  • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.

“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

("General Format" 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.

2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL . https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

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Chicago/Turabian/SBL Style Guide (Notes-Bibliography)

  • Format for Paper
  • Citation Placement
  • Reference (encyclopedias, dictionaries, or lexicons)
  • Books / eBooks
  • Citing a Thesis or Dissertation
  • Format for A Thesis or Dissertation

Margins, Fonts, and Indents - Turabian 9, A.1 General Format Requirements

Spacing - Turabian 9, A.1 General Format Requirements

Title Page Format - Turabian 9, A.2.1.2

Abstract - Turabian 9, A.2.1.4 Abstract

Block Quotations - Turabian 9, 25.2.2 Block Quotations

Page Number Placement - Turabian 9, A.1.4.2 Placement

Levels of Headings - Turabian 9, A.2.2.4 Sections and Subsections

  • Government Documents
  • Other Resources
  • Format of the Reference Page
  • Grad Ministry
  • Contact the Library

1" margins on all sides.

Exceptions (in instructions by professor)

  • 1.5" left margin and .5" right margin - used for binding a document.
  • 2" margin on one side - for instructor comments on a rough draft
  • An easily readable typeface (Times New Romans or Arial)
  • At least ten-point Arial or twelve-point Times New Roman
  • Same font and size throughout paper, unless specified by instructor

1/2" indentation used at beginning of paragraph, use <Tab>

Double space. No extra line between paragraphs.

Exceptions are: block quotations, table titles and figure captions, and lists in appendixes

Single space, with one blank line between entries

Single space quotation

Follow any model provided by your department.

In general any title page should include the following. Place the title a third of the way down, centered. If the paper has a main title and subtitle, place main title on one line, followed by a colon, and put the subtitle on a new line. Several lines below the title place your name, along with any information requested by the instructor (often course title, department name and number, and the date).

  • Abstracts that summarize the content of the thesis or disseration are often required
  • First page of the Abstract should be page iii (i is Title page, II is the Copyright page)
  • Leave two blank lines between title and first line of text
  • Double-space the abstract
  • Five or more lines create a block quotation
  • Single-space a block quotation
  • leave a blank line before and after quotation
  • No quotation marks at either end of the block quotations, but keep any original quotation marks
  • indent the entire block the same 1/2 inch as the first line of a paragraph
  • If you cite the source in a footnote, place the note as a superscript at the end of the block quotation, after the punctuation

Page numbers are placed in one of four places. The important thing is to be consistent and follow your instructions.

  • Centered in the footer
  • Flush right in the footer
  • Centered in the header
  • Flush right in the header

In all cases, at least 1/2 inch from the edge of the page.

Levels of Headings - Levels of Headings - Turabian 9, A.2.2.4 Sections and Subsections

First Level: C entered, Boldface or Italics, Capitalize Each Word (Title Case)

Second Level: Centered, Regular Type, Capitalize Each Word (Title Case)

Third Level: Flush Left, Boldface or Italics, Capitalize Each Word (Title Case)

Fourth Level: Flush left, regular type, sentence-style capitalization

Fifth Level: run in at the beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italics, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period [think of this as an intro sentence to the paragraph that just happens to be in boldface or italics].

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Citing Your Sources

  • Citation Overview
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • In-text Citations
  • References List
  • Formatting Your AMA Paper
  • Formatting Your APA Paper

Author-Date Style

Note-Bibliography Style

  • Reference List
  • Formatting Your CSE Paper
  • Formatting Your Paper
  • Works Cited
  • Formatting Your MLA Paper
  • Vancouver/Citing Medicine
  • How to Cite AI Tools
  • Finding and Citing Images
  • Zotero: Free Citation Tool

About Chicago and Turabian

The Chicago style has two forms for citations: Author-Date and Note-Bibliography (NB) .  Oregon Tech programs typically use the Author-Date system when assigning Chicago Style but you should confirm which version your professor wants you to use .

For students, there is a simplified version of the Chicago Style called Turabian .  This section points you toward resources on how to use Turabian. To start, select the type of Turabian you want to use:

Looking for the regular Chicago Style instead of Turabian? Visit the Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide.  

Chicago/Turabian Manual

For complete guidance on using the chicago/turabian style, consult this manual..

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Turabian Format Quick Guide

Additional Navigation

Note to students using Grammarly: See this resource on Grammarly’s Place in the Writing Process

Sample Paper in notes-bibliography for all students

Turabian Template  for assignments with NO headings ( NOTE : do not add quotation marks around the titles of your papers; all macro-enabled fields in the template have those marks to denote the macros; just click each field and type your content)

Turabian Template for assignments WITH headings  ( NOTE : do not add quotation marks around the titles of your papers; all macro-enabled fields in the template have those marks to denote the macros; just click each field and type your content)

Dissertation-style title page with basic Dissertation Template

Visit the  Chicago Manual of Style database in Liberty University’s Jerry Falwell Library by logging in and choosing that database (search for database by name, then “C,” and “Chicago Manual of Style”).

Helpful Resources

  • Turabian Chart of Citations
  • Turabian Annotated Bibliography Sample
  • Sacred Book Reference List
  • Capitalization Glossary
  • Choosing Appropriate Resources for Academic Papers

Video Tutorial links

  • Insert heading levels into template and populate Contents page
  • Remove Contents page from template if not necessary for your assignment
  • Using MS Word in insert footnote numbering/placement  ( shows some outdated formatting element; just focus on steps to take in MS Word )
  • Plagiarism series – Video #1 of 4: Introduction: How often can students quote other sources? – Liberty University
  • Plagiarism series – Video #2 of 4: How and when to cite your sources. – Liberty University
  • Plagiarism series – Video #3 of 4: The three kinds of plagiarism. – Liberty University
  • Plagiarism series – Video #4 of 4: Proactive and foolproof steps to avoid plagiarism. – Liberty University

Notes-Bibliography Citation Style

  • Used in all programs of study using Turabian format (except book reviews, which use Author-Date format).  
  • Footnotes are the preferred method to indicate in-text citations throughout this format. Liberty University does not permit endnotes.
  • A bibliography is used to compile sources in one list at the end of the paper.

Author-Date citation style

  • Only permitted for book review assignments  at Liberty University.  
  • Sample paper in Author-Date format  for book review assignments only.
  • Template for paper in Author-Date format .
  • Chart of Citations in Author-Date format  for book reviews only.
  • Note that the list of compiled resources cited in author-date format is titled References (rather than Bibliography).
  • Use one-inch margins on all sides.
  • The preferred font/size is Times New Roman, 12 pt.
  • Indent all paragraphs in the body of the paper ½”.
  • Double-space the entire paper, except block quotes, footnotes, bibliography entries, reference lists, table titles, and figure captions.  Those elements should be single-spaced, with one extra blank line before/after to separate them from other elements.
  • The paper should be written in the 3rd person (he, she, it) with an active voice, rather than  passive voice .
  • Unless a professor specifically asks for a paper in 1st person (I, me, we, us, our) or 2nd person (you, your) language, avoid these in a paper.
  • Be specific and concise.
  • In historical writing, use simple past tense verbs.  When referring to an author’s written work, use the present tense.
  •  Note that Turabian requires additional spacing before each heading level, which is already programmed into the templates.
  • Headline case = all significant words, usually those with 4+ letters, must be capitalized. Use headline case for titles of works; names of journals; and first-, second-, and third-level headings.
  • Sentence case = only the first letter of the first word, proper nouns, and the word following a colon, if any, should begin with capital letters. Use sentence case for fourth- and fifth-level headings.
  • Add quotation marks around the titles of shorter works (i.e., articles or poems); use italics for the names of larger works (i.e., books or plays).
  • Liberty University now uses Turabian’s “student” title page format for all programs and levels of study except dissertations and theses, which follow Turabian’s “dissertation” title page format.
  • See the links to all templates and sample papers above.
  • The title page is technically page one, but it never has a page number
  • Pagination for the fore matter, if any (including the table of contents), uses lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii), in the center bottom of the page. Begin with ii, to account for the title page position.
  • The body of the paper for all Liberty University classes uses Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3) in the top-right corner. It begins with page 1.  All templates provided by Liberty University are already programmed with proper pagination.
  • See the pagination video tutorial .
  • The word  Introduction  is no longer included in student papers unless the instructions specifically require such.
  • The first paragraph in the body of academic papers should include an introductory paragraph (with no label, title, or heading above it).
  •  Incorporating research that is credible and relevant helps to support and validate a paper’s argument.  The page dedicated to incorporating research and avoiding plagiarism includes information on how to integrate summaries and paraphrases, quotations, and block quotes.
  • With plagiarism, it’s better to be safe than sorry: if it’s not yours,  cite it !

Subheadings

  • Turabian uses up to five heading and subheading levels. Though Turabian provides significant flexibility in formatting, all departments across Liberty University have universally adopted the following formats (see heading levels and table of contents video tutorial ):
  • First level : centered, boldface, in headline case
  • Second level : centered, not bolded, in headline case
  • Third level : left-justified, boldface, in headline case
  • Fourth level : left-justified, not bolded, in sentence case
  • Fifth level : indented ½”, not bolded, italicized, in sentence case with a period, then one space, and begin your content on the same line

Footnotes versus Parenthetical Citations

  • Include a citation whenever another author’s work is directly quoted or paraphrased.
  • There are two formats in Turabian: author-date and notes-bibliography.  Liberty University allows only notes-bibliography format, except for book reviews (which use author-date format).
  • In notes-bibliography, include relevant publishing details along with the author’s name and year of publication as footnotes.
  • All programs of study at Liberty University still require the use of  ibid . for consecutive footnotes of the same resource on the same page in notes-bibliography format , and shortened notes for non-consecutive subsequent citations, even though the Turabian 9th edition manual recommends not using ibid .
  • See the Turabian Chart of Citations for visuals of the citations and reference entries in notes-bibliography format.  The section of this Quick Guide on author-date format (permitted at Liberty University only for book reviews) includes a link to a chart of citations in that format.
  • The Bible is only cited parenthetically at Liberty University, effective Summer of 2022. The phrase “unless otherwise noted” (used in years past) is no longer used at Liberty University.
  • It is not necessary to write out full quotes of verses from the Bible since your readers can find the references that you cite. When an author needs to make a specific observation, however, he or she will include a direct quote.
  • When your paper cites from only one translation, you only name the version with the first citation in your paper.  If you use multiple translations or versions of the Bible, then you would have to spell out the version used the first time you use each, and then use a series of abbreviations for subsequent citations in parentheses (NASB, ESV, KJV) sufficient for your reader to discern which version you are citing from in subsequent citations.
  • The abbreviations for the books of the Bible can be used only in parentheses within the text or in footnotes. For example, you may make a reference to Romans 1:16, but if you state that Christians should not be ashamed of the gospel ( Rom. 1:16), then you should use the abbreviation within parentheses.
  • Turabian includes a comprehensive list of abbreviations for the books of the Bible in sections 24.6.1-24.6.4 (sections 10.44 , 10.45 , 10.47 , and 10.48 in the Chicago Manual of Style database on Liberty University’s Jerry Falwell Library ). See the Sacred Book Reference List and Capitalization Glossary .

Bibliography

  • Use the word Bibliography for notes-bibliography format.
  • Center and bold the word “Bibliography” (without quotation marks) on the top line of a new page following your conclusion.
  • Single-space entries, with one blank line separating each.
  • Use hanging indents (left-justify the first line of each entry and indent lines two+ of each entry ½” from the left margin).
  • Alphabetize all entries by the first word in each (usually the first author’s last name for each).
  • Invert the first author’s name (last name, first, middle), but not the remaining authors’ names in each entry.
  • Cite classical works (including the Bible) and personal communications in the body of the paper, but do not include them in the reference or bibliography list.
  • Include periods after both URLs and DOIs.
  • Check Google Scholar or  crossref.org  for DOIs of all articles published since 2007, if one is not readily denoted on the article itself.
  • Only include the access date for online content that is likely to change (such as wikis).

Material on this page adapted from Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , 9th ed.

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Citation Guide: Turabian

  • Turabian Style
  • Journal Article
  • Bible This link opens in a new window
  • Social Media
  • Online Video & Podcast
  • Images, Artwork, & Graphics
  • Multiple Authors
  • Corporate/Organization as Author
  • Editor or Translator
  • Paper Formatting This link opens in a new window

Editor or Translator in Place of an Author

Notes (footnotes or endnotes).

1. Seamus Heaney, trans., Beowulf: A New Verse Translation (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 55.

2. Maria dei Mar Logrono Narbona, Paulo G. Pinto, and John Tofik Karam, eds., Crescent over Another Horizon: Islam in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latino USA (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2015), 140-141.

SHORTENED NOTES (Subsequent entries)

3. Heaney, Beowulf , 55

4. Logrono Narbona, Pinto, and Tofik Karam, Crescent over Another Horizon , 141.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (in Alphabetical Order)

Heaney, Seamus, trans., Beowulf: A New Verse Translation . New York: W.W. Norton, 2000

Logrono Narbona, Maria dei Mar, Paulo G. Pinto, and John Tofik Karam, eds. Crescent over Another Horizon: Islam in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latino USA . Austin: University of Texas Press, 2015.

From A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 9 th ed.

Editor or Translator in Addition to an Author

1. Elizabeth I, Collected Works , ed. Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 102-104.

2. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, The Science of Logic , ed. and trans, George di Giovanni (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 642-643.

3. The Noe Jitrik Reader: Selected Essays on Latin American Literature , ed. Daniel Balderston, trans, Susan E. Benner (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005), 189.

4. Elizabeth I, Collected Works , 105.

5. Hegel, Science of Logic , 645-647.

6. Jitrik, Noe Jitrik Reader , 187.

Elizabeth I. Collected Works . Edited by Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Science of Logic , , Edited and trans by George di Giovanni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Jitrik, Noe. The Noe Jitrik Reader: Selected Essays on Latin American Literature . Edited by Daniel Balderston. Translated by Susan E. Benner. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005.

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  • Last Updated: Jan 26, 2022 1:13 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.cedarville.edu/turabian

Turabian Citation Style Guide 9th Edition: I. Reference Book

  • General Guidelines
  • A. One Author
  • B. Two or Three Authors
  • C. More than Three Authors
  • D. Chapter in an Edited Book with Multiple Authors
  • E. Volume with a Specific Title in a Multi-Volume Work
  • F. Organization Author
  • G. No Author
  • I. Reference Book
  • J. Edition other than the First
  • A. Basic Journal Article
  • B. Journal Article from Online Periodical
  • C. Journal Article from Article Database
  • D. Magazine Article
  • E. Magazine Article from Online Magazine
  • F. Newspaper Article
  • G. Newspaper Article from an Online Newspaper
  • A. Basic Web Page
  • B. Web Page No Author
  • C. Blog Entries and Comments
  • A. Motion Picture
  • B. Television and Radio Programs
  • A. Image from Electronic Source
  • B. Published Photograph
  • A. Interviews & Personal Communications
  • B. Lectures
  • C. Pamphlets, Brochures, & Reports
  • D. Scriptural References
  • E. Secondary Sources
  • F. Government Publications

About Citing Books

For each type of source in this guide, the general form and specific examples will be provided for both the Notes-Bibliography and the Author-Date style options of Turabian.

This information and several of the examples were drawn from A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations (9th edition). Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

For further information, please ask your instructor or refer to the Turabian manual.

Reference Book

Well-known reference works, including major dictionaries or encyclopedias are generally only cited in notes or  parenthetical citation depending on which style you are using.  It is generally not necessary to include a full citation in the bibliography or reference list unless the source is critical to your argument. If entries are arranged alphabetically, then cite the name of the item instead of the volume or page numbers. This should be preceded by s.v. which stands for sub verbo or "under the word." Use s.vv. for plural entries.

If the reference item is not well-known, include specific publication details in your notes and also include it in the bibliography or reference list as if it were a book.

citing dissertation turabian

       Parenthetical Entry:

      ( Encyclopaedia Britannica 15th ed., s.v. "Salvation")

citing dissertation turabian

  • Turabian Quick Guide Examples for the publisher's website.
  • Purdue Owl Chicago Style Information and examples from Purdues Online Writing Lab.
  • University of Wisconsin's Writing Center Chicago/Turabian information and examples.
  • Turabian Style Guidelines Summary of guidelines provided by the MSUB Academic Support Center.
  • Sample Paper Sample of a Turabian-style paper provided by the Academic Support Center at MSUB.
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  • Last Updated: Nov 17, 2023 10:39 AM
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  • Free Tools for Students
  • Turabian Citation Generator

Free Turabian Citation Generator

Generate accurate Turabian citations quickly and easily, with MyBib!

Turabian style guidebook cover

🤔 What is a Turabian Citation Generator?

A Turabian citation generator is a software tool that can automatically create academic citations in the Turabian citation style.

It will usually request key details about a source -- like the authors, title, and publish date -- and will output these details with the correct punctuation and layout required by the official Turabian style guide.

Formatted Turabian citations created by a generator can be used to give credit to others' work that you reference in your own.

🤓 What is the Turabian citation style?

The Turabian citation style is largely based on the Chicago style, but aims to be simpler for students who are not writing for publication. It was created by Kate Turabian, and the rules are published in the Manual for Writers .

The Manual for Writers specifies how to research and compose an academic paper, and includes guidelines to:

  • Design a strong research question
  • Construct an evidence-based argument
  • Structure academic papers in a logical way
  • Cite sources (this is the part we can help with!)

Like Chicago, there are two ways to cite sources in Turabian style: 'notes and bibliography', and 'author-date'--your instructor will usually tell you which one to use. More information about the differences between the two can be found in the official Citation Quick Guide .

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Turabian Citation Generator?

Turabian is mostly used by students studying the humanities, literature, history, arts, and also across the sciences. Students in these areas looking to manage and correctly cite their sources will use a Turabian Citation Generator to aid them.

🙌 Why should I use an Turabian Citation Generator?

Every academic field will recommend using a tool to record the sources cited in your writing. A citation generator like MyBib can store this data, and can also automatically create an accurate Turabian style bibliography or reference list from it (including the necessary in-text citations too), which should be appended to your document.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Turabian Citation Generator?

MyBib's Turabian citation generator was designed to be fast and easy to use. Follow these steps:

  • Search for the article, website, or document you want to cite using the search box at the top of the page.
  • Look through the list of results found and choose the one that you referenced in your work.
  • Make sure the details are correct, and fix any that are not. Then click Generate!

The generator will produce a formatted Turabian citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall bibliography or reference list (which can be downloaded fully later!).

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

Citing Special Collections materials in Chicago/Turabian style: Citing Primary Materials in Special Collections

Citing primary sources.

This guide contains the following sections (click to link directly to the section you need)

Citing Primary Sources - Overview

Citing manuscript collections in print and online, citing oral histories in special collections, citing maps, citing photographs, citing previously published magazine and newspaper articles found in manuscript collections.

This page includes citation examples for different kinds of primary sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) , 16th edition, and Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , 8th edition. This guide shows how to create an initial citation, a subsequent note, and a bibliography entry for primary sources.

Materials covered include:

  • Manuscript & Document Collections
  • Oral Histories
  • Maps and Illustrations
  • Photographs
  • Digitized materials from our website

A word about "Preferred Citation" and "Citation" information in Special Collections' finding aids: 

Nearly all Special Collections finding aids include basic citation information. Sometimes it's labeled "Preferred Citation," and other times it's  labeled "Citation."  This information typically includes the following information:

  • the name of the collection (such as "Ernest A. Mills Family Collection")
  • the name of the repository - D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections
  • the location of the repository - University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804

The other details needed for a citation (such as the name of the item, the author of the item, and the box and folder number) will emerge during your research.

If you have any questions about citing materials from Special Collections, ask one of the Special Collections staff or your professor .

From the finding aid for the Frank Coxe Papers:

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item],Frank Coxe Papers, D.H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville 28804

From the finding aid for the Carolina Mountain Club Archives:

Carolina Mountain Club Archive , D.H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville 28804.

Example 1: Citing a document from a manuscript collection

Look at the citation information from the Carolina Mountain Club finding aid above. This has basic information about the collection, repository, and location of repository that you will need for your citation, but you will also add more information as you conduct your research . 

For instance, you might be working with the Carolina Mountain Club Archives, and you want to cite a specific document, the "Certificate of Incorporation of the Carolina Mountain Club" which is dated September 2, 1924. You found this document in Folder 19 in Box 15. There is a corporate author, the Carolina Mountain Club. (For more detailed information on citing manuscript collections, see the "Manuscript Collections" section of the Chicago Manual of Style , 16th edition, sections 14.232-14.242, pp. 749-752.)

So you have your document and you want to cite it. Now what? Let's take a look at how this would work:

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. Carolina Mountain Club , " Certificate of Incorporation of the Carolina Mountain Club," 2 September 1924, Box 15, Folder 19, Carolina Mountain Club Archives, D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.      

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • If the author is an individual, their name should be listed with the first name then last name (Frank Coxe).
  • Sometimes you will not have an author. In this case, start the note with the name or title of the item.
  • If the item has a specific title, as this one does, then that title is in quotation marks. If the item does not have a title but only a description it does not go in quotation marks.
  • If the item does not have a date use the phrase n.d. (for no date) 
  • Use a comma after all the elments in the note and a period at the end of the note. 

Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):     

        7. Carolina Mountain Club , " Certificate of Incorporation."

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form ).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).

Bibliography:

  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Use a period after the collection name, after the repository name, and at the end of the bibliography entry.
  • While the note included the item or document being cited, the bibliography does not include specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited. Then you would list the individual item in addition to the collection, repository, and repository location.
  • For instance, if you cited two or more items from this collection, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above.
  • If you cited only one item from this collection then your bibliography entry would look like this:

Example 2: Citing a personal letter from a manuscript collection

Look at the citation information from the Frank Coxe Papers finding aid above. This has basic information about the collection, repository, and location of repository that you will need for your citation, but you will also add more information as you conduct your research . 

Let's say you're working with the Frank Coxe Papers and you find a letter you want to cite. The letter is from A. B. Harris to Frank Coxe, and it was written on March 25, 1889. You found this letter in Folder 6 in Box 2. While this is similar to the Carolina Mountain Club example above it varies in how you cite the names of individuals and how you cite the actual letter. 

        1. A. B. Harris to Frank Coxe,  25 March 1889, Box 2, Folder 6, Frank Coxe Papers, D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.      

  • Since the author is an individual rather than a corporate author, his name should be listed with the first name then last name (A.B. Harris). The same holds true for the recipient of the letter (Frank Coxe).
  • Sometimes you will not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after every element of the note and a period at the end of the note. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

  Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):     

       7. A. B. Harris to Frank Coxe , 25 March 1889, Coxe Papers. 

  Bibliography:

Coxe, Frank., Papers .  D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville,        Asheville, NC.      

  • Because this collection contains the papers of an individual, the collection name is listed with the person's last name first, followed by a comma, then the first name, then a comma, then "Papers," then a period: Coxe, Frank., Papers .
  • While the note cites an individual item or document, the bibliography entry does not list specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited . In that case the bibliography will include the individual item in addition to the collection, repository, and repository location.
  • In other words, if you cited two or more items from the Frank Coxe Paper, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above.
  • If you cited only one item from the Frank Coxe Papers in your paper, then your bibliography entry would look like this:

Harris, A. B., and Frank Coxe. Letter of 25 March 1889. Frank Coxe Papers.  D. H.        Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

Example 3: Citing an online document from a manuscript collection

The Chicago Manual of Style states that "It should be noted that citations of collections consulted online... will usually be the same as citations of physical collections, aside from the addition of a URL or DOI." (14.232, p 749)

How does this work?

Let's say you are researching the building of the Battery Park Hotel and using the Frank Coxe Papers. You find this doucment in the Western North Carolina Heritage website (which is part of Special Collections at UNC Asheville):  "Specificiations for Standard Hydraulic Passenger Elevator to be manufactured by Otis Brothers & Co." The document is dated February 24, 1886, and is a digitized document from the Frank Coxe Papers. The corporate author is Otis Brothers & Co. The URL is http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15733coll5/id/13. 

Here's how you would cite this:

  • Use a comma after every element in the note and a period at the end of the note. 

       7. Otis Brothers, Coxe Papers. 

  • It does not include the URL.
  • Use a period after each element in the bibliography.

Special Collections contains over 600 Oral Histories. Often an oral history may have a tape recording or CD of the actual interview.  Sometimes it may have a transcript of the interview as well.

In Chicago style, the kinds of oral histories we have in Special Collections are treated as unpublished interviews. (For more detailed information, see section 14.218-14.223 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., pp 744-746)

Citing an oral history

Look at this oral history in Special Collections: Hugh Creasman Oral History.   Looking at the information about the oral history, you'll note that the oral history is with Hugh Creasman, he was interviewed by Louis D. Sliveri on August 16, 1976, and that the oral history is part of the Louis D. Silveri Oral History Collection.

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, "unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes, although they may occasionally appear in bibliographies." (14.219, p. 744). Check with your professor about whether you should include a bibliography entry for an oral history.    This example will show both a note and an bibliography entry.

        8. Hugh Creasman ,   interview by Louis Silveri,  16 August 1976, transcript, Louis Silveri Oral History Collection, Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

  • Use commas after all elements and a period at the end of the note.
  • Many oral histories are not part of a collection. If so, omit the collection part of the citation.
  • There may either be a transcript or recording. Cite whichever you used.

Note (Subsequent Mentions):

Shortened reference:

        10. Creasman,  interview .

  • The first line is indented, and the note only requires the interviewee's last name, the title of the article (sometimes shortened), and a specific page reference.

Bibliography (As noted above, check with your professor before making a biblography entry for an oral history. ) 

Creasman, Hugh .   Interview by Louis Silveri.  16 August 1976 . T ranscript.   Louis Silveri Oral History Collection.       Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented. 
  • The interviewee's last name is listed first, unlike the note, where it is First Name Last Name.
  • Use periods after all parts of the bibliography (except the comma between "University of North Carolina at Asheville" and "Asheville, NC.")

Sometimes your research will involve using maps that you will need to cite. In terms of citations, the library has two different types of maps that require different different citations.

  • One type of map is a published map , such as the topographical maps in the map case on the second floor.  
  • The second type are unpublished maps that are part of manuscript collections in Special Collections.
  • This section will show you how to cite both published and unpublished maps.

Citing a published map

Suppose you are writing a paper about the history of the exploration of Mt. Mitchell and you are using a topographic map from the map case on the second floor of the library.  You look at the map and note that it's a US Geological Survey map that was published by the Tennessee Valley Authority.  Further inspection of the map shows the following information: 

  • U.S. Geological Survey (author - who created/authored the map)
  • Mt. Mitchell Quadrangle, North Carolina, 200-SE (the title of the map)
  • 1946 (the publication date)
  • Scale 1:24,000
  • Tennessee Valley Authority, Maps and Surveys Division, Knoxville, TN (the publisher and place)

The format for citing published maps and illustrations is the same (see Chicago Manual of Style,16th ed. , 14-165, p. 726) 

        1. U.S. Geological Survey, Mt. Mitchell Quadrangle, North Carolina [map], (Knoxville, TN: Tennessee Valley Authority, 1946)

  • Use a comma after the author's name, a comma after the map title, and the format in brackets with a comma after it. The next section is in parentheses, and includes the place of publication followed by a colon, the publisher followed by a comma, and the publication date. 

       7. U.S. Geological Survey ,  Mt. Mitchell Quadrangle. 

  • Use period after all elements except the place of publication, which takes a colon between it and the publisher.

Citing a unpublished map from a manuscript collection

Special Collections contains hundreds of unpublished maps that can only be found in manuscript collections. Citing a map is like citing a document in a manuscript collection, and follows the same guidelines as above for "Citing a document in a manuscript collection."  Here's an example:

For instance, you are using the Carolina Mountain Club Archives to research a paper about Linville Gorge. You find a hand-drawn map of a hike to Shortoff Mountain. While this map has no actual title written on it, it is important to describe the item so it can be easily identified. There is no date on it and you found it in Folder 9 in Box 8.  There is a corporate author, the Carolina Mountain Club. Let's take a look at how this would work:

        1. Carolina Mountain Club , Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain,  n.d., Box 8, Folder 9, Carolina Mountain Club Archives, D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.      

  • Because this is part of the Carolina Mountain Club archives and no specific author is noted on the map, use the "Carolina Mountan
  • Note that because Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain is a description of the item rather than a title, is not in quotation marks. If the map actually had the title " Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain" on it, then you would put it in quotation marks as a title.
  • The map does not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after the author's name, a comma after the document title, and a comma after the date, a comma after the box and file number, a comma after the collection name, a comma after the repository name, and a period at the end of the note. 

       7. Carolina Mountain Club , Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain.

  • Use a period after the collection name, after the respository name, and after the author's name, and at the end of the bibliography entry.
  • While the note included the item or document being cited, the bibliography does not include specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited. Then you would list the individual item in addition to the collection, respository, and repository location. For instance, if you cited two or more items from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above. If you cited only the one document listed in the bibliography above and no more documents, then your bibliograhy entry would look like this:

Photographs are a bit different in Chicago/Turabian style because they are cited in notes only and not in the bibliography.

You will need to use the following elements in your citation (Turabian, 8th ed., 17.8.1.1)

  • Name of the photographer (if known)
  • Title of the photograph in italics
  • Date of photograph (preceded by ca. [ circa ] in italics if approximate, or n.d. if unknown)
  • Name of the repository that houses the photograph

How to cite a photograph

Suppose you are researching the history of Tryon, NC. You find a photograph of a Catholic Church in Tryon, NC, in the R. Henry Scadin Collection that you want to use in your paper. You find this information about the photograph:

The photographer is R. Henry Scadin, and the photograph is labeled "Catholic Church, Tryon, NC," it's photograph number 958, and it's in Box 33. There is no date on the photograph. Here's how you would do the citation:

  • The title and photograph number are in italics. If it does not have a title, use "untitled" and describe the photograph in your narrative. 
  • The photograph does not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after the photographer's name, a comma after the photograph title, a comma after the date, a comma after the box and file number, a comma after the collection name, a comma after the repository name, and a period at the end of the note. 

  7. R. Henry Scadin, Catholic Church. 

  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the photographer's name and the title of the photograph (which is sometimes shortened).

There is no bibliography entry for a photograph.

   How to cite a photograph in an online collection 

Citing a photograph from an online, digitized collection is the same as citing a regular photograph, with the addition of adding the URL and an access date. 

  • Name of the online collection
  • Date accessed

You are writing a paper about Asheville in the early 20th century, and you want to use a photograph of President Theodore Roosevelt when he spoke at Pack Square in 1902.  You find a photograph of Roosevelt's talk in the Western North Carolina Heritage website, and you have this information:

The photographer is H. W. Pelton, the photograph is titled "Pack Square Crowds greet President Theodore Roosevelt." It's from the E. M. Ball Collection. The date is 1902, and the URL is http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/Photographs/id/639.  You accessed it on November 5, 2014.

            4. H. W. Pelton, Pack Square Crowds Greet President Theodore Roosevelt , 1902, E. M. Ball Collection, accessed November 5, 2014,  http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/Photographs/id/639

  • The photograph title is in italics. If it does not have a title, use "untitled" and describe the photograph in your narrative. 
  • Use a comma after the photographer's name, a comma after the photograph title, a comma after the date, a comma after the accession date, and a period at the end of the note. 

Sometimes you will find newspaper clippings, magazine articles, or academic journal articles in a manuscript collection. How do you cite these? When citing a newspaper, magazine, or journal in a manuscript collection, it's good to also provide information about the article, such as the title of the article, the name of the newspaper, the author of the article, and the date it was published. Sometime you might not have all this information, especially if the article was clipped out of the newspaper, but you can use what information you do have to describe the article as completely as possible. Let's take a look at a few examples of how this would work.

Example 1: Citing a newspaper article or clipping from a manuscript collection

Look at the citation information from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives finding aid above. This has basic information about the collection, repository, and location of repository that you will need for your citation, but you will also add more information about the newspaper article. 

Let's say you're working with the Carolina Mountain Club Archives and you find a newspaper article that you need for your research. You find an article that you want to cite, and you are able to identify a lot of information about it.  The article is "Are Dogwoods Doomed?" by Clarke Morrison. It was published in The Asheville Citizen on September 14, 1990. It was in Box 9, Folder 3 of the Carolina Mountain Club Archives. To cite this, what you end up doing is using the citation style for a newspaper article and adding it to the manuscript citation - thereby providing information about both the original article and the manuscript collection where you found it.

        1. Clarke Morrison , "Are Dogwoods Doomed?,"   The Asheville Citizen , September 14, 1990,   Box 9, Folder 3,   Carolina Mountain Club Archives ,  D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.       

  • Note that this describes the information about the newspaper article, then describes the collection information.

       7. Morrison ,  "Dogwoods," Carolina Mountain Club Archives .

Carolina Mountain Club Archives. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.        University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.        

  • In other words, if you cited two or more items from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above.
  • If you cited only one item from the  Carolina Mountain Club Archives in your paper, then your bibliography entry would look like this:

Morrison, Clarke . "Are Dogwoods Doomed? . "   The Asheville Citizen. September 14, 1990. Carolina Mountain Club        Archives. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.   University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

Example 2: Citing a newspaper article with missing information

Sometimes you will find a newspaper or magazine article that has been clipped from the original paper or magazine. All you have is an article - you don't have the author, publication date, or even what newspaper published the article. If you add no information at all the reader may wonder who wrote the article, what paper it was in, and when it was published. However, Chicago style allows for comments in footnotes and endnotes (CMOS, 14.32) that you can use to explain this, and the commentary is inserted at the end of the note.

Let's assume you're working with the Carlina Mountain Club Archives. You find a clipping of a newspaper article titled "Hiking the Appalachian Trail" in Box 9, Folder 3, but it does not list an author or publication date, and you can't tell what paper it was published in. Your citation would look like this:     

Note (First mention, full reference) :

        1. "Hiking the Appalachian Trail,"  Box 9, Folder 3,   Carolina Mountain Club Archives,   D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.   Newspaper clipping missing author, publication date, and name of newspaper.     

  • Note that this describes the information about the newspaper article, then describes the collection information. The additional phrase at the end clarifies why the information about the artilce is incomplete. 
  • Use a comma after every element of the note and a period after the repository location. Use a period after the commentary phrase. 

       7 . " Hiking the Appalachian Trail,"  Carolina Mountain Club Archives.

 Bibliography:

Carolina Mountain Club Archives.   D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.           University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC .        

  • If you cited only one item from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives in your paper, then your bibliography entry would look like this: 

"Hiking the Appalachian Trail." Carolina Mountain Club Archives. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.                       University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 

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Cite a Dissertation in TURABIAN

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Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper

Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.

  • Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
  • Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
  • Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
  • Book: What have reviews said about it?
  • What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
  • Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
  • Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
  • Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
  • Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
  • Are there ads?
  • When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
  • Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
  • Does the source even have a date?
  • Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
  • If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
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ARTHIST 485/735 Landscape and Memory in Ancient Maya Cities

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Zotero helps you collect, manage, and cite research sources. Zotero allows you to attach PDFs, notes and images to your citations, organize them into collections for different projects, and create bibliographies using Word or Open Office.

EndNote is a program that makes it possible to collect and organize references in a database and instantly create properly formatted bibliographies.

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Citing Your Work

Turabian and the Chicago Manual of Style are often used by art historians in preparing their footnotes and bibliographies, but students should check with their professor to see which style manual is required for their course papers.

Chicago Manual of Style Online : Description: A style guide for American English published by the University of Chicago Press. It deals with aspects of editorial practice, from American English grammar and usage to proper citation style, used in document preparation.

Print Edition: REFDESK Z253 .U69

A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations [Turabian] Reference Desk LB369 .T8 1996

For suggested ways to cite Internet sources consistent with Turabian's style, see A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities

citing dissertation turabian

What is Modern Language Association (MLA) style?

MLA style is commonly used in the humanities. It involves the use of parenthetical in-text citations, which means that the citation information is within parentheses beside the quoted or paraphrased information.

How do I cite sources in MLA style?

You can get help with MLA from the following: ​

  • Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) - MLA Style
  • MLA Style Center
  • You can copy and paste a reference cited in MLA style directly from many of the library databases and from Google Scholar (to cite from Google Scholar, click on the quotation mark underneath the reference).
  • You can also use a citation manager software, like Zotero or EndNote.

Using the work of another scholar without proper citation, whether that work is available in print or online, is plagiarism, a violation of the Emory Honor Code . It is extremely easy for professors to discover work plagiarized from web sources -- they know how to use Google at least as well as you do, and there are many online tools available specifically to help educators detect plagiarized work.

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HIST388: American Indian History

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Chicago & Turabian Styles (University of Chicago Press)

The Chicago Manual of Style and the companion guide for students, Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, are widely used in history and many other disciplines. These manuals offer two different systems of documentation:

  • Notes and bibliography style -- commonly used in humanities
  • Author-date (in-text parenthetical) style -- commonly used in social sciences and sciences

citing dissertation turabian

Chicago & Turabian Guides

  • Turabian Citation Style | UD Library Guide to the Notes and Bibliography style (used in Humanities).
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WR 151 - Gael Garcial Bernal Filmography and Latin America

About this guide, featured resources.

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Related Guides

  • Latin American and Spanish Videos Freely Available on the Internet: A Guide to Web Sources
  • FT250 / CI202 Understanding Film
  • Literature Guide

This guide provides research resources and information related to

WR151: Gael Garcia Bernal Filmography & Latin America

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Image sources: Creative Common Search - Openverse and Wikimedia.

It includes:

  • Sources of background information, including encyclopedias.
  • Links to books and e-books.
  • Databases for finding articles.
  • Help in citing your sources.

Screen Studies Collection

A comprehensive survey of current publications related to film scholarship alongside detailed and expansive filmographies. This collection includes the specialist index FIAF International Index to Film Periodicals Database and the detailed and complementary filmographies created by the American Film Institute and the British Film Institute; AFI Catalog and Film Index International.

citing dissertation turabian

Digital Hispanica - Cinema Studies

Digitalia Hispánica is a multidisciplinary database of e-resources in Spanish. Digitalia Hispánica contains 21 thematic collections of e-books; e-journals as well as international collection of streaming feature films and documentaries, and ostly films are from Spain or Latin America. The films are n the original language,and some  are dubbed into English or with English subtitles. 

citing dissertation turabian

Student's Guide to Writing College Papers

Turabian 's popular guide, the team behind Chicago's widely respected The Craft of Research has reconceived and renewed this classic for today's generation. Designed for less advanced writers than  Turabian 's Manual of Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Seventh Edition, Gregory G. Colomb and Joseph M. Williams here introduce students to the art of defining a topic, doing high-quality research with limited resources, and writing an engaging and solid college paper. The Student's Guide is organized into three sections that lead students through the process of developing and revising a paper. Part 1, "Writing Your Paper," guides students through the research process with discussions of choosing and developing a topic, validating sources, planning arguments, writing drafts, avoiding plagiarism, and presenting evidence in tables and figures. Part 2, "Citing Sources," begins with a succinct introduction to why citation is important and includes sections on the three major styles students might encounter in their work - Chicago, MLA, and APA - all with full coverage of electronic source citation. Part 3, "Style," covers all matters of style important to writers of college papers, from punctuation to spelling to presenting titles, names, and numbers." -- Publisher description.

Third cinema in the third world : the aesthetics of liberation

Although Third Cinema began as a movement of, by, and for the colonized, Gabriel argued passionately for its transnationalist possibilities. In his seminal work  Third Cinema in the Third World: The Aesthetics of Liberation , for example, he  writes that “the principal characteristic of Third Cinema is really not so much where it is made, or even who makes it, but, rather, the ideology it espouses and the consciousness it displays.” 

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The MotorCycle Diaries

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Turabian Style Manuals

" Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style)." The notes-bibliography style (NB) is used by the ORU Graduate School of Theology and Ministry, with the exception of graduate counseling that uses APA style.

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opens new window Turabian Style Guide (Covenant Theological Seminary) - Provides examples for 9th edition.

SBL Style Manual

The Society of Biblical Literature, or SBL , style is used by those who write or publish in the disciplines of ancient Near Eastern studies, Biblical studies, and studies of early Christianity. The SBL Handbook includes extensive abbreviations lists, archeological site names, guidelines for transliterating ancient languages, and examples for citing print and electronic sources. SBL documentation style is recommended for use by the Undergraduate Theology department.

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opens new window Student Supplement for the SBL Handbook of Style, Second Edition PDF

A copy of the Undergraduate Theology Department Style Manual by Dr. Lamp is available at the Library Service desk. Citation examples are provided at the end of the manual. Please inquire at the Library Service desk.

Turabian and SBL Style Information and Examples

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ORU Graduate Theology - Research & Writing Manual

View the online Graduate School of Theology and Ministry opens new window Research and Writing Manual . See "Footnote and Bibliographic Examples" section (p. 83- in manual) or "Electronic Documents" (p. 91- in manual)

A copy of the Research & Writing Manual is also available on Reserve for check out at the Library Service desk.

Chicago Manual of Style

  • Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. This link opens in a new window more... less... This 17th edition style manual is the "guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format...the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers..."

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Thesis/Dissertation in Chicago/Turabian

    How to Cite a Thesis/Dissertation in Chicago/Turabian 2.8 ( 32) Citation Generator Source Type Search Academic theses and dissertations can be a good source of information when writing your own paper. They are usually accessed via a university's database or a third party database, or found on the web.

  2. Introduction to Turabian Style

    Turabian is a version of Chicago style that's specifically designed for students and researchers. If you've been told to follow Chicago style when writing your academic research paper, thesis, or dissertation, it's usually the Turabian guidelines that will be most useful to you. Note

  3. Turabian Citation Quick Guide Page

    Source citations in the Turabian manual come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (or simply notes) and (2) author-date. These two systems are also sometimes referred to as Chicago-style citations, because they are the same as the ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style.

  4. Turabian Citation Quick Guide Notes and Bibliography Samples

    The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography style. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened forms that would be used after the first citation. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. (For examples of the same citations using the ...

  5. Turabian Home Page

    A MANUAL FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS —also known as "Turabian"—is the gold standard for college and graduate students in virtually all academic areas. An introduction to Chicago-style formatting and citation generation, the manual aids students in clear writing, citing, and research practice.

  6. The Writing Center

    Turabian Style suggests that writers in the humanities use footnote references to cite sources. A professor may also require a bibliography page. You should indicate sources for quotations (exact words) and paraphrases (ideas stated in your words) in your writing.

  7. Dissertations, Theses, and Papers

    Theses For a thesis, use the citation style for a dissertation, but replace "PhD diss." with "master's thesis." Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings (19.7.2) B: Carvalho Filho, Irineu de, and Renato P. Colistete. "Education Performance: Was It All Determined 100 Years Ago? Evidence from São Paolo, Brazil."

  8. LibGuides: Turabian Citation Style Guide 9th Edition: Home

    Kate Turabian (1893-1987) was the dissertation secretary of the University of Chicago's graduate school and every accepted dissertation crossed her desk. She became an expert on the Chicago style and wrote a pamphlet that described the correct style to use when writing dissertations.

  9. Citation Help: Dissertations & Theses

    Chicago AND Turabian Citation Examples: Dissertations & Theses Chicago and Turabian use the exact same format for citing dissertations and theses. Important Elements: Author Title of Dissertation or Thesis Type of Document (Dissertation or Thesis) Name of Degree Granting Institution Date Year Thesis or dissertation Notes 1.

  10. Turabian Style

    Turabian Style is a variation of Chicago Manual of Style that is geared for students and researchers. Like Chicago, Turabian Style is used in some disciplines within the humanities, sciences and social sciences. Additionally, like Chicago Style, Turabian Style shares the same systems: notes-bibliography and author-date.

  11. Research Guides: Turabian 9th edition Style Guide: Home

    The Turabian citation style is a shortened form of Chicago citation style. Developed by the secretary of the graduate school's dissertation department at the University of Chicago, Kate Turabian, this citation style is used in social sciences, humanities, natural and physical sciences and depending on the class/professor.

  12. Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

    Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style. The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition) . Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style; the ...

  13. Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE

    Based on Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Turabian citation style presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (previously called parenthetical citations-reference list style).

  14. General Format

    Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].; Main Body. Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized "headline-style," meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.

  15. Format for A Thesis or Dissertation

    Theses and Dissertations. Citing a Thesis or Dissertation ; Format for A Thesis or Dissertation ; Margins, Fonts, and Indents - Turabian 9, A.1 General Format Requirements; Spacing - Turabian 9, A.1 General Format Requirements; Title Page Format - Turabian 9, A.2.1.2; Abstract - Turabian 9, A.2.1.4 Abstract; Block Quotations - Turabian 9, 25.2. ...

  16. LibGuides: Citing Your Sources: Chicago/Turabian

    The Chicago style has two forms for citations: ... which version your professor wants you to use. For students, there is a simplified version of the Chicago Style called Turabian. This section points you toward resources on ... and Dissertations, Ninth Edition by Kate L. Turabian. Call Number: Klamath Falls, LB2369 .T8 2018. Publication Date ...

  17. Turabian Format Quick Guide

    Turabian Template for assignments WITH headings (NOTE: do not add quotation marks around the titles of your papers; all macro-enabled fields in the template have those marks to denote the macros;...

  18. Research Guides: Citation Guide: Turabian: Editor or Translator

    Editor or Translator - Citation Guide: Turabian - Research Guides at Cedarville University Editor or Translator in Place of an Author NOTES (Footnotes or Endnotes) 1. Seamus Heaney, trans., Beowulf: A New Verse Translation (New York: W.W. Norton, 2000), 55. 2.

  19. Turabian Citation Style Guide 9th Edition: I. Reference Book

    For each type of source in this guide, the general form and specific examples will be provided for both the Notes-Bibliography and the Author-Date style options of Turabian. This information and several of the examples were drawn from A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations (9th edition).Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

  20. Free Turabian Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    A Turabian citation generator is a software tool that can automatically create academic citations in the Turabian citation style. It will usually request key details about a source -- like the authors, title, and publish date -- and will output these details with the correct punctuation and layout required by the official Turabian style guide.

  21. Library Guides: Citing Sources: Turabian, SBL & Chicago

    A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Eighth Edition) by Kate L. Turabian; Wayne C. Booth (Revised by); Gregory G. Colomb (Revised by); University of Chicago Press Staff (Revised by); Joseph M. Williams (Revised by) A little more than seventy-five years ago, Kate L. Turabian drafted a set of guidelines to help students understand how to write, cite, and formally ...

  22. Citing Special Collections materials in Chicago/Turabian style: Citing

    This page includes citation examples for different kinds of primary sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 16th edition, and Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th edition.This guide shows how to create an initial citation, a subsequent note, and a bibliography entry for primary sources.

  23. Citing a Dissertation in TURABIAN

    Cite a Dissertation in TURABIAN Source type Dissertation

  24. Library Guides: Graduate Theological Research: Citation Tools

    A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Turabian, Kate L., and rev. by Wayne C. Booth and Joseph M. Williams A little more than seventy-five years ago, Kate L. Turabian drafted a set of guidelines to help students understand how to write, cite, and formally submit research writing. Seven editions and more than nine million copies later, the name Turabian has ...

  25. Citing your work

    A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations [Turabian] Reference Desk LB369 .T8 1996. For suggested ways to cite Internet sources consistent with Turabian's style, see A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities . MLA. MLA Handbook by The Modern Language Association of America. ISBN: 9781603292627.

  26. Research Guides: HIST388: American Indian History: Citations

    The Chicago Manual of Style and the companion guide for students, Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, are widely used in history and many other disciplines. These manuals offer two different systems of documentation: Notes and bibliography style -- commonly used in humanities; Author-date (in-text parenthetical) style -- commonly used in social sciences ...

  27. WR 151

    Student's Guide to Writing College Papers. Turabian 's popular guide, the team behind Chicago's widely respected The Craft of Research has reconceived and renewed this classic for today's generation. Designed for less advanced writers than Turabian 's Manual of Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Seventh Edition, Gregory G. Colomb and Joseph M. Williams here introduce ...

  28. Citations

    A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Eighth Edition) by Kate L. Turabian; Wayne C. Booth (Revised by); Gregory G. Colomb (Revised by); University of Chicago Press Staff (Revised by); Joseph M. Williams (Revised by) A little more than seventy-five years ago, Kate L. Turabian drafted a set of guidelines to help students understand how to write, cite, and formally ...