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CHEMISTRY THEORY AND OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FOR 2021/2022 WAEC EXAM

CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM.

Chemistry Theory And Objective: Questions  & Answers For 2022/2023 WAEC Exam. Are you a student who wants to make a good grade in Chemistry? Here are the WAEC Chemistry questions and everything you need to know about 2021 WAEC Chemistry. This post provides provided for you with all you need to know in Chemistry Paper 1 (Objective) and Chemistry 2 (Essay).

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Welcome to the Chemistry Theory and Objective: Questions & Answers for the 2022/2023 WAEC Exam. This comprehensive guide has been designed to assist students in their preparation for the upcoming WAEC Chemistry examination. It presents a collection of theory and objective questions along with their corresponding answers, covering the essential topics and concepts outlined in the WAEC syllabus. By studying and practicing these questions, you will gain a solid foundation in chemistry and improve your chances of achieving excellent results in the exam. So let’s delve into the world of chemistry and embark on a journey of learning and success.

The Question & Answers: CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM.

Furthermore, below are the WAEC Chemistry questions. Read them properly. In fact, they will make you ready to score high in your WAEC Chemistry exam.

The West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) is an examination body in Nigeria. It has the statutory power to conduct the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in May/June and the General Certificate in Education in November/December.

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CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM.

General tips and advice to help you prepare for your exams effectively..

  • Study the syllabus: Familiarize yourself with the syllabus for your respective exams. Understand the topics and concepts that are likely to be covered and focus your preparation accordingly.
  • Review past papers: Practice solving past exam papers to get an idea of the types of questions that may be asked. This will help you become familiar with the exam format and identify any areas where you need further improvement.
  • Understand the concepts: Chemistry involves understanding fundamental concepts and principles. Ensure you have a strong foundation by studying the theory thoroughly. Take notes, create summaries, and use diagrams or visual aids to help you grasp complex concepts.
  • Practice problem-solving: Chemistry often requires application and problem-solving skills. Practice solving numerical problems and chemical equations regularly to strengthen your problem-solving abilities. This will also help you become more familiar with the calculations and techniques needed for the exam.
  • Seek clarification: If you come across any challenging topics or concepts, don’t hesitate to seek clarification from your teachers, classmates, or online resources. Understanding the material thoroughly will boost your confidence during the exam. CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM..
  • Create a study schedule: Plan your study sessions and allocate sufficient time to each topic based on its importance and your level of understanding. Break down your study material into manageable chunks and set realistic goals to stay motivated.
  • Collaborate with peers: Consider forming study groups with classmates or friends who are also preparing for the exams. Discussing and explaining concepts to each other can enhance your understanding and retention of the material.
  • Utilize available resources: Take advantage of textbooks, reference materials, online resources, and educational platforms that provide study materials, practice questions, and tutorials specific to your exam. These resources can provide valuable insights and additional practice opportunities. CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM.
  • Practice time management: During the exam, time management is crucial. Practice solving questions within the allocated time limits to improve your speed and accuracy. This will ensure that you can complete the exam within the given time frame.
  • Stay focused and maintain a healthy lifestyle: Avoid distractions and create a conducive study environment. Take regular breaks, exercise, eat nutritious meals, and get enough sleep to keep your mind and body in optimal condition for studying.

Remember, success in any exam is a result of consistent effort, effective preparation, and a positive mindset. Good luck with your exams!

WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022:

Furthermore, the questions below are the WAEC Chemistry Questions. Going through them will make you ready to score high in your WAEC 2021 Chemistry Examination. Congratulations.

  • How many alkoxy alkanes can be obtained from the molecular formula C4 H4O4

ANSWER: C (3)

  • Element Y has two isotopes Y and Y present in the ratio 1:3. The relative atomic mass of Y would be

ANSWER: C (21.5)

  • What condition favors the formation of the product for the endothermic reaction, N2O4(g) —><—– 2NO2(g)

A. Decrease in pressure

B. A decrease in volume

C. An increase in pressure

D. A constant volume

ANSWER: A ( Decrease in pressure)

  • Elements X and Y have electronic configurations 1S22S22P4 and 1S22S22P63S23P1 respectively. When they combine the formula of the compound formed is

ANSWER: B (Y2X3)

CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM

  • A solution of 0.20 mole of NaBr and 0.20 mole of MgBr2 in 2.0 dm3 of water is to be analyzed. How many moles of Pb(NO3 )2 must be added to precipitate all the bromide as insoluble PbBr2

A. 0.30 mol

B. 0.10 mol

C. 0.20 mol

D. 0.40 mol

ANSWER: A (0.30 mol)

  • Na2CO3 + HCl —-> NaHCO3 + NaCl. The indicator most suitable for this reaction should have pH equal to.

ANSWER: D (9)

  • A saturated solution of silver trioxocarbonate (IV), was found to have a concentration of 1.30 x 10-5 moldm-3 . The solubility product of the trioxocarbonate (IV) is

A. 8.79 x 10-15

B. 1.69 x 10-10

C. 1.82 x 10-11

D. 9.84 x 10-10

ANSWER: A (8.79 x 10-15)

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FOR THE 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM

  • 100.0g of KClO3 was added to 40.0 cm^3 of water to give a saturated solution at 298K. If the solubility of the salt is 20.0 moldm^-3 at 298K, what percentage of the salt is left undissolved? {K= 39, Cl = 35.5, O = 16}
  • Tetraoxosulphate (VI) ions are the final test using

A. acidified silver nitrate

B. acidic barium chloride

C. lime water

D. dilute hydrochloric acid

ANSWER: D (dilute hydrochloric acid)

  • When platinum electrodes are used during the electrolysis of copper (II) tetraoxosulphate (IV) solution, the solution gets progressive

D. Atmospheric

ANSWER: A (Acidic)

WAEC 2022/2023 Chemistry Theory Questions

PAPER 2 (ESSAY) SECTION A

  • (a) When calcium oxide and coke are heated in an electric furnace, the products are carbon (ii) oxide and calcium carbide (CaC2), write the equation for this reaction.

(b) The addition of water to calcium carbide leads to the formation of calcium hydroxide and ethyne. Write the equation for the production of ethyne.

  • Calculate the percentage by mass of silicon tetrachloride. [2 marks]
  • Ammonia, NH3, and phosphine, Ph3, are the hydrides of the first two elements in group 5. (a) Draw a dot and cross diagram for the ammonia molecule. [2 marks] (b) Sketch and explain the shape of the ammonia molecule. [3 marks]
  • The first ionization energy of chlorine is +1260KJmol-1. (a) Define the term first ionization energy. (b) State and explain the general trend in the values of the first ionization energy for the elements across the period, sodium to argon in the periodic table.
  • Compound A consists of carbon and hydrogen only. The compound was found to contain 80% carbon by mass. (a) Calculate the empirical formula of compound A using the data above. (b) The relative molecular mass of compound A was found to be 30. Use this information to deduce the molecular formula of compound A. [H = 1.00 C = 12.00]
  • State two factors other than a change in temperature or the use of a catalyst that influence the rate of a chemical reaction.
  • Identify the solid remaining when each of the following is heated. (a) lithium trioxonitrate (V) (b) potassium trioxonitrate (V) (c) calcium trioxonitrate (V)

CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For the 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM

  • An aqueous solution has a pH of 4.0. (a) (i) What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution? (ii) What effect will it have on litmus paper? (iii) Which of the following salt solutions would have the same effect on litmus? Give a reason for your answer. NH4Cl(aq); NaCl(aq) ; CH3OON(aq). (b) (i) Differentiate between a fine chemical and a heavy chemical. (ii) Name two sources of air pollution. (iii) Suggest one way of reducing air pollution in cities
  • (a) (i) Explain briefly the fermentation process. (ii) Write a balanced equation for the fermentation of glucose. (iii) What substance must be added to glucose solution to ferment it? (iv) Explain briefly why tightly corked glass filled to the brim with palm wine shatters on standing. (b) State one industrial application of each of the following methods of separation: (i) Crystallization; (ii) Fractional distillation. (c) Explain the following terms: (i) Saponification; (ii) Esterification. (d) Write a balanced equation to illustrate each of the terms in (c). (e) i) What is hydrocarbon compound? (ii) Name two principal sources of hydrocarbons.

CHEMISTRY THEORY AND OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FOR 2021/2022 WAEC EXAM

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FOR 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM

  • (a) Two elements represented by the letters Q and R have atomic numbers 9 and 12 respectively. (i) Write the electron configuration of R. (ii) To what group does Q belong in the periodic table? (iii) Write the formula of the compound formed when Q combines with R. (iv) Explain briefly, why Q is a good oxidizing agent. (v) State whether R would be expected to form acidic or basic oxide. (b) (i) State two assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases. (ii) When some solids are heated, they change directly into the gaseous state. What name is given to this phenomenon? (iii) List two substances that exhibit the phenomenon mentioned in (ii). (iv) Write an expression to show the mathematical relationship between the rate of diffusion of a gas and its vapor.

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In conclusion, mastering the Chemistry theory and objectives is crucial for success in the upcoming 2022/2023 WAEC exam. By diligently studying and understanding the key concepts, practicing with a wide range of questions, and seeking clarification when needed, students can enhance their understanding of this fascinating subject. Remember, a strong foundation in Chemistry will not only boost your performance in the exam but also equip you with valuable knowledge for future academic pursuits. Stay focused, stay determined, and embark on this journey with confidence. Best of luck in your preparations and may you excel in the upcoming WAEC exam! CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM.

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Teaching and Learning in the School Chemistry Laboratory

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1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 prolog, 1.1.2 the history of the laboratory in chemistry education, 1.1.3 research-based ideas related to learning in and from the science laboratory: 60 years of development of goals, practice and research, chapter 1: the role of the laboratory in chemistry teaching and learning.

  • Published: 05 Nov 2021
  • Special Collection: 2021 ebook collection Series: Advances in Chemistry Education Research
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Teaching and Learning in the School Chemistry Laboratory, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, ch. 1, pp. 1-15.

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This chapter deals with the historical aspects of teaching and learning in the high school chemistry laboratory. Based on an intensive review of the literature, the changes in goals and objectives of the chemistry laboratory over the years are presented. In general, three periods related to students’ practice in the chemistry laboratory, namely the early 1960s to the early 1980s, the mid-1980s to the end of the 1990s, and from 2000 until today are covered. These periods are discussed in detail in terms of educational characteristics, goals and effectiveness.

The American Chemical Society (ACS) in an undated declaration, describes the role of the laboratory in chemistry learning as follows:

Chemistry is a laboratory science and cannot be effectively taught without a robust laboratory experience for students at both the middle and high school levels. The identification, manipulation, and general use of laboratory equipment are integral parts of the subject. A school laboratory should have equipment to conduct meaningful demonstrations and experiments… The laboratory environment must be accessible to all students and maintained with safety in mind. Teachers should use safety measures to protect students and themselves during any investigation. With appropriate accommodations, students with limited strength or mobility can participate in the laboratory experience. Instruction that is student-centered and emphasizes the role of laboratory demonstrations and experiments is the best method to ensure students develop the essential skills of science.

Throughout this book we use the terms practical work, which is common in the UK and Germany, and laboratory work, common in the USA, interchangeably. A precise definition is difficult, as this in-school practice embraces an array of activities, but the terms generally refer to experiences in school settings in which students interact with equipment and materials or secondary sources of data to observe and understand the natural world ( Hegarty-Hazel, 1990 ). For the purpose of this book, laboratory activities are defined as contrived learning experiences in which students interact with materials and equipment to observe phenomena. This book focuses on teaching and learning in the high school chemistry laboratory. In chemistry learning, the laboratory provides opportunities to ‘learn by doing’ to make sense of the physical world. Since the 19th century, science educators have believed that laboratory instruction is essential because it provides training in observation, prompts the consideration and application of detailed and contextualized information, and cultivates students’ curiosity about science. This quote from Ira Ramsden (1846–1927), who wrote his memories as a child experiencing a chemical phenomenon, perfectly illustrates that belief:

While reading a textbook of chemistry, I came upon the statement, ‘nitric acid acts upon copper’…and I [was] determined to see what this meant. Having located some nitric acid, I had only to learn what the words ‘act upon’ meant… In the interest of knowledge, I was even willing to sacrifice one of the few copper cents then in my possession. I put one of them on the table; opened the bottle marked ‘nitric acid’ poured some of the liquid on the copper; and prepared to make an observation. But what was this wonderful thing which I beheld? The cent was already changed, and it was not a small change either. A greenish blue liquid foamed and fumed over the cent and the table. The air…became colored dark red… How could I stop this? I tried by picking up the cent and throwing it out of the window…I learned another fact; nitric acid…acts upon fingers. The pain led to another unpremeditated experiment. I drew my fingers across my trousers and discovered nitric acid acts upon trousers. I tell it even now with interest. It was revelation to me. Plainly the only way to learn about such remarkable kinds of action is to see the results, to experiment to work in the laboratory. H. Getman, “The Life of Ira, “Exocharmic Reactions” in Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, Chemical Demonstrations Remsen”; Journal of Chemical Education : Easton, Pennsylvania, 1940; pp 9–10; quoted in Richard W. Ramette: A Handbook for Teachers of action is to see the results, to experiment, to work in the laboratory.

Laboratory activities have long had a distinct and central role in the science curriculum as a means of making sense of the natural world. Since the 19th century, when schools began to teach science systematically, the laboratory has become a distinctive feature of chemistry learning. After the First World War, and with rapidly increasing scientific knowledge, the laboratory was used mainly as a means of confirming and illustrating information previously learnt in a lecture or from textbooks. With the reform in science education in the 1960s in many countries ( e.g. , CHEMStudy in the USA and Nuffield Chemistry Program in the UK), the idea of practical work was to engage students in investigations, discoveries, inquiry and problem-solving activities. In other words, the laboratory became the core of the science learning process ( Shulman and Tamir, 1973 ). Based on a thorough review of the literature, these latter authors suggested the following classification of goals for laboratory instruction in the sciences:

To arouse and maintain interest, attitude, satisfaction, open-mindedness and curiosity.

To develop creative thinking and problem-solving ability.

To promote aspects of scientific thinking and the scientific method.

To develop conceptual understanding.

To develop practical abilities (for example, designing an experiment, recording data and analyzing and interpreting results obtained from conducting an experiment).

Hofstein and Lunetta (1982) , suggested a method of organizing these goals to justify the importance of laboratory teaching and learning, under the headings: cognitive, practical and affective.

The laboratory has long played a central and distinctive role in chemistry education. It has been used to involve students with concrete experiences of concepts and objects. The role of the science laboratory, according to Romey (1968) in the years 1918–1960 is illustrated in Figure 1.1 .

The role of the science laboratory 1918–1980.

The role of the science laboratory 1918–1980.

Almost 40 years ago, Hofstein and Lunetta (1982) reported that for over a century, the laboratory had been given a central and distinctive role in science education, with science educators suggesting that rich benefits in learning are accrued from using laboratory activities. However, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, some educators began to seriously question both the effectiveness and the role of laboratory work, and the case for the laboratory was not as self-evident as it had once seemed ( e.g. , Bates, 1978 ). The 1982 survey conducted by Hofstein and Lunetta provided a perspective on the issue of the science laboratory through a review of the history, goals and research findings regarding the laboratory as a medium for instruction in high school science teaching and learning.

Science educators ( Lunetta and Tamir, 1979 ) have expressed the view that the laboratory's uniqueness lies principally in providing students with opportunities to engage in processes of investigation and inquiry. The review conducted by Hofstein and Lunetta (1982) raised another issue regarding the definition of the goals and objectives of the laboratory in science education. The review of the literature revealed that these objectives were synonymous with those defined for science learning in general. Thus, they suggested that it is vital to isolate and define goals for which laboratory work could make a unique and significant contribution to the teaching and learning of science. They also wrote that while the laboratory provides a unique medium for teaching and learning in science, researchers had not comprehensively examined the effects of laboratory instruction on student learning and growth, in contrast to other modes of instruction and there was insufficient data to convincingly confirm or reject many of the statements that had been made about the importance and effects of laboratory teaching. In other words, the research had failed to show simple relationships between experiences in the laboratory and student learning. The 1982 review identified several methodological shortcomings in science education research that were inhibiting our ability to present a clear picture of the effectiveness of the science laboratory in promoting understanding for students. Twenty years later, Hofstein and Lunetta (2004) delineated the following series of problems and shortcomings in the research regarding the educational effectiveness of the science laboratory:

Insufficient control over procedures (including expectations delivered by the laboratory guide, the teacher, and the assessment system).

Insufficient reporting of the instructional and assessment procedures that were used.

Assessment measures of students’ learning outcomes being inconsistent with the stated goals of the teaching and the research.

Insufficient sample size in many studies, particularly in quantitative ones.

Support for these assertions had been presented by Tobin (1990) , who prepared a follow-up synthesis of the research on the effectiveness of teaching and learning in the science laboratory. He proposed a research agenda for science teachers and researchers and suggested that meaningful learning is possible in the laboratory if the students are given opportunities to manipulate equipment and materials in an environment suitable for them to construct their knowledge of phenomena and related scientific concepts. In addition, he claimed that, in general, research had failed to provide evidence that such opportunities were offered in school science.

The National Science Education Standards (NSES) (National Research Council [ NRC], 1996 ) defined such learning activities ( e.g. , inquiry) as:

The diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work. Scientific inquiry also refers to the activities through which students develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how scientists study the natural world (p. 73).

As already noted, science educators have long suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities ( Tobin, 1990 ; Hofstein and Lunetta, 2004 ). Tobin (1990) , for example, wrote that:

Laboratory activities appeal as a way of allowing students to learn with understanding and at the same time engage in the process of constructing knowledge by doing science (p. 405).

Similarly, Nakhleh et al. (2002) wrote that:

The laboratory is often a neglected area of teaching, but the laboratory has also been a frustrating area for research. Research on learning in the laboratory has been complicated by the complex nature of the environment, the plethora of goals, and the seeming non-impact of laboratory work on the types of understanding that we test in exams (p. 71).

In the curricular-type projects developed during the 1960s, the laboratory was intended to be a place for inquiry, and the development and testing of theories, and to provide students with the opportunity to ‘practice being a scientist’. Many research studies (summarized, for example, by Bates, 1978 ; Hofstein and Lunetta, 1982 ) were conducted with the aim of exploring the effectiveness of the laboratory for attaining the many objectives (both cognitive and affective) that had been suggested over the years in the science education literature. This traditional list of objectives included:

Understanding of scientific concepts.

Interest and motivation.

Attitude toward science.

Practical scientific skills and problem-solving abilities.

Scientific habits of mind.

Understanding the nature of science (NOS).

The opportunity to do science.

Over the years, hundreds of papers and essays have been published with the goal of exploring and investigating the uniqueness of the science laboratory in general, and particularly its educational effectiveness. In addition, it was widely believed that the laboratory provides the only place in school where certain kinds of skills, abilities and understanding can be developed ( Lazarowitz and Tamir, 1994 ; Hofstein and Lunetta, 2004 ). In other words, the laboratory has been suggested to provide a unique mode of instruction, learning and assessment.

Precisely what kind of objectives and aims are to be attained in the laboratory include the teacher's goals, expectations, and subject and pedagogical content knowledge, as well as the degree of relevance to the topic, the students’ abilities and interests and many other logistical and economic considerations related to the school setting and facilities (see Figure 1.1 ).

It should be noted that some of these goals, such as ‘enhancing learning of scientific concepts’ coincide with the broad goals for science education that are not necessarily laboratory based. The teacher should be able to judge whether the laboratory is the most effective learning environment for attaining a certain objective while teaching a certain topic. Teachers should be aware that there has been a great deal of discussion and numerous research studies on which goals are, in fact, better achieved through laboratory instruction than through other instructional (pedagogical) approaches ( Hofstein and Lunetta, 1982, 2004 ; Lunetta et al. , 2007 ). Many research studies and essays that were cited in Hofstein and Lunetta's (1982) review criticized the tradition of conducting experiments without clear purposes or goals. In addition, they revealed a significant mismatch between teachers’ goals for learning in the science laboratory and those that were originally defined by curriculum developers and the science education milieu.

In summary, based on the important publication related to science laboratories entitled America's Lab Report, published by the NRC (1996) , it is suggested that:

The science learning goals of laboratory experiences include enhancing mastery of science subject matter, developing scientific reasoning abilities, increasing understanding of the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, developing practical skills, increasing understanding of the nature of science, cultivating interest in science and science learning, and improving teamwork abilities. The research suggests that laboratory experiences will be more likely to achieve these goals if they (1) are designed with clear learning outcomes in mind, (2) are thoughtfully sequenced into the flow of classroom science instruction, (3) integrate learning of science content and process, and (4) incorporate ongoing student reflection and discussion (p. 13).

In their review of the literature regarding practical work in science teaching and learning, Hofstein and Kind (2012) identified three periods in the 60 years of developing goals, practice, and research: the 1960s to the 1980s, the 1980s to the mid-1990s and the end of the 20th century to the beginning of the 21st century.

1.1.3.1 The 1960s to the 1980s: Unfulfilled Ideals

This period is associated with many curriculum projects that were developed to renew and improve science education. The projects began in the late 1950s with a focus on updating and reorganizing content knowledge in the science curricula, but reformists soon turned their attention to science process as a main aim and organizing principle for science education, as expressed by Klainin (1988) in Thailand:

Many science educators and philosophers of science education ( e.g. , in the USA: Schwab, 1962 ) regarded science education as a process of thought and action, as a means of acquiring new knowledge, and a means of understanding the natural world (p. 171).

The emphasis on the processes rather than the products of science was fueled by many initiatives and satisfied different interests. Some educators wanted a return to a more student-oriented pedagogy after the early reform projects which they thought paid too much attention to subject knowledge. Others regarded science process as the solution to the rapid development of knowledge in science and technology: mastering science processes was seen as more sustainable and therefore a way of preparing students for the unknown challenges of the future. Most importantly, developments in cognitive psychology drew attention to reasoning processes and scientific thinking. Psychologists such as Bruner, Piaget and Gagne helped explain the thinking involved in the science process and inspired the idea that science teaching could help develop this type of thinking in young people.

Although this development was found in its explicit form in the USA, it was soon echoed in many other countries ( Bates, 1978 ; Hofstein and Lunetta, 1982 ). Everywhere, laboratory and practical work became the focus. Kerr (1963) , in the UK, suggested that practical work (in chemistry education) should be integrated with theoretical work in the sciences and should be used for its contribution to provide facts through investigations and, consequently, to arriving at the principles related to these facts. This became a guiding principle in the many Nuffield curriculum projects that were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Science education research interest in practical work during this period is clearly demonstrated by Lazarowitz and Tamir (1994) in their review on laboratory work. They identified 37 reviews on issues of the laboratory in the context of science education ( Shulman and Tamir, 1973 ; Hofstein and Lunetta, 1982, 2004 ; Bryce and Robertson, 1985 ). These reviews expressed a similarly strong belief regarding the potential of practical work in the curriculum, but also recognized important difficulties in obtaining convincing data (based on research) on the educational effectiveness of such teaching and learning. Not surprisingly, the only area in which laboratory work showed a real advantage (when compared to the non-practical learning modes) was the development of manipulative laboratory skills to attain practical goals ( Hofstein and Lunetta, 1982 ). However, for conceptual understanding, critical thinking and understanding the NOS, there was little or no difference. Lazarowitz and Tamir (1994) suggested that one the reason for this relates to the use of inadequate assessment and research procedures. Quantitative research methods were not adequate for the research purpose but, at the time, qualitative research methods were generally disregarded in the science education community. Hofstein and Lunetta (1982) identified several methodological shortcomings in research designs: insufficient control over laboratory procedures (including laboratory manuals, teacher behavior and assessment of students’ achievement and progress in the laboratory), inappropriate samples and the use of measures that were not sensitive or relevant to laboratory processes and procedures. Another issue was that teaching practice in the laboratory did not change as easily to an open-ended style of teaching as the curriculum projects suggested. Rather, teachers preferred a safer ‘cookbook’ approach ( Tamir and Lunetta, 1981 ). Johnstone and Wham (1982) , relating to the chemistry laboratory, claimed that educators underestimated the high cognitive demand of practical work on the learner. During practical work, the student must handle a vast amount of information pertaining to the names of equipment and materials, instructions regarding the process and the collection of data and observations, thus overloading the student's working memory. This complicates laboratory learning, rather than providing a simple and safe way to learn.

Adding to this rather ominous picture, however, are some research studies and findings during this period that came to influence later developments. One area that was researched quite extensively concerns intellectual development . Renner and Lawson (1973) and Karplus (1977) (based on Piaget, 1970 ) developed the learning cycle , which consisted of the following stages: exploration , in which the student manipulates concrete materials; concept introduction , in which the teacher introduces scientific concepts; and concept application , in which the student investigates further questions and applies the new concept to novel situations. Many interpreters of Piaget's work ( e.g. , Karplus, 1977 ) inferred that work with concrete objects (provided in practical experiences) is an essential part of the development of logical thinking, particularly at the stage prior to the development of formal operations. Another important contribution was made by Kempa and Ward (1975) , who suggested a four-phase taxonomy to describe the overall process of practical work in the context of the chemistry laboratory: (1) planning an investigation (experiment), (2) carrying out the experiment, (3) observations and (4) analysis, application and explanation. In Israel, Tamir (1974) designed an inquiry-oriented laboratory examination in which the student was assessed on the bases of manipulation, self-reliance, observation, experimental design, communication and reasoning. These could serve as an organizer of laboratory objectives that could help in the design of meaningful instruments to assess outcomes of laboratory work. In addition, these had the potential to serve as a basis for continuous assessment of students’ achievements and progress and for the implementation of practical examinations ( Tamir, 1974 ; Ben-Zvi et al. , 1976 ).

1.1.3.2 Mid-1980s to 1990s: The Constructivist Influence

From the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, practical work was challenged in two different ways. One was related to an increasing awareness among science education researchers of a failure to establish the intended pedagogy in the reform projects from the previous period. This was expressed by Hurd (1983) and Yager (1984) , who reported that laboratory work in schools tended to focus on following instructions, getting the right answer, or manipulating equipment. Students failed to achieve the intended conceptual and procedural understanding. Very often, students failed to understand the relationship between the purpose of the investigation and the design of the experiments ( Lunetta et al. , 2007 ). In addition, there was little evidence that students were provided with opportunities and time to wrestle with the NOS and its alignment with laboratory work. Students seldom noted the discrepancies between their own concepts, their peers’ concepts and the concepts of the science community ( Eylon and Linn, 1988 ; Tobin, 1990 ). In summary, practical work meant manipulating equipment and materials, but not ideas.

The other challenge involved the theoretical underpinning of laboratory work. The process approach was challenged by a new perspective on science education known as constructivism . The constructivist era started in the late 1970s with increasing criticism of Piaget's influence on science education. New voices argued that too much attention was being paid to general cognitive skills in science learning and that science educators had missed the importance of students’ conceptual development ( e.g. , Driver and Easley, 1978 ).

The effects of this criticism can be followed in the UK in the aftermath of the Nuffield curriculum reform projects, which contributed to a strong foothold for the science laboratory. Beatty and Woolnough (1982) reported that 11- to 13-year-olds typically spent over half of their science lesson time doing practical activities. This was also the period of the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU), a national assessment project within a process-led theoretical framework ( Murphy and Gott, 1984 ) that later influenced the national curriculum and its aligned assessment system. In the 1980s, researchers began to question this practice and its theoretical underpinning considering the philosophical and sociological accounts associated with constructivism ( Millar and Driver, 1987 ). The argument was that the entire science education community had been misled by a naïve empiricist view of science, referred to by Millar (1989) as the Standard Science Education (SSE) ( NRC, 1996 ) view. The SSE view presented science as a simple application of a stepwise method and further related those steps to both intellectual and practical skills. In other words, by having the right skills and by applying ‘the scientific method’, anyone could develop scientific knowledge. With the rejection of this view of science inquiry, science educators needed an alternative, but finding this took some time and required a series of developments.

Two different attempts to develop alternative theoretical platforms appeared on the UK scene in the late 1980s to early 1990s. The first attempt took its inspiration from Polanyi's (1958) concept of ‘tacit knowledge’. This approach had similarities to the process approach but rejected the possibility of identifying individual processes ( Woolnough and Allsop, 1985 ). Rather, it was claimed that science is like ‘craftsmanship’ and that investigations should be treated like a ‘holistic process’ based on understandings that cannot be explicitly expressed. The belief was that inquiry at school with a trained scientist ( i.e. , the teacher) developed this craftsmanship and made students generally better problem solvers ( Watts, 1991 ). Retrospectively, we can see this approach as avoiding the challenge of identifying what it really means to do science by rendering the process hidden and mysterious.

The other theoretical approach also continued to regard science as a problem-solving process, but avoided the mistake made in previous theories of focusing too strongly on skills. Gott and Duggan (1995) claimed that the ability to do scientific inquiry was fundamentally based on procedural knowledge ( i.e. , the required understanding in knowing how to do science). When scientists carry out their research, they have a toolkit of knowledge about community standards and what procedures to follow to satisfy them. The aim of science inquiry is partly to find new theories, but also to establish evidence of a theory being ‘trustworthy’. They therefore claimed that students should be taught procedural understanding along with conceptual understanding, and then get practice in problem solving based on these two components.

At the end of this second period, constructivism was well established in science education. The teaching of skills and procedures of scientific inquiry had lost much of its status as science educators paid more attention to conceptual learning. One influential idea was the use of Predict–Observe–Explain (POE) tasks ( Gunstone and Baird, 1988 ). In these tasks, observations in the laboratory were used to challenge students’ ideas and help them develop explanations in line with the correct scientific theories. Gunstone (1991) and White (1991) also made other statements about the constructivist message for science laboratory teaching the claim that all observations are theory laden. This means that doing practical work does not guarantee adopting the right theoretical perspective. Students need to reflect on observations and experiences considering their conceptual knowledge. Tobin (1990) wrote that: “Laboratory activities appeal as a way of allowing students to learn with understanding and, at the same time, engage in the process of constructing knowledge by doing science” (p. 405). To attain this goal, he suggested that students be provided with opportunities in the laboratory to reflect on findings, clarify understandings and misunderstandings with peers, and consult a range of resources that would include teachers, books, and other learning materials. He claimed that such opportunities rarely exist because teachers are so often preoccupied with technical and managerial activities in the laboratory. Gunstone and Baird (1988) pointed to the importance of metacognition to bring about such and similar opportunities. White (1991) also argued that the laboratory helps students build ‘episodic’ memories that can support later development of conceptual knowledge.

1.1.3.3 The 1990s to Today: A New Era of Change—New Goals for the Science Laboratory

In the last 20 years, we have seen major changes in science education. These have been due, in part, to globalization and rapid technological development, which call for educational systems with high-quality science education to be competitive at an international level and develop the knowledge and competencies needed in modern society. In the USA, we have seen developments regarding ‘standards’ for science education ( NRC, 1996, 2005 ), which provide clear support for inquiry learning as both content and higher-order learning skills that include, in the laboratory context, planning an experiment, observing, asking relevant questions, hypothesizing, and analyzing experimental results ( Bybee, 2000 ). In addition, we have observed a high frequency of curriculum reforms internationally. A central point has been to make science education better adapted to the needs of all citizens ( American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 1995 ) (for details on higher-order learning and thinking skills, see Chapter 6 in this book).

It is recognized that citizens’ needs include more than just scientific knowledge. In everyday life, science is often involved in public debate and used as evidence to support political views. Science also frequently presents findings and information that challenge existing norms and ethical standards in society. For the most part, it is cutting-edge science and not established theories that are at play. For this reason, it does not help to know textbook science; rather, it is necessary to have knowledge about science. Citizens need to understand principles of scientific inquiry and how science operates at a social level ( Millar and Osborne, 1998 ). The natural question, of course, is to what degree, and in what ways, can the science laboratory help provide students with this type of understanding?

Another area of change in the recent period has been the further development of constructivist perspectives into sociocultural views of learning and of science. The sociocultural view of science emphasizes the social construction of science knowledge. Accordingly, scientific inquiry is seen to include a process in which explanations are developed to make sense of data, and then presented to a community of peers for critique, debate, and revision ( Duschl and Osborne, 2002 ). This reconceptualization of science from the individual to social perspective has fundamentally changed the view of experiments as a way of portraying the science method. Rather than seeing the procedural steps of the experiment as the scientific method, according to Driver et al. (1996) , practical work is now valued for its role in providing evidence for knowledge claims. The term scientific method, as such, has lost much of its value ( Jenkins, 2007 ).

All these changes have obvious relevance for practical work. Rather than training science specialists, the laboratory should now help the average citizen understand about science and develop skills that will be useful in evaluating scientific claims in everyday life. Rather than promoting the scientific method, the laboratory should focus on how we know what we know and why we believe certain statements rather than competing alternatives ( Grandy and Duschl, 2007 ). The sociocultural learning perspective also provides reasons to revisit group work in the school laboratory. Most importantly, the current changes have finally produced an alternative to the science process approach and the SSE view, Millar (1989) established 50 years ago. We now find a new rationale for understanding science inquiry and how this can be linked to laboratory work in schools.

The main goal of this chapter was to argue and demonstrate that the laboratory in science education is a unique learning environment ( Hofstein, 2004 ; Lunetta et al. , 2007 ). If designed in an articulated and purposeful manner with clear goals in mind, it has the potential to enhance some of the more important learning skills, such as learning by inquiry, metacognition and argumentation ( Hofstein et al. , 2004 ; Hofstein and Kind, 2012 ).

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Case study analysis of reflective essays by chemistry post-secondary students within a lab-based community service learning water project

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First published on 13th July 2021

Intentional reflection is a key component of Community Service Learning (CSL) as it guides students to integrate knowledge of theory with experience in practice. A semester-long chemistry curriculum with an integrated CSL intervention was implemented in a Canadian university to investigate how reflection in the laboratory setting enhances post-secondary students’ ( n = 14) conscious awareness of their learning and their attitudes toward having reflection as part of a course. In typical chemistry laboratories, students follow cookbook recipes from the lab manual and are assessed through written lab reports. These lab reports are similar to a technical report with scientific writing where the design aims to communicate scientific information to other scientists. A case study was conducted with reflective essays, focus group interviews, and student observation to analyze qualitatively how students' attitudes changed in their learning over the course of the CSL activity and how they engaged in this type of reflection. The expected audience that may be interested in this study are those involved in teaching chemistry in higher education and those that are interested in Community Service Learning and experiential learning. The results demonstrate that science students are able to articulate their academic growth, civic engagement, and personal growth through reflective pieces. Furthermore, the reflective pieces support self-regulated learning with a positive engagement and attitude over time. The results support the integration of reflective pieces in laboratory settings.

Introduction

Traditional laboratory practical, reflection as an essential component of csl.

Having an experience does not directly lead to learning ( Rubin, 2002 ). Kolb proposes a holistic model of the learning process called “experiential learning” that constitutes three components. They are experience, reflection based on prior knowledge, and learned experience ( Kolb, 1984 ). Over time, current experience may or may not encode into a part of long-term memory. It is only becoming part of long-term memory when students are able to repeatedly retrieve the memory through recall, recognize, and relearn to improve their learning and strengthening their memory ( Chang, 2019 ).

Assessing learning through reflection

According to Ash and Clayton (2009) , the goal for students who participate in a CSL activity is to enhance their academic enhancement, personal growth, and civic engagement. Academic enhancement is defined as the understanding of concepts or theory presented in the class and through class discussion. Personal growth is an on-going process where an individual develops understanding of his or her strengths and weakness, sense of identity, assumptions, beliefs, and conviction as well as other traits ( Molee et al. , 2010 ). Depending on the discipline where the CSL activity occurs, civic engagement can be defined in various ways, such as change agency, leadership, and public problem-solving ( Ash and Clayton, 2009 ). Students should identify the mutual objective they are working toward with the community partners and examine the approach for achieving this objective. If the approach has a negative effect, potential suggestions for enacting long-term and sustainable service should be provided in order to improve other individuals’ well-being ( Obradović and Masten, 2007 ; Molee et al. , 2010 ).

The current study is the second part of a multi-year study. The first study focused on post-secondary and K-12 student attitudes in a CSL chemistry laboratory setting with the integration of the different instructional methods that were involved in a mid-sized Canadian post-secondary institution and collaborating K-12 schools ( Ho et al. , 2021 ). The current study investigates how reflection in the laboratory setting affects the awareness of post-secondary students in their learning and investigates their attitudes toward having reflection as part of a course. The current study was conducted in the lab component of the second-year course Analytical Chemistry II (CHEM 2302). This is the first in a sequence of three required courses with integrated CSL projects at the university. Chemistry degree students at the university must complete three courses that employ CSL in their curricula (minimum of nine credits) in order to receive a CSL citation on their transcripts. Types of projects that other CSL-integrating courses conduct include a qualitative study on chemistry education research with College Chemistry Canada as a community partner. Each course is associated with 3 credits and the learning hours per course are 20–25 hours. Students have the option to earn CSL citations. The current study's semester-long CSL project involves a mutual partnership among post-secondary and K-12 students to work collaboratively to determine the physical and chemical properties and total dissolved solids in water fountains from the K-12 schools ( Ho et al. , 2021 ). The intervention of this water project is intended to empower post-secondary students to be in charge of their own learning while developing a deep, meaningful, and lasting understanding ( Gupte et al. , 2021 ). In addition, the interaction with K-12 students allows post-secondary students to think beyond the classroom within a social context.

There is a very limited number of existing studies that include analysis of student reflective writing in their CSL project. Sewry and Paphitis have examined students’ reflection journals in thinking about broadening their education goals within chemistry education ( Sewry and Paphitis, 2018 ). Reflection helps develop student subject-specific knowledge and understanding. In chemistry education, various reflection approaches have been introduced when seeking to develop a student's metacognition. For example, the use of photos, to enhance practical skills development, and talking mark schemes in a self-assessed exercise ( Read et al. , 2019 ). The reflection associated approaches, however, are a one-time activity. There is no continuous reflection on student progress that could be captured. Thus, it is important to further study and explore how reflection impacts students’ learning over a course consisting of constructivist epistemology with a naturalistic research approach and a relativist perspective ( Merriam, 1988 ; Baxter and Jack, 2008 ; Yin, 2009 ).

Reflection in the content of this CSL project

1. How do science students demonstrate their articulation of any individual learning, academic enhancement, personal growth, and civic engagement through writing reflective essays?

2. How do students’ attitudes change over the course of CSL activity?

3. How do science students demonstrate their articulation of learning progression and experiences through writing their reflective essays?

4. What are students’ opinions about the use of reflective writing on learning in a laboratory setting?

Methodology and methods

Participants, ethics considerations, design and procedures of the intervention.

Analytical Chemistry II focuses mainly on critical thinking and development of analytical skills. Students are guided to think critically and to develop problem-solving skills through logical approaches. The laboratory component is given special attention as it is oriented to give students the opportunity to develop practical analytical skills in handling samples and analysis techniques. The CSL component provides the students opportunity to work with a community partner on the water project that aligns with the learning objective. 21.5% was allocated for the reflection work and 23.5% was assigned for the rest of the practical lab work and oral presentation.

As noted by the National Research Council (2001) , students can maximize their learning if prompts and instructions are provided during reflection with assessment integrated in the course. A workshop was hosted by the laboratory instructor in Week 4 to introduce science students to the importance of reflective practice and guide them on how to become better independent learners. The workshop explored the topic of reflective practice through self, peers, and instructor. Examples from past students’ reflective writing work were provided to create space for diverse viewpoints and to demonstrate how to give effective feedback from peers. Interested parties may contact the corresponding author for further information about the workshop. Instructor feedback can be used as a guide to help students improve their reasoning and the quality of their future work. The approach for instructor feedback is developmental, encouraging, thoughtful, and beneficial as a learning experience for all parties ( Piccinin, 2012 ). The main notion students need to apply is receiving peer and instructor feedback, which is essential to development and continued improvement. Feedback was provided to students specifically when particular articulation was missing and suggested improvement for future work. To maintain consistency among all students, the lead researcher was also the lab instructor for all of the lab sections.

Students wrote five reflective essays following structured prompts based on the concepts in the DEAL model during the 10 week period of the laboratory component in which the post-secondary students participated in the CSL activity ( Ash and Clayton, 2009 ). The reflective essays were assigned before, during, and after the oral presentation to the community partner. The lab schedule for the post-secondary students is shown in Table 1 . All reflective essays were assigned during lab hours and students were given one week to complete each assignment. Students were required to individually reflect on the highlights, feelings, and lessons that they gained during each phase of the CSL activity. Each reflective essay was submitted online. Written feedback from the lab instructor was returned within 24 hours to challenge students to think more deeply and broadly about their learning in the reflective essay. To encourage students’ honest reflection, grades were allocated based on accuracy, clarity, depth, and relevance of the reflective writing.

To promote group reflection, an online focus group interview was held between reflective essays 2 and 3 to examine students’ opinions about reflection on learning in a lab setting. The interview was hosted online due to the coronavirus pandemic. In group interviews, the difference among students’ perspectives can be highlighted, which allows researchers “to surface the views of each person in a group” ( Yin, 2009, p. 120 ). The interview is semi-structured in a manner that resembles guided conversations, consisting of open-ended questions for one-hour. There were three interview questions probing students’ learning experiences in the lab setting. These questions were provided to students one week prior due to the unfamiliarity of learning in this type of setting for science students. Each interview was facilitated by trained undergraduate research assistants and was recorded for transcription. The undergraduate research assistants were co-authors of this study and were trained by the lead researcher.

In an effort to capture the knowledge that students gained through reflection, direct observation of students was recorded as additional information throughout the CSL activity. Haslam and Gunstone have reported an increase in content learning when teachers observe their students (1998) . This involves recording observations from the dialogue among post-secondary and K-12 students after the oral presentation and group interviews. K-12 students were involved in the collection of water samples and conducted some of the water testing in the beginning of the CSL activity. These preliminary results were provided to the post-secondary students to compile the water analysis data for the oral presentation. Post-secondary students used web-conferencing to present their results to the K-12 students and the larger community ( Ho et al. , 2021 ). Time was given after the oral presentation for both groups of students to ask each other questions if needed. This data is extremely valuable to complement the primary and secondary sources of data to document how reflection enhances the student learning journey during the semester.

Data collection

• How can you explain this CSL water project and your Atomic Absorption Spectrometry result to the community members that are not involved but can understand the content?

• Discuss what you have learned from the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry experiment. Please reflect on what you have learned in regard to your experimental data that is important as a Calgarian.

• During the group work, how can you identify the errors that you have made and re-construct proper adequate understanding through this error-identification process? Please provide a direct example in this lab course.

Students submitted their reflective essays through an online education platform. Through formative and summative assessments, the lab instructor provided feedback to each reflective essay to deepen students' learning and improve students’ writing and reasoning skills for future reflective essays.

• How does learning through reflection help you understand your own strengths and weaknesses in this course?

• During this CSL activity, does reflection provide you the opportunity to become a self-directed learner? If not, what other aspect(s) do you think should be used to promote your self-directed learning?

• Should reflection pieces (could be delivered in various formats) be used for other chemistry and biochemistry laboratory settings as well and why?

This type of social group dynamics led discussion supports students emotionally and creates a sense of community, especially during the coronavirus pandemic ( Dugas, 2017 ).

Data analysis

Analysis procedure, finding 1. science students were able to articulate their learning goals through structured prompts and instructor feedback in reflective essays.

005: It was interesting to see that calcium has the highest concentration in value… I have noticed that calcium tends to build up on faucets much more quickly in Calgary than faucets in other places in Alberta (for example, Ponoka).

007: I think the most important aspect about this CSL water project is to teach K-12 students why these service learning projects are so crucial. Although the city treatment plant does an amazing job to provide a safe, drinkable supply to local citizens, there are other factors that could influence these decisions, such as budget. Community members have the responsibility to evaluate and make awareness if there is an issue. I believe this project encourages youth to be more involved in their communities.

002: I have not had an opportunity to interact, specifically give a presentation for people whom I have never met before. Although I stuttered a little during the presentation, it went quite well overall. Because of this experience, I am more confident to present to other people that are not chemists.

During the final presentation, students demonstrated their understanding and articulation of the CSL activity by presenting for 20 minutes on their experimental data, followed by a 20-minute question and answer period. For example, when K-12 students were interested to learn additional information about safe drinking water quality guidelines, the post-secondary students provided a website link that directed them to look up specific information from the World Health Organization on national drinking water policy. This demonstrates that post-secondary students have increased their understanding of sophisticated content areas through independent reading and their participation in meaningful conversations during group work. Proficiency in both these skills is critical for overall academic success.

Finding 2. Students developed a positive attitude and engagement toward learning chemistry throughout the course of the CSL activity

017: This learning environment is unique as we will spend a semester-long process to learn various techniques to conduct experiments and prepare for a well-polished oral presentation.

018: I think this type of learning environment puts us [as] students in control which could be an odd experience at first. There's a sense of both independence and co-dependency among my group members because we will all share the same responsibilities in understanding the material.

020: I have never been experienced into this type of large group project. It provides an opportunity to challenge myself to work with a group of students with different personalities.

The students’ support for the lab design became more evident in Week 9, as students transitioned from merely being participants to being proactive collaborators. All students (100.0%) indicated in their reflective essays that they supported this type of collaborative learning design.

018: I personally enjoyed this type of learning environment because I was able to meet so many other students, learn, and understand the content [through discussion], which deepened my understanding of the chemistry knowledge.

011: I am glad that I was able to be a part of this complex and interesting project.

016: I really liked the idea of working and providing services for my own city.

Furthermore, it is important to highlight that many students were experiencing remote learning due to the coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, this CSL activity engaged students to be more connected and have a more positive attitude.

005: It's easy to feel lonely and apathetic sitting at a desk and working on individual tasks all day. I really enjoyed being able to participate in the group interview and work on the final presentation with 2 other students.

The results parallel the findings from the survey after the CSL activity in the previous study, where students expressed favorable enjoyment, attitudes, and interests towards learning chemistry after the CSL water activity ( Ho et al. , 2021 ).

While most were positive on this point, one student presented a contrasting view saying, “a challenge that I encountered involves my group members willingness to do their work within the timeframe.” This statement shows that the student was challenged in handling the interpersonal conflict effectively. To help the student overcome their interpersonal and emotional relationship with their peers, the lab instructor played active listener by reaching out to the student to facilitate a two-way, interactive dialogue and to provide supportive feedback ( Harkins et al. , 2020 ).

Finding 3. With the implementation of reflective essays, students articulated their learning progressions and experiences across the three phases of the CSL activity

005: Labs with a CSL component are a great way to connect post-secondary students to “real science.” I believe it's beneficial to have someone [community partners] care about the data you collect. However, this means that you have to take measures to do a good job.

005: The purpose of this weekly session is to determine the difference in concentration of selected ions from the experimental data to the water treatment plant report. When presenting this information to our community partners, I could do some research on the toxicity of each selected ion and determine if the concentration we found in our experimental data is harmful to people. Additionally, I could suggest relevant reasons as to why the variance occurs.

A similar comment was made after this student completed another lab weekly session while they reflected back on and identified an area in the calculation where they were not certain. They reflected on how the work could be improved using a collective approach for future lab experiments.

005: For last week's weekly session, initially I was working independently on the assignment. Then, I was a bit confused about the calculation. So I reached out to my group (I wished I had connected earlier) to see what their thoughts on it was. We were all able to come to a reasonable conclusion after discussion.

During Week 9 presentation preparation, students began to develop a better understanding of the overall CSL activity.

005: I think my understanding of this project has evolved. A lot of the focus is learning to collaborate with both my peers and the community partner to enhance my knowledge. Learning from others includes processing experimental data and applying active reflection during group interviews.

005: Over the course of the semester, I have gained a better understanding of the project. This project provides me an opportunity to share my experimental findings to broader audiences that utilize my scientist skills. I think it's important for scientists to value communication skills with non-scientist as it promotes wider relevance to society.

All 14 students progressed through the same three phases of learning, although at different rates, because each student learned at a different pace.

Finding 4. Students like and support the intervention of having reflection pieces in laboratory settings because they feel it will guide them to be self-directed learners. Furthermore, students think reflection helps them to retain what they have learned

012: The prompts questions in the reflective pieces guided me to what I should be thinking about. It eases me into what to expect from this lab and what I should get out of it.

002: The reflective pieces help me to understand the chemistry content, and what I can improve on.

It is interesting to note that 2 of the 14 students (14.28%) held differing opinions about which year reflection pieces should be introduced in a post-secondary lab. The student below reasoned why reflection should be implemented as early as a first year introductory chemistry lab.

005: Courses that could benefit from reflection the most is first and second year chemistry lab as it helps to guide students the progress of learning independently.

The majority (12 of 14 [85.7%]) of the students, however, felt introducing reflection in an introductory course might be overwhelming as students need to adapt to many changes in their first year of post-secondary education.

007: I think this reflective piece is a very helpful exercise, but you have to really sit down and be like, “okay, I want this to help me”. However, if your mindset is, “oh, what a drag, I have to do this”, then you're not going to get anything out of it. I think reflection pieces will be more helpful for advanced laboratories because students are about to enter the real world and they are going to need these skills.

006: The reflection pieces should be implemented starting in advanced lab courses as it will be better to prepare students for graduate school because graduate students need to write a lot of reflective writings.

Furthermore, all of the students articulated that the reflective pieces promoted the ability to retain information and apply it in a new situation.

016: Reflection helps me retain what I've learnt. It helps me understand what I’ve learnt in a different perspective.

018: Reflection not only helps me organize my thoughts, but it also helps me stimulate a lot of more thoughts.

017: Reflection helps me to tie my thought process and understand the concepts more.

To further understand whether students’ opinions changed two weeks after the focus group interview, the same question about their thoughts of having reflection in a lab setting was asked again in Reflective Essay 4 along with the other prompting questions. This stability in students’ perspectives supports the internal validity of the finding. It is evident that all students held the same convergent opinion that learning through reflection is helpful in their lab studies.

006: I find that reflection is very useful in organizing my thoughts. Most of the time my thoughts are rather convoluted, and reflection aligns my thoughts in a more succinct fashion. Writing these reflective essays makes my thinking process more organized.

017: Reflection has helped me a lot more than I thought of. Reflection helps me think back, and the prompt questions guided me to organize my thinking, learning, and understanding of the content.

018: Reflection is really important. It gives me the opportunity to assess my strengths and weaknesses, and to learn how to overcome those weaknesses and enhance those strengths. It's something that we, as science students, don't usually emphasize on.

The CSL activity provided opportunities for students to explore how they learned to be the way they are. Bowen conducted a study on a group of post-secondary students and found evidence that students’ values, attitudes, and life choices change through self-discovery after they join university (1977) . The DEAL model facilitates students’ learning by examining personal characteristics through the process of the CSL activity ( Ash and Clayton, 2009 ; Molee et al. , 2010 ).

In this CSL water project, the post-secondary and K-12 groups of students identified the importance of having clean drinking water and what clean drinking water signifies. Post-secondary students analysed their water quality testing results in comparison with the city water treatment plant statistics. A difference in statistics could identify potential environmental or health related issues with the water at the K-12 schools. Post-secondary students then offered possible improvements to facilitate short-term as well as long-term change ( Ash and Clayton, 2009 ).

Summary of the results and answers to the research questions

RQ 2 : A series of reflective essays were assigned as an evidence-based approach for monitoring student attitudes toward learning chemistry during the CSL activity. Many first-year students typically experience a teacher-centred pedagogy with technical reports as assessments in their laboratory program. Results indicated that students expressed a positive attitude and engagement from the beginning of the CSL activity that they maintained to the end of the CSL activity. This conclusion aligns to other literature that reported student reflection in the lab helps students’ learning and increases their confidence level ( Read et al. , 2019 ). As a result, this lab design supported students' motivation and engagement in chemistry.

RQ 3 : Applying experiential knowledge through reflection can develop students’ continuous, life-long learning ( Wain, 2017 ). The reflective essay captured students’ learning progression across the CSL activity. Monitoring the learning process is helpful for post-secondary education because students can adjust their thinking based on new information in order to become self-directed learners ( Tashiro et al. , 2021 ). This process involves collaborative learning where learners construct knowledge with richer meaning through negotiating consensus with others ( Boyer et al. , 2006 ).

RQ 4 : Students reported that the implementation of reflective pieces in a laboratory setting enabled them to step back to review the whole process of learning and recognize the value of learning in a holistic way. This outcome aligns with the students’ articulation and exploration of their learning in their reflective pieces as suggested by Ash and Clayton (2009) . Furthermore, students reported that reflection promotes the ability to retain information and apply it in new situations.

Limitations and recommendation to the study

Implication for practice and research.

Further investigation is recommended on how the perceptions of students change through their personal reflections in learning within an advanced chemistry CSL course. The second of three required courses with integrated CSL projects in our program is Research Methods in Chemistry (CHEM 3200). Chemistry students take this mandatory course one year after Analytical Chemistry II. The learning goal for this course is to understand the processes and skills of qualitative human-based research associated with the field of chemistry, which is a very different setting than the current study's water-quality activity. The outcomes of this future work could provide longitudinal data on science students’ learning using reflections linked across courses that use a similar framework.

Conclusions

Conflicts of interest, appendix 1: textual prompts used for reflective essays.

• What is your weakness and what is your strength? Discuss two things that you think you will need to develop further before this CSL water project?

• How do you envision this volunteering opportunity in this CSL water project help you to grow or learn, and improve your individual's well-being?

• Identify what CSL means to you, what knowledge do you think you will need to have that will help you in this lab course?

Reflective essay 2:

• Based on your Reflective essay 1, what personal characteristic are you coming to understand better as a result of reflection on your applied learning experience? Please provide an example that directly reflects in this lab course.

• Discuss what you have learned from the Ion Chromatography experiment. Please reflect on what you have learn in regard to your experimental data that is important as a Calgarian.

• How can you explain this CSL water project and your Ion Chromatography result to the community members that are not involved but can understand the content?

Reflective essay 3:

• During the group, how can you identify the errors that you have made and re-construct proper adequate understanding through this error-identification process? Please provide a direct example in this lab course.

Reflective essay 4:

• During this project, are there any obstacles you have encountered and how were issues resolved?

• What is the most important aspect that you have shared with the K-12 students about citizenship in this CSL water project? Why do you think this is the most important aspect?

• The collective objective of this project allows you, peers, and community partners to assess the progress of the experiment and impact the changemaking process as a whole. How do you feel about this type of learning environment?

Reflective essay 5:

• Are your values, attitudes, or life choices changed through self-discovery after this CSL water project? Please provide details about what has been changed.

• How does this project as a whole changed your perspective about volunteering and being an active citizen?

• Can you evaluate the completeness of your understanding of this project and its use in the community?

Appendix 2: example coding procedure

Discuss what you have learned from the Ion Chromatography experiment. Please reflect on what you have learn in regard to your experimental data that is important as a Calgarian.

002: I was surprised that our experimental data that we deduced was much lower than the data from Water Treatment plant, except fluoride. The difference in values can be explained by the fact that the Water Treatment plant annual report usually was released a year after. (1C) In this case, we would not know the exact value of the current anion concentration.

A thought that I have had is to broaden this study with all the Analytical chemistry II students in post-secondary institution to collaborate and conduct the water quality testing. This will benefit us as Calgarian because a more updated reports can be released frequently. (1C)

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Download NECO 2021 Syllabus for Chemistry

1. Who found the Periodic table?

  • Period Dickson
  • John Dalton

The correct answer is D. Mendeleev

2. Periodic table is arranged in ____and _____

  • Lanthanide and Actinide
  • Groups and periods
  • Groups and electronic configuration
  • Atomic number and outer shell
  • Transition and atomic shell

The correct answer is B. Groups and periods

3. Which of these is not a constituent of Urine.

The answer is E. Bacteria

4. Bronze is made up of _____ and _____?

  • Iron and copper
  • Tin and iron
  • Copper and tin
  • Nickel and iron
  • Zinc and copper

The answer is copper and tin

5. Which of the following is not a metalloids

The correct answer is D. Nickel

6. The most reactive non-metal is_____?

The correct answer is A. Fluorine

7. What is the I.U.P.A.C name of CH 3 CH 2 OH?

The correct answer is D. Ethanol

8. Which of these is not an aromatic compound

  • Acetophenone

The correct answer is E. Tulane

9. The chemical symbol for Silver is____?

The answer is B. Ag

10. An element with an atomic number of 16 will likely belong to group_____ on the periodic table.

The answer is E.6

11. Group 7 elements are also known as _______?

  • Alkali metals
  • Transition elements.
  • Alkali earth metals.

The correct answer is A. Halogens

Get answers for chemistry practical paper

Theory Paper 2, Chemistry Questions and answers 2021 Samples

These are NECO 2021 theory Chemistry Questions and answers 2021 Samples for paper 2. This is the second paper (paper 2) and it is an “essay, calculations and show working section”.

Practice these questions because they might come up in the exam.

1. a. State Faraday’s first law of electrolysis.

Faraday’s first law of electrolysis states that the mass (m) of a substance liberated at an electrode during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity (Q) passing through the electrolyte.

Mathematically;

Where quantity of electricity = current (I) x time (t).

i.e Q = It.

ii. Explain an electrolytic cell.

An electrolytic cell consists of a container of electrolytes with two electrodes connected to a suitable direct current supply.

2a. List 4 constituents of Air.

  • Carbon (iv) oxide
  • Rare gases.

2b. Write the IUPAC name of CH 2 OH CHOHCHO: Ans. 2, 3-Dihydroxy propanal.

3. When 4.5g of liquid water was formed by burning hydrogen gas in oxygen, -72KJ of heat was given off. Calculate the standard heat of the formation of water.

Equation of reaction.

H 2(g) + 1 / 2 O 2(g) → H 2 O(l) ∆H © f = ? KJmol -1 .

4.5g of liquid water produces -72KJ of heat

1.0g of liquid water produces – 72

= -16.0KJ of heat

Therefore, 18g of liquid water will produce: (16.0 x 18) KJ of heat = -288KJmol -1

4. Define the following terms:

  • Bomb calorimeter
  • Heat of fusion
  • Spontaneous reaction
  • Gibbs free energy.

Bomb calorimeter: A bomb calorimeter consists of a strong cylindrical steel vessel lined with enamel to prevent corrosion.

The heat of fusion: This is the heat change when one mole of solid is melted.

Entropy: Entropy is a degree of disorderliness or randomness of a system.

Spontaneous reaction: A spontaneous reaction is a reaction that occurs on its own without the assistance of an external agent.

Gibbs free energy: The free energy (G), of a chemical system is the energy that is available for doing work.

NECO Expo for Chemistry exam 2021 (Important terms)

Now that you have gotten some sample NECO chemistry theory and OBJ questions for 2021 to practice with, let me give you a quick and common expo hint for Chemistry exam 2021 (Important terms to note)

IUPAC: IUPAC means, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Nucleus: The Nucleus is made up of Proton and neutron.

Laws of Chemical combination includes;

  • Law of conservation of mass
  • The law of definite proportions or constant composition.
  • Law of multiple proportions.

Chemical symbol: A chemical symbol of an element represents an atom of the element.

Radicals: Radicals are groups of an atom carrying charges that keep their identity and react as a single unit.

Empirical formula: Empirical formula is the simplest possible formula giving the ratio of atoms in a molecule of the compound.

Mole: A mole is the amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities as that in a 12g of carbon.

Isotope: An isotope occurs in elements with the same atomic number (Number of protons) but different mass numbers (because of varying numbers of neutrons).

  • The Avogadro’s Number (N A ) is 6.02×1023

PH scale: the PH scale is numbered from 0 – 14. From 0 to 6 indicates the degree of acidity, 7 is neutral while, above 7 to 14 indicates the degree of alkalinity.

I am sure these NECO Chemistry Questions and answers 2021 material will help you to perform better in this exam.

Please, treat the above questions as sample questions and not as the main exam questions.

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WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2024 Objectives and Essay

  • Post author: Study Admin
  • Post published: November 19, 2023
  • Post category: School News
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WAEC chemistry 2024 answers are now available. WAEC chemistry questions and answers 2024/2025 objective and essay and other exam details for WASSCE 2024 are on this page. See the 2024 WAEC chemistry answers for both objective and theory below. Get the WAEC chemistry objective and essay answers here.

The 2024 chemistry WAEC OBJ and theory questions and answers are provided here for free. All you have to do is to go through the questions and take note of the WAEC chemistry answers 2024. Read on to find out.

WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2024 Objective and Essay

Have you been searching on Google in order to get the WASSCE chemistry questions and answers 2024? If so, we have got you covered!

We have the 2024 WAEC chemistry questions and our team of experts will soon upload the WAEC chemistry questions and their accurate answers to help you pass the 2024 WAEC chemistry examination.

The 2024 WAEC chemistry theory questions and OBJ will be uploaded any moment from now. So if you are searching for the WAEC chemistry answers 2024 for objective and theory, then you are on the right page. See WAEC chemistry objective and essay questions and answers below.

WAEC Chemistry Answers 2024 Objective and Theory

The West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC) is an examination body in Nigeria that conducts the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination and the General Certificate in Education in May/June and November/December respectively.

The 2024 WAEC chemistry questions are set from the SS1 to SS3 chemistry syllabus. So all the questions you will encounter in this year’s examination are in the syllabus, and nearly 90% of the questions are repeated.

You don’t have to worry about the 2024 WAEC chemistry questions and answers PDF (essay and objective). The WAEC chemistry answers 2024 will be uploaded any moment from now. All you need to do is to keep refreshing this page so as not to miss out.

Once again, keep refreshing this page because we will upload the original WAEC chemistry questions and answers for this year’s exams on this page at any moment from now. Also, to download the past questions and answers, click on this link WAEC chemistry past questions .

If you have any questions about the WAEC chemistry questions 2024 and answers, feel free to use the comment box below or use the Chat With Us button and we will respond immediately.

The 2024 WAEC chemistry answers will be posted here. Be patient. Keep checking and reloading this page for the correct answers. WAEC 2024 chemistry answers loading…….

There is nothing like WAEC chemistry expo 2024 online. All students are advised to avoid all patronizing online fraudsters/vendors who claim to provide such services.

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WAEC Chemistry Past Questions and Answers in 2023 PDF Download Objective & Theory

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Are you writing the West Africa Examination Council WAEC Internal or External examination, if yes you need the WAEC Past Questions on Chemistry

we at stcharlesedu.com has compiled a good number of Chemistry WAEC Past Questions and Answers in Pdf Chemistry 2 – Theory/Essay Questions. Chemistry 1 – Objective Test Questions.

Our research has confirm that candidate that uses WASSCE Chemistry past questions to prepare is ten times better than those who do not.

chemistry essay and objective 2021

Table of Contents

  • 1.1 Chemistry WAEC Objective Questions
  • 2 SSCE WAEC Chemistry Theory Questions
  • 3 Chemistry WAEC Essay Questions
  • 4 Free WAEC Chemistry Exam Past Questions Download
  • 5 How to Get WASSCE Chemistry Exam Past Questions and Answers

SSCE WAEC Chemistry Objective Questions and Answers

CHEMISTRY Paper 1 (Objective Test Questions) Paper 1 will last for 1 hours Use HB pencil throughout.

Answer All Questions Each question is followed by four options lettered A to D. Find out the correct options for each question and shade in pencil on your answer sheet, the answer space which bears the same letter as the option you Chosen. Give only one answer to each question. An example is given below

What others are downloading   WAEC Past Questions for all Subjects

Chemistry WAEC Objective Questions

Which of the following elements reacts with water? A. Carbon B. Iodine C. Sodium D. Sulphur

The correct answer is Sodium, which is lettered C and therefore answer space C would be shaded. [A] [ B ] [C] [ D ]

Think carefully before you shade the answer spaces; erase completely any answer you wish to change.

Which of the following raw materials is used in the plastic industry? A. Ethene B. Methane C. Sulphur D. Hydrogen

Which of the following organic compounds can undergo both addition and substitution reactions? A. Petane B. Benzene C. Propane D. Hexane

Which of the following equations represents a redox reaction? A. AgNO 3 (aq) + KCl(ag)->AgCl(s)+ KNO 3 (aq) B. HNO 3 (aq)+ NaOH(aq) -> NaNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) C. CaCO 3 (s) -> CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) D. 2H 2 S(g) + SO 2 (g) -> 2H 2 O(I) + 3S(g)

T he process of extraction of iron from its ore is A. decomposition. B. oxidation. C. reduction. D. sublimation.

What is the solubility of a salt if 0.4 g of it is obtained on evaporating 200 cm3 of its saturated solution to dryness? A. 0.08 gdm -3 B. 2.00 gdm -3 C. 8.00 gdm -3 D. 80.00 gdm -3

An acidic salt has A. double anions in its aqueous solution. B. a single cation in its aqueous solution. C. hydrogen ions in its aqueous solution. D. hydrogen atoms in its aqueous solution.

A reaction is endothermic if the A. reaction vessel feels cool during the reaction. B. enthalpy change is negative. C. bond forming energy exceeds bond breaking energy. D. heat of formation of reactants exceeds heat of formation of products.

In which of the following compounds does hydrogen form ionic compounds? A. CH 4 B. HCl C. NH 3 D. NaH

Consider the following reaction equation: Br 2 + 2KI -> 2KBr + I 2 . Bromine is acting as A. an oxidizing agent. B. a reducing agent. C. an acid. D. a base.

An organic compound has the empirical formula CH 2 . If its molar mass is 42 gmol-1 what is its molecular formula? [H = 1.0, C = 12.0] A. C 2 H 4 B. C 3 H 4 C. C 3 H 6 D. C 4 H 8

Ethene is produced from ethanol by A. decomposition. B. hydrolysis. C. ozonolysis. D. dehydration.

Consider the following equilibrium reaction: 2 AB(g) + B 2 (g) -><- 2AB 3 (g) AH = -XkJmol -1 The backward reaction will be favored by A. a decrease in pressure. B. an increase in pressure. C. a decrease in temperature. D. an introduction of a positive catalyst.

What is the mass of solute in 500 cm 3 of 0.005 moldm -3 H 2 SO 4 ? [H =1.0, O = 16.0, S = 32.0] A. 0.490 g B. 0.049 g C. 0.245 g D. 0.0245 g

Pure water can be made to boil at a temperature lower than 100 °C by A. reducing its quantity. B. decreasing the external pressure. C. distilling it. D. increasing the external pressure.

Consider the following sketch of the solubility curve of some substances. Note: scroll down to download the free chemistry waec questions in pdf copy to view the sketch

At what temperature does the solubility of KNO 3, equal that of NaNO 3 ? A. 0°C B. 20 °C C. 30 °C D. 40 °C

When a salt is added to its saturated solution, the salt A. dissolves and the solution becomes super saturated. B. dissolves and the solution becomes unsaturated. C. precipitates and the solution remains unchanged. D. dissolves and crystals are formed.

When substance X was added to a solution of bromine water, the solution became colorless. X is likely to be A. propane. B. propanoic acid. C. propyne. D. propanol.

The preferential discharge of ions during electrolysis is influenced by the A. mechanism of electrolysis. B. electrolytic reactions. C. nature of the electrode. D. type of electrolytic cell.

The valence electrons of 12 Mg are in the A. 3s orbital. B. 2px orbital. C. 2s orbital. D. 1s orbital.

Stainless Steel is an alloy comprising of A. Fe and C. B. Fe and Ni. C. Fe, C and Ni. D. Fe, C and Al.

The number of hydrogen ions in 1.0 dm 3 of 0.02 moldm -3 tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid is [NA = 6.02 x 1023] A. 1.2 x 10 22 B. 1.2 x 10 23 . C. 2.4 x 10 22 . D. 2.4 x 10 23 .

The most suitable substance for putting out petrol fire is A. water. B. carbon(IV)oxide. C. fire blanket. D. sand.

The following factors would contribute to environmental pollution except A. production of ammonia. B. manufacture of cement. C. photosynthesis. D. combustion.

The position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction is affected by A. particle size of the reactants. B. vigorous stirring of the reaction mixture. C. presence of a catalyst. D. change in concentration of the reactants.

The diagram below illustrates a conical flask containing water and ice.

NOTE: scroll down and download the free chemistry pdf past questions to see the diagram

Which of the following statements about the diagram is correct? A. The water is at a lower temperature than the ice B. Energy is absorbed when the ice changes to water C. Energy is released when the ice changes to water D. The water molecules vibrate about a fixed point

Which of the following statements best explains the differences between a gas and a vapor? A. Unlike gases, vapors are liquids at room temperature B. Unlike gases, vapor can easily be condensed into liquids C. Unlike gases, vapour is readily converted into solids D. Vapours are generally denser than gases

Consider the following reaction equation: 2HCl + Ca(OH) 2 –> CaCl 2 + H 2 O. What is the volume of 0.1 moldrn -3 HCl that would completely neutralize 25cm 3 of 0.3 moldm -3 Ca(OH) 2 ? A. 150 cm 3 B. 75 cm 3 C. 30 cm 3 D. 25 cm 3

Cu and HNO 3 are not suitable for preparing hydrogen gas because of their A. reactivity and oxidation respectively. B. conductivity and corrosiveness respectively. C. melting point and reduction respectively. D. electro negativity and solubility respectively.

Which of the following formulae cannot be an empirical formula? A. CH B. CH2 C. P2O5 D. N204

One of the criteria for confirming the purity of benzene is to determine its A. heat capacity. B. boiling point. C. mass. D. colour.

Want more Chemistry Objective Test Questions like this? Get the Complete WAEC Chemistry Exam Past Questions and Answers (Obj and Essay) in PDF Format from us.

SSCE WAEC Chemistry Theory Questions

Chemistry Paper 2 Paper 2 will last for 2 hours This paper consists of two sections A and B. Answer one questions from Section A and three questions from Section B.

Credit will be given for clarity of expression and orderly presentation of material.

SECTION A (1ai) Define the term fermentation. (1aii) Name the catalyst that can be used for this process.

(b) Name two factors which determines the choice of an indicator for an acid-base titration. (c) Consider the following reaction equation: [Fe + H2S04 ] FeS04 + H2. Calculate the mass of unreacted iron when 5.0g of iron reacts with 10cm3 of 1.0 moldrrv3 H SO [Fe = 56.0] (d) Name one: (di) Heavy chemical used in electrolytic cells; (dii) Fine chemical used in textile industries.

(e) Explain briefly how a catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction. (f) (i) Write the chemical formula for the product formed when ethanoic acid reacts with ammonia. (ii) Give the name of the product formed in 1 (f) (i)..

(g) List three properties of aluminum that makes it suitable for the manufacture of drink can. (h) State two industrial uses of alkylalkanoates. (i) List two effects of global warming. (j) Name two steps involved in the crystallization of a salt from its solution.

Chemistry WAEC Essay Questions

SECTION B. 2ai. State the collision theory of reaction rates. 2aii.Using the collision theory, explain briefly how temperature can affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

bi. Sketch a graphical representation of Charles’s law. bii. Calculate the volume of oxygen that would be required for the complete combustion of 2.5moles of ethanol at s.t.p. [ molar volume at s.t.p = 22.4dm3]

ci. Define esterification. cii. Give two uses of alkanoates. ciii. Give the products of the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl ethanoate.

d. A tin coated plate and a galvanized plate were exposed for the same length of time. di. Which of the two plates corrodes faster? dii. Explain briefly your answer in 2 (d) (i).

Want more Chemistry Theory Questions like this? Get the Complete WAEC Chemistry Exam Past Questions and Answer (Obj and Essay) in PDF Format from us.

Free WAEC Chemistry Exam Past Questions Download

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Link 1: WASSCE Chemistry Questions Booklet Link 2: WASSCE Chemistry Questions Booklet

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WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022 Objectives and Essay

Waec chemistry 2022 answers. waec chemistry questions and answers 2022/2023 objective and essay. see the 2022 waec chemistry answers for both objective and theory below. get the waec chemistry objective and essay answers here. the 2022 waec obj and theory questions and answers are provided here for free. all you have to do is to […] the post waec chemistry questions and answers 2022 objectives and essay appeared first on study forum..

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WAEC Chemistry 2022 answers. WAEC Chemistry questions and answers 2022/2023 objective and essay. See the 2022 WAEC Chemistry answers for both objective and theory below. Get the WAEC Chemistry objective and essay answers here.

The 2022 WAEC OBJ and theory questions and answers are provided here for free. All you have to do is to go through the questions and take note of the WAEC Chemistry answers 2022. Read on to find out.

WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022 Objective and Essay

Have you been searching on Google for the original WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022? If so, we have got you covered!

We have the 2022 WAEC Chemistry questions and our team of experts will soon upload the WAEC Chemistry questions and their accurate answers to help you pass the 2022 WAEC Chemistry examination.

The WAEC Chemistry answers 2022 will be uploaded any moment from now. So if you are searching for the WAEC Chemistry answers 2022 for objective and theory, then you are on the right page.

See WAEC Chemistry objective and essay questions and answers below.

WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022 Essay and Objective

The West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC) is an examination body in Nigeria that conducts the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination and the General Certificate in Education in May/June and November/December respectively.

The 2022 WAEC Chemistry questions are set from SS1 to SS3 Chemistry syllabus. So all the questions you will encounter in this year’s examination are in the syllabus, and nearly 90% of the questions are repeated.

You don’t have to worry about the 2022 WAEC Chemistry questions and answers (essay and objective). The WAEC Chemistry answers 2022 will be uploaded any moment from now. All you need to do is to keep refreshing this page so as not to miss out.

Once again, keep refreshing this page because we will upload the original WAEC Chemistry questions and answers for this year’s exams on this page at any moment from now.

If you have any questions about the WAEC Chemistry questions and answers 2022, feel free to use the comment box below or use the Chat With Us button and we will respond immediately.

The 2022 WAEC Chemistry answers will be posted here. Be patient. Keep checking and reloading this page for the correct answers. WAEC 2022 Chemistry answers loading…….

There is nothing like WAEC Chemistry Expo 2022 online. All students are advised to avoid all patronizing online fraudsters/vendors who claim to provide such services.

The post WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022 Objectives and Essay appeared first on Study Forum .

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Home » WAEC GCE Chemistry Answers 2023 Essay/OBJ Questions is Out

2023 WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions & Answers for Essay and Objective Released.

The Waec GCE chemistry answers 2023 essay and objective questions for the West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chemistry SSCE exam paper scheduled to be written on Tuesday, 12th December, 2023 can now be studied here.

The 2023 Chemistry Essay answer paper will start at 9:30 am and will last for 2hrs while the Objective exam will commence at 11:30 pm and will last for 1hr.

In this post, we will be posting the West African Senior School Certificate Examinations (WASSCE) Chemistry questions for candidates that will participate in the examination from past questions.

waec chemistry questions 2020

Continue reading below.

WAEC GCE Chemistry Answers 2023.

PAPER 2 [Essay] Answer any FOUR questions. Write your answers on the answer booklet provided.

1. (a) (i) What is the common name given to the group VII elements? (ii) Name the hydrides of the first two elements in group VII. (iii) State three chemical properties of group VII elements.

(b) Copy and complete the following table

(c) (i) Define each of the following processes: nuclear fission; nuclear fusion.                                                                     (ii) Give one use of each process in 1(c)(i)

(d) (i) List three types of radiation that are produced during radioactivity. (ii) Arrange the radiations listed in 1(d)(i) in order of increasing: penetrating power; ionizing power.

ANS: (a) (i) Halogens         (ii)  Hydrogen fluoride; Hydrogen chloride      (iii) high electron affinity/strong oxidizing agents/electron acceptor – highly electronegative; – react with hydrogen to form acid; – form salts with metals; – react with alkalis to form salts; – react with water to form acids;  – displacement of lower halogens from their acids/salts; – react with hydrocarbon to form alkyl halides. (b)

(c)(i) I. Nuclear fission – splitting of a heavy nucleus into two smaller nuclei of similar mass with the release of a large amount of energy and radiation. II. Nuclear fusion – a combination of smaller nuclei to form a large nucleus with the release of large amounts of energy and radiation. (ii) I. Used to generate electricity/nuclear bomb/production of new elements/production of radioisotopes. II. Used to produce nuclear weapons/atomic bombs/production of new elements/production radioisotopes.                                                                                                             (d) (i)  alpha, beta, gamma OR α ,    β, (ii)  I.    α   <    β    <  increasing penetrating power II.   <β     <   α increasing ionizing power.

2. (a) (i) What is the structure of the atom as proposed by Rutherford? (ii) Distinguish between the atomic number and the mass number of an element. (iii) Explain briefly why the relative atomic mass of chlorine is not a whole number.

(b) (i) What is meant by first ionization energy? (ii) List three properties of electrovalent compounds (iii) Consider the following pairs of elements: 9F and 17CL; 12Mg and 20Ca. Explain briefly why the elements in each pair have similar chemical properties.

(c) Explain briefly the following terms using an appropriate example in each case (i) homologous series; (ii) heterolytic fission.

(d) State the indicator(s) which could be used to determine the end-point of the following titrations: (i) dilute hydrochloric acid against sodium hydroxide solution; (ii) dilute hydrochloric acid against ammonium hydroxide solution; (iii) ethanoic acid against sodium hydroxide solution.

(e) A solid chloride E which sublimed on heating reacted with an alkali F to give a choking gas G. G turned moist red litmus paper blue.  Identify E, F and G.

ANS:  (a) (i) The atom has a small/ tiny positively charged centre /nucleus with electrons surrounding the space around the centre.   (ii) Atomic number of an element is the number of protons/electrons in an atom of the element while the mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the atom of the element. (iii) Chlorine atom is made up of a mixture of isotopes and the relative atomic mass of chlorine is the average of its isotopic masses.

(b) (i) Is the (minimum) energy required to remove one mole of an electron from one mole of gaseous atom (to form one mole gaseous charged ion (ii) High melting /boiling point; Ability to conduct electricity in the molten state or in solution; Solid at room temperature; Soluble in water or polar solvents /insoluble in non-polar solvents. (iii) Atoms of the elements in each pair have the same number of electrons in their outer-most shell therefore similar chemical properties.

(c) (i) Is a family of organic compounds: – where successive members differ by –CH2 of the molar mass of 14; – with similar chemical properties; – which conform to the same general formula; – which show a gradation of physical properties; – which have the same general method of preparation. e.g  alkanes, alkenes , alkanols. (ii) Is a process in which a (covalent) bond is broken in such a way that the electron pair is completely transferred to one of the atoms (resulting in the formation of ions) H ÷ CI     →      H+ + Cl-/ HCl ® H+ + Cl- (d)(i) Methyl orange/ methyl red/ phenolphthalein; (ii) Methyl orange/ methyl red; (iii) Phenolphthalein. (e) E   –   NH4Cl F  –  NaOH, KOH, or Ca (OH)2,  Li OH, CsOH, Ba(oH)2, Mg(OH)2 G  –   NH3.

3. (a) (i) Define saturated solution.  (ii) The solubility of KN03 at 20°C was 3.00 mol dm-3 If 67.0g of KN03 was added to 250cm3 of water and stirred at 20°C, determine whether the solution formed was saturated or not at that temperature.

(b) (i) Distinguish between the dative bond and covalent bond.  (ii) Explain why sugar and common salt do not conduct electricity in the solid state.  (iii) State the type of intermolecular forces present in I. hydrogen fluoride; II. argon.  (iv) Consider the compounds with the following structures:  S – H —-N and 0 – H —–N  In which of the compounds is the hydrogen bond stronger? Give a reason for your answer.

(c) (i) State Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure. (ii) If 200cm3 of carbon(IV) oxide were collected over water at 18°C and 700 mmHg, determine the volume of the dry gas at s.t.p.[ standard vapour pressure of water at 18°C = 15 mmHg] 

ANS: (a) (i) Is a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute it can dissolve at a given temperature (in the presence of undissolved solute). (ii) Solubility of KN03 in in g dm-3 = 3.00 x 101 = 303  .. 1000cm3 of saturated solution = 303g  250cm3 of the solution = 303 x 250                                                  1000                                              = 75.8 g Since the quantity of KN03 added (67.0) to 250 cnr’ of water is less than the maximum amount required to form a saturated solution, then the solution is unsaturated.

(b)(i) In a dative bond, only one of the participating atoms/ species donated electrons to be shared by both atoms while in a covalent bond both participating atoms/ species contribute equally to the electrons being shared.  (ii) Sugar is covalent while common salt (NaCl) is electrovalent/ ionic. Electrical conductivity (in compounds) depends on the presence of mobile ions. (iii) The intermolecular forces present in hydrogen fluoride and argon were hydrogen bond and van der Waal’s forces respectively.  (iv) 0 – H —- N has a stronger hydrogen bond because oxygen is more electronegative and smaller in size than sulphur. 

(c)(i) the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases that do not react chemically is equal to the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. (ii) pressure of the dry gas (P 1) = 700 – 15 = 685 mmHg  VI = 200cm 3 , TI = 18°C = 273 + 18 = 291K, P2 = 760 mmHg,  T2 = 273  P1V1  =  P2V2     T1         T2 V2 =  P1V1T 2   =                  P2T1

= 685 x 200 x 273     760 x 291

= 169.1cm 3

4. (a) (i) Define nuclear fission (ii) A certain natural decay series starts with and ends with. Each step involves the loss of an alpha or a beta particle. Using the given information,  deduce how many alpha and beta particles were emitted. (b) Consider the equilibrium reaction represented by the following equation: A2(g)  +  3B2(g)    2AB3(g);    H   =  +  kJmol-1 Explain briefly the effect of each of the following changes on the equilibrium composition; (i)  increase in the concentration of B; (ii) decrease in pressure of the system; (iii) addition of catalyst. (c) The lattice energies of three sodium halides are as follows:

Explain briefly the trend.

(d) State the property exhibited by nitrogen (IV) oxide in each of the following reactions: (i) 4Cu  +  2NO2        4CuO + N2; (ii) H2O+ 2NO2        HNO3   + HNO2

(e) Iron is manufactured in a blast furnace using iron ore (Fe2O3), coke and limestone. Write the equation for the reaction(s) at the: (i) top of the furnace; (ii) middle of the furnace; (iii) bottom of the furnace. (f) (i) Name two products of destructive distillation of coal. (ii) Give one use of each product in 3(f)(i).

5. Copy and complete the following table:

(i) Mention  one  compound that makes water I. temporarily hard; II. permanently hard. (ii) State  one  method that could be used to remove I. only temporary hardness; II. permanent hardness. (iii) Write an equation to show the removal of: I. temporary hardness; II. permanent hardness. (c) (i) List  three  sources of water pollution. (ii) Mention  two  ways by which water pollution can be controlled. (d) state the function of  each  of the following substances in the purification of water for town supply: I. sodium aluminate (III) (NaAIO2); II. lime (calcium hydroxide); III. calculated mount of iodine; IV. sand bed.

6. (a) (i) What is meant by atomicity? (ii) Mention one element in each case which is I. monatomic, II. diatomic, III. tetratomic. (iii) Write the orbital electron configuration of I. 20Ca, II. 9F. a. In which group does each of the elements belong? b. How many unpaired electrons are present in 9F? c. How many electrons are present in 20Ca2+?

(b) (i) Write a balanced equation for the thermal decomposition of KCƖO3. (ii) Mention the catalyst that could be used to increase the rate of reaction in 6(b)(i). (ii) If 5.0 g of KCƖO3 was decomposed by heat, determine the volume of oxygen produced at s.t.p. [Molar gas volume at s.t.p. = 22.4dm3, K = 39,  Cl = 35.5, O = 16]

(c) (i) Mention the products formed when each of the following substances is heated strongly: I. ZnCO3; II. CuSO4.5H2O. (ii) State the colour change observed when each of the residues in 1(d)(i) above is allowed to cool.

7. (a) Describe briefly how each of the following aqueous solutions could be identified in the laboratory: (i) Ammonium trioxocarbonate (IV); (ii)Ammonium chloride. (b) Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point and give reasons for your answer: CS2,  NaF and CO2. (c) List two gases each that are: (i) acidic; (ii) highly soluble in water; (iii) oxidized by acidified KMnO4(aq). (d) In a tabular form, compare the elements silicon and sulphur under the following properties: (i) metallic character; (ii) physical state; (iii) conduction of electricity. (e) A cuboid piece of sodium metal measures 3 cm x 4 cm x 10 cm. If the density of sodium is 0.971 g cm-3, calculate the number of atoms in the sodium metal. [ Na = 23; Avogadro constant = 6.02 x 1023 mol_1 ]

waec chemistry answer

8. (a)  (i) Define standard electrode potential. (ii) State two factors that affect the value of standard electrode potential. (iii) Give two uses of the values of standard electrode potential. (iv) Draw and label a diagram for an electrochemical cell made up of                Cu2+/Cu;   = + 0.34                 Zn2+/Zn;   = – 0.76 (v) Calculate the e.m.f of the cell in 8(a)(iv) above (b) (i)  In terms of electron transfer, define I. oxidation; II. oxidizing agent. (ii) Balance the following redox reaction: MnO4-    +  I- H+   I2Mn2+

(c) Classify each of the following oxides as basic, amphoteric, acidic or neutral: (i) Carbon (II) oxide; (ii) Sulphur(IV) oxide; (iii) Aluminium oxide; (iv) Lithium oxide.

(d) What is hydrogen bonding?

WAEC GCE Chem Objective Questions 2023.

PAPER 1 [Essay] Answer All questions in this section. Write your answers on the answer sheet provided.

1. Two immiscible liquids with different boiling points can be separated by _____ A. The use of separating funnel B. Evaporation C. Distillation D. Decantation.

2. A mixture of CaCl2 and CaCO3 in water can be separated by  ______ A. Evaporation B. Sublimation C. Distillation D. Decantation.

3. What is responsible for metallic bonding? A. sharing of electrons between the metal atoms B. attraction between the atomic nuclei and the cloud of electrons C. Transfer of electrons from one atom to another D. attraction between positive and negative ions.

4. 25cm3 of 1.5M solution of NaCl are added to 50cm3 of 3M NaCl. The molar concentration of the resulting solution is ________ A. 2.5M       B. 3M             C. 2.25M     D. 4.5M

5. A solution of salt formed from HCl and NH3 solutions is _____ A. Acidic     B. Basic          C. complex          D. Neutral

6. Which of the following elements will burn in excess oxygen to form a product that is neutral to litmus?                                                                              A. carbon          B. Hydrogen          C. Sulphur        D. Sodium

7. A current was passed for 10 mins and 0.2mole of Cu was deposited. How many grammes of Ag will it deposit? (Cu = 64, Ag = 108) A. 43.2g       B. 21.6g         C. 10.8g    D. 5.4g

8. Pollution of underground water by metal ions is very likely in a soil that has high  ________ A. Acidity       B. Alkalinity        C. Chloride content     D. Nitrate content

9. Producer gas is a gas with low caloric value because it contains more ____ A. CO2 than O2      B. N2 than CO     C. CO2 than N2     D. N2 than CO2

10. Silver chloride turns grey when exposed to sunlight because _____ A. The silver ion is reduced to silver B. The silver ion is oxidized to silver C. Silver is a transition metal D. The silver chloride forms complexes in the sun.

11. Which of these compounds exhibits resonance? A. Benzene   B. Ethanol    C. Propene    D. Butyne

15. Hydrolysis of CH3COOCH2CH3 in dilute HCl produces ______ A. CH3COOH + CH3CH3 B. CH3CH2OH + CH3COCl C. CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH D. CH3COOH + CH3CH3

16. Calculate the volume of CO2 measured at s.t.p produced on heating 250g of potassium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV) strongly.  (K = 39, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16)  A. 28dm3   B. 2.8dm3  C.5.6dm3  D. 11.2dm3

17. The boiling points of water, ethanol, methylbenzene and butan-2-ol are 373.0K, 351.3K, 383.6K and 372.5K respectively. Which liquid has the highest vapour pressure at 323.0K? A. Water      B. Methylbenzene       C. Ethanol       D. Butan-2-ol

18. The conclusion from Rutherford’s alpha scattering experiment is that ______ A. Atoms are mostly empty space with a small nucleus B. Emissions from radioactive substances consist of three main components C. There is a nuclear pull on orbital electrons D. Electrons are deflected by both magnetic and electric fields.

19. Elements P, Q and R have atomic numbers 9, 16 and 20 respectively. Which of them would gain electron(s) during ionic bonding                              A. Q and R B. P and R C. P and Q D. P, Q and R.

20. Which of the following has the lowest PH? A. 5cm3 of M/10 HCl B. 10cm3 of M/10 HCl C. 20cm3 of M/8 HCl D. 15cm3 of M/2 HCl

21. Which of the following is an acid salt? A. (NH4)2CO3     B. CHCOONa   C. KHSO4     D. MgSO4.7H2O

22. Cr2O2-7 + 14H+  + 6I → 2Cr3+  + 3I2  + 7H2O. The change in the oxidation number of oxygen in the equation above is _______ A. 0       B. 1          C. 2         D. 7

23. During electrolysis of CuSO4 solution using platinum electrodes, which of the following occurs ______ A. Acidity increases at the cathode B. Oxygen is liberated at the cathode C. PH decreases at the cathode D. PH of solution increases.

24. Which of the following ions is a pollutant in drinking water even in trace quantities? A. Ca2+    B. Pb2+    C. Mg2+     D. Fe2+

25. The solubility of a salt of molar mass 100g at 20oC is 0.34mol/dm3. If 3.4g of that salt dissolved completely 250cm3 of water at that temperature, the resulting solution is ________ A. A suspension B. Saturated C. Unsaturated D. Supersaturated

26. Catalyst is important in in chemical industry in that ______ A. it affects the purity of the products B. it affects the quantity of the products C. it increases the time for reaching equilibrium D. Bond breaking is slowed down.

27. An alkanioc acid has a molecular mass of 88. Name the acid. (C = 12, O =16, H = 1) A. Propanioc acid B. Botanioc acid C. Pentanioc acid D. But-2-ionic acid

28. Ethyne undergoes the following reactions EXCEPT A. Polymerization   B. Addition  C. Combustion    D. Etherification

Keep following, more questions and answers will be added soon.

PS: Once again, there is nothing like waec chemistry expo. Do not fall victim to scammers online trying to obtain money from you with fake promises of having access to live question paper before the exam. What we have on this page are likely exam questions from waec past questions and answers to serve as a revision guide.

WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023 – Objectives and Essay

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The West African Examination Council (WAEC) conducts the GCE Chemistry exam for Senior School Certificate candidates. If you are preparing for the 2023 WAEC GCE Chemistry exam, you might be wondering about the types of questions you can expect and how to effectively prepare for them. In this comprehensive guide, we will provide you with valuable insights and tips to help you excel in the exam. We will cover both the objective and essay sections, providing you with a complete understanding of the topics to focus on.

chemistry essay and objective 2021

Objectives Section

The objectives section of the WAEC GCE Chemistry exam tests your knowledge and understanding of various concepts. It consists of multiple-choice questions that require you to select the correct answer from the options provided. Here are some key points to keep in mind for this section:

1. Familiarize Yourself with Past Questions

To excel in the objectives section, it is essential to familiarize yourself with past questions. These questions often follow a similar pattern, allowing you to identify recurring topics and concepts. By practicing with past questions, you can develop a deeper understanding of the exam format and improve your speed and accuracy in answering.

2. Understand the Marking Scheme

Understanding the marking scheme is crucial for maximizing your score in the objectives section. Each question carries equal marks, and there is no negative marking for incorrect answers. Therefore, it is advisable to attempt all questions, even if you are unsure of the correct answer. Eliminate options that you know are incorrect and make an educated guess if necessary.

3. Review Key Concepts and Formulas

The objectives section covers a wide range of topics, including atomic structure, chemical reactions, organic chemistry, and more. Reviewing key concepts and formulas related to these topics is essential for answering questions accurately. Create concise notes or flashcards to help you memorize important information and revise regularly to reinforce your understanding.

4. Practice Time Management

Time management is crucial during the exam. The objectives section is time-sensitive, and you need to allocate enough time to answer all the questions. Practice solving past papers within the allotted time frame to improve your speed and efficiency. Additionally, learn to prioritize questions based on your strengths and weaknesses to maximize your score.

Essay Section

The essay section of the WAEC GCE Chemistry exam tests your ability to express your understanding of the subject matter in a coherent and structured manner. Here are some tips to help you excel in the essay section:

1. Understand the Question

Before you start writing your essay, take the time to carefully read and understand the question. Identify the key points and concepts the question is asking you to address. This will help you structure your essay effectively and ensure that you stay on topic throughout.

2. Plan Your Essay

Planning your essay is essential for organizing your thoughts and presenting a well-structured argument. Create an outline that includes an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Map out the main points you want to discuss in each section, ensuring a logical flow of ideas.

3. Provide Relevant Examples

To support your arguments and demonstrate a deep understanding of the subject matter, provide relevant examples in your essay. These examples can be drawn from real-life situations, experiments, or case studies. Use specific details and data to strengthen your points and make your essay more persuasive.

4. Use Proper Scientific Terminology

The essay section of the WAEC GCE Chemistry exam requires you to use proper scientific terminology to communicate your ideas effectively. Make sure to use the appropriate terms and definitions related to the topic you are discussing. Avoid using vague or ambiguous language that may confuse the examiner.

Additional Tips for Success

Here are some additional tips to help you succeed in the WAEC GCE Chemistry exam:

  • Practice Regularly : Consistent practice is key to mastering the concepts and improving your problem-solving skills. Dedicate regular study sessions to revise the topics and solve practice questions.
  • Seek Clarification : If you come across any concepts or questions that you find difficult to understand, don’t hesitate to seek clarification from your teacher or classmates. Understanding the fundamentals will help you tackle more complex problems.
  • Manage Your Time : Develop a study schedule that allows you to cover all the necessary topics before the exam. Allocate sufficient time to practice past questions and identify areas where you need to improve.
  • Stay Calm and Confident : On the day of the exam, stay calm and confident in your preparation. Trust in your abilities and approach each question with a clear mind. Avoid rushing and carefully read each question before answering.

Preparing for the WAEC GCE Chemistry exam requires diligent study and practice. By familiarizing yourself with past questions, understanding the marking scheme, reviewing key concepts, and practicing time management, you can excel in both the objectives and essay sections. Remember to plan your essay effectively, provide relevant examples, and use proper scientific terminology. With consistent effort and a strategic approach, you can achieve excellent results in the 2023 WAEC GCE Chemistry exam.

Remember, success in the exam is not just about memorizing answers but also demonstrating a deep understanding of the subject matter. Use this comprehensive guide as a roadmap to guide your preparation and ace the WAEC GCE Chemistry exam. Best of luck!

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Black History Month: What is it and why is it important?

Black History Month - A visitor at the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington.

Black History Month is an opportunity to understand Black histories. Image:  Reuters/Siphiwe Sibeko

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chemistry essay and objective 2021

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Stay up to date:, economic progress.

This article was originally published in February 2021 and has been updated .

  • A continued engagement with history is vital as it helps give context for the present.
  • Black History Month is an opportunity to understand Black histories, going beyond stories of racism and slavery to spotlight Black achievement.
  • This year's theme is African Americans and the Arts.

February is Black History Month. This month-long observance in the US and Canada is a chance to celebrate Black achievement and provide a fresh reminder to take stock of where systemic racism persists and give visibility to the people and organizations creating change. Here's what to know about Black History Month and how to celebrate it this year:

Have you read?

Black history month: key events in a decade of black lives matter, here are 4 ways businesses can celebrate black history month, how did black history month begin.

Black History Month's first iteration was Negro History Week, created in February 1926 by Carter G. Woodson, known as the "father of Black history." This historian helped establish the field of African American studies and his organization, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History , aimed to encourage " people of all ethnic and social backgrounds to discuss the Black experience ".

“Those who have no record of what their forebears have accomplished lose the inspiration which comes from the teaching of biography and history.” ― Carter G. Woodson

His organization was later renamed the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) and is currently the oldest historical society established for the promotion of African American history.

Why is Black History Month in February?

February was chosen by Woodson for the week-long observance as it coincides with the birthdates of both former US President Abraham Lincoln and social reformer Frederick Douglass. Both men played a significant role in helping to end slavery. Woodson also understood that members of the Black community already celebrated the births of Douglass and Lincoln and sought to build on existing traditions. "He was asking the public to extend their study of Black history, not to create a new tradition", as the ASALH explained on its website.

How did Black History Month become a national month of celebration?

By the late 1960s, thanks in part to the civil-rights movement and a growing awareness of Black identity, Negro History Week was celebrated by mayors in cities across the country. Eventually, the event evolved into Black History Month on many college campuses. In 1976, President Gerald Ford officially recognized Black History month. In his speech, President Ford urged Americans to “seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of Black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history”.

Since his administration, every American president has recognized Black History Month and its mission. But it wasn't until Congress passed "National Black History Month" into law in 1986 that many in the country began to observe it formally. The law aimed to make all Americans "aware of this struggle for freedom and equal opportunity".

Why is Black History Month celebrated?

Initially, Black History Month was a way of teaching students and young people about Black and African-Americans' contributions. Such stories had been largely forgotten and were a neglected part of the national narrative.

Now, it's seen as a celebration of those who've impacted not just the country but the world with their activism and achievements. In the US, the month-long spotlight during February is an opportunity for people to engage with Black histories, go beyond discussions of racism and slavery, and highlight Black leaders and accomplishments.

What is this year's Black History Month theme?

Every year, a theme is chosen by the ASALH, the group originally founded by Woodson. This year's theme, African Americans and the Arts .

"In the fields of visual and performing arts, literature, fashion, folklore, language, film, music, architecture, culinary and other forms of cultural expression, the African American influence has been paramount," the website says.

Is Black History Month celebrated anywhere else?

In Canada, they celebrate it in February. In countries like the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Ireland, they celebrate it in October. In Canada, African-Canadian parliament member Jean Augustine motioned for Black History Month in 1995 to bring awareness to Black Canadians' work.

When the UK started celebrating Black History Month in 1987, it focused on Black American history. Over time there has been more attention on Black British history. Now it is dedicated to honouring African people's contributions to the country. Its UK mission statement is: "Dig deeper, look closer, think bigger".

Why is Black History Month important?

For many modern Black millennials, the month-long celebration for Black History Month offers an opportunity to reimagine what possibilities lie ahead. But for many, the forces that drove Woodson nearly a century ago are more relevant than ever. As Lonnie G. Bunch III, Director of the Smithsonian Institution said at the opening of the Washington D.C.'s National Museum of African American History and Culture in 2016: “There is no more powerful force than a people steeped in their history. And there is no higher cause than honouring our struggle and ancestors by remembering".

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chemistry essay and objective 2021

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chemistry essay and objective 2021

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CHEMISTRY OBJ 1-10: EECBBAEBBB 11-20: DDDBEAEABB 21-30: DBECCDAAAB 31-40: BADCBACDAC 41-50: CECCEADBDC 51-60: CEBEEDDBAE Examsub.net cares

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=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= THEORY INSTRUCTION : ANSWER ANY 4 QUESTIONS =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= (1ai) (i) Base has bitter taste (ii) Base is soapy to touch (iii) Base turns litmus paper blue

(1aii) The steps involved are: (i)Shift conversion (ii)Removal of carbon (iv) oxide (iii)Steam reforming

(1aiii) Cracking is the process by which heavier hydrocarbon molecule is splitted into two or more lighter molecules

(1aiv) Thermal cracking

(1bi) P ion = 1s²2s²2p⁶

(1bii) Formula of chloride is Pcl2

(1biii) Reducing agent This is because it undergoes oxidation by losing electrons

(1ci) Electron affinity is the energy released when a gaseous atom gains an electron to form a gaseous negative ion.

(1cii) This is because it has lone pairs of electrons

(1di) (i) By adding a catalyst

(ii) FeS(s) + 2HCl(g) —–> FeCl(g) + H2S(s)

Xg = ? No. of FeCl2 = 127g/mole No. of FeS= 88g/mole

Mole = Mass/ No. of Mass = 3.2/127 = 0.025mole of FeCl2

By comparison, 1 mole of FeS = 1 mole of FeCl2 X moles of FeS = 0.025 of FeCl2 X = 0.025mole of FeS

Recall, Mass = Mole * molar mass Mass = 0.025*88 Mass = 2.2g of FeS X = 2.2g

(1dii) (i)Chlorofluorocarbons (ii)Ammonia =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

(2ai) (i)Molecules of gases are in constant random motion (ii)The collision of gases is perfectly elastic (iii)An increase in temperature leads to an increase in the average kinetic energy of the molecules of gases

(2aii) (i)They both turn blue litmus paper red (ii)They both dissolve in water to produce an acid

(2aiii) Copper<Iron<Aluminium<Magnesium

(2aiv) Copper

(2bi) Activation energy can be defined as the minimum energy required for a reaction to occur.

(2bii) Catalyst lowers activation energy

(2biii) Nikel

(2biv) (i)Sodium trioxocarbonate (iv) (ii)Hydrogen gas

(2ci) (i)It reacts with metals to liberate hydrogen (ii)It reacts with base to produce salt and water only

(2cii) (i) 2KI + 2Cl2 —-> 2Kl2 + I2

(ii) 2Zn + Cl2 —–> 2ZnCl

(2ciii) Cl2

(2civ) Covalent bond

(2d) (i) Butane (ii) Propene (iii) Ethanol (iv) Ethyne =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

(4a) (i)Enthalpy of combustion can be defined as the amount of heat evolved when one mole of a substance burns in air or oxygen

(ii) Isomerism can be defined as a phenomenon in which organic compounds are having the same molecular formula but different structural formula

(4bi) NO2 – Acidic oxide CO – Neutral oxide Fe2O3 – Basic oxide Al2O3 – Amphoteric oxide

(4bii) (i)Nitrous oxide (ii)Carbon (iv) oxide

(4c) (i) Fractional distillation of liquid air

(ii) 2KNO3 —–> 2KNO2(s) + O2(g)

(NH)CO3(s) ——>2NH3(g) + CO2(g) + H2O(g)

(iii) No. of molecules = 4/16 × 6.02 × 10²³ = 1.5 × 10²³

(4di) (i)Sodium (ii)Potassium

(4dii) (i)Carbon (iv) oxide (ii)Carbon

(4diii) (i)Hydration (ii)Oxidation =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

(5ai) Gay Lussac’s states that when gaese react, they do so in volume which bear a simple whole number ratio to one another and to the volume of their products.

(5aii) 2CO + O2 —-> 2CO2 2 1 2 100cm³ 70cm³ 100cm³

Total volume = 100+70+100 = 270cm³

(5bi) (i)It is used in the production of other chemical substances (ii)It is used as a drying or dehydrating agent

(5bii) (i) ZnCO3 —–> ZnO + CO2

->Conditions<- – High temperature – High pressure

(ii) ZnO + H2SO4 —-> ZnSO4 + H2

->Conditions<- – Catalyst – Surface area

(5biii) (i) Crystallization method (ii) By heating the ZnSO4 with an alkali metal carbonate

(5c) (i) This is due to the presence of extra electrons not used for bonding graphite (ii) This is because sodium salts are soluble and double decomposition is used for the production of insoluble salts (iii) It is an alkali substance ie possesses basic properties

(5di) (i)Bitumen coal (ii)Peat coal

(5dii) Fractional distillation

COMPLETED FROM MR, ALEX =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= BELOW ARE SOLVED ONE IN IMAGE FROM OUR SECOND SOLVER

chemistry essay and objective 2021

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WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives)

WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023 .  Welcome to 2023 WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers. You will find WAEC GCE Chemistry Objective Answers, WAEC Chemistry Essay 2023, WAEC GCE 2023 Chemistry, and the tips you need to pass your WAEC GCE Chemistry examination with ease.

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Table of Contents

WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023 (Expo)

The 2023 WAEC GCE Chemistry expo will be posted here during the WAEC GCE Chemistry examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers.

WAEC GCE 2023 Chemistry Answers Loading.. .

Today’s WAEC GCE Chemistry OBJ Answers:

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Note: The answers below are the 2020 Nov/Dec answers.

NOTE:  Pls Trace It From Your Objective. [If you see any options here pick it from your objectives]

1 Involves the loss and gain of electrons 2 Polymerisation 3 Global warming 4 3 5 Zinc ions 6 +1.56V 7 Ethene 8 NH3 9 Propanol 10 28 11 Hydrolysis 12 d-orbital 13 Lowering the activation energy 14 Closeness between reactant particles 15 Remaining the same with time 16 Reaction vessel Fels cool during the reaction 17 Faster 18 Solvent extraction 19 Saturated Solution 20 2.75mol/dm³ 21 Partially dissociates in aqueous solution 22 138g 23 HI 24 2.00cm³ 25 hydrogen chloride 26 strong electrovalent bond between ions 27 is not ductile 28 Electrons 29 C2H4 30 Aluminium 31 0.010mol/dm³ 32 PbCO3 33 Linear 34 HCL and HOCL 35 +1 36 Ionic bond 37 have relatively low ionization energy 38 sour to taste 39 I,III and IV only 40 chrometography 41 2.00 dm 42 mole of solvent in 1dm³ of solution 43 does not contain neutron 44 1s²2s²2p⁶ 45 Ammonium chloride 46 IV 47 I,II and IV only 48 Quantum numbers of Electrons 49 -273⁰C 50 Mass number

1-10: DDDADBBABA

11-20: CDABDCCDDC

21-30: ACDBDCCDAB

31-40: BCADABDBAC

More Answers loading…

WAEC GCE Chemistry Theory Answers:

(i) Sodium trioxonitrate (v) decahydrate

NaNO₃ . 10H₂O

(ii) Sodium Oxide –> Na₂O

(iii) Potassium tetraoxophospate (v) –> K₃PO₄

Products formed are:

Hydrogen gas (a+ cathode)

Chlorine gas (a+ anode)

it decrease down the group

As the atomic radius increases down the group the attraction of the positive nucleus of the electron outer most electron, thus the ionization energy decreases

Nitrogen and carbon (ii) oxide

it is used to heat furnace

it is a source of nitrogen for the manufacture of ammonia

Sodium hydrogen – used in qualitative analysis

– Purification of bauxite

Sodium trioxocarbonate (iv)

-Manufacture of glass

-As a water soften

2-amino propane

(2ai) Percentage C5H12 of mass m = 7.2g Volume of O2 = 20.0dm³ (i) from the general combustion equation CxHy(g) + (x+y/4)O2 –> XCO2 + y/2H2O C5H12(l) + 802(g) –> 5CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)

(2aii) 1 mole of C5H12(72g) = 5 moles of CO2 At stop 7.2gC5H12 = x volume of CO2 X = 7.2g×5×22.4dm³/72g X = 5×2.224 = 11.2dm³ of CO2

(2aiii) Volume of oxygen left after the reaction from the equation of reaction 1 mole of C5H12(72g) = 8(22.4)dm³ 7.2g = x X = 7.2×8×22.4/72 = 17.92dm³ Volume of O2 left after the reaction = 20.0dm³ – 17.92dm³ = 2.08dm³

(2b) When molecules collide with one another they possess kinetic energy. As most energetic molecules (those with greater kinetic energy) try to escape. Their escape may be facilitated by heat or by passing a wave of air over the container or by increasing the surface area of the container. As they try to do this, some molecules will loose energy on collision and fall back to the container; as such the average kinetic of the molecules of the liquid in the container reduces which results to cooling effect.

(2ci) Avogadro’s Law states that the total number of atoms/molecules of a gas (i.e. the amount of gaseous substance) is directly proportional to the volume occupied by the gas at constant temperature and pressure.

(2cii) N2(g) + 3H2—> 2NH3 Where 1 mole = 30cm³ of gas

At constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of gas. When the volume of a cylinder or a container is increased, the gases have more space to travel and collide hence the pressure is reduced but as the volume is decreased or compressed the gases have less space to travel therefore more pressure is built up.

No (3ai) ¹³R, ⁸Q ¹³R=1s²,2s²,2p⁶,3s²,3p¹ ⁸Q=1s²,2s²,2p⁴

(3aii) ¹³R=2,8,3 Valency of ¹³R is 3 ⁸Q= 2,6 Valency of ⁸Q=2

(3di) 2H² SO4(aq)+4NaOH(aq)—>2Na² SO4(aq)+4H²O(s)

(3dii) Sodium teraoxosulphate (iv) salt and water

(3diii) The resulting solution NaSO4 is basic and will have no effect on litmus paper

(3div) When heated to dryness it can be used as a dehydrating agent

Typing….

—————————————————————————————————————–

The questions below are strictly for practice.

1. Which of the following statements best explains the difference between a gas and a vapour?

(a) Unlike gases, vapours are liquids at room temperature

(b) Unlike gases, vapour can easily be condensed into liquids

(c) Unlike gases, vapour is readily converted into solids

(d) Vapours are generally denser than gases

2. Consider the following reaction equation: 2HCI + Ca(OH) 2 → CaCI 2 + H 2 O. what is the volume of 0.1 moldm -3 , HCI that would completely neutralize 25 cm 3 or 0.3 moldm -3 Ca(OH) 2 ?

(a) 150 cm 3

(b) 75 cm 3

(c) 30 cm 3

(d) 25 cm 3

 3. Cu and HNO 3 are not suitable for preparing hydrogen gas because of their

(a) Reactivity and oxidation respectively

(b) conductivity and corrosiveness respectively

(c) melting point and reduction respectively

(d) electronegativity and solubility respectively

4. Which of the following formulae cannot be an empirical formula?

(c) P 2 O 5

(d) N 2 O 4

5. One of the criteria for confirming the purity of benzene is to determine its

(a) Heat capacity

(b) boiling point

6. When chlorine is passed through a sample of water, the pH of the water sample would be (a) <7

(a) 1.20 x 10 23

(b) 2.41 x 10 23

(c) 3.62 x 10 23

(d) 4.82 x 10 23

8. The strength of metallic bonds depends on the

(a) charge density of the atoms

(b) ductility of the metal

(c) number of valence electrons

(d) total number of electrons in the atoms

9. When zinc is added to AgNO 3 solution, crystals of silver forms on the zinc surface. This indicates that zinc is

(a) oxidized

(b) reduced

(c) decomposed

(d) dissociated

(d) Cu 2 O 2

  • WAEC GCE Mathematics Questions and Answers
  • WAEC GCE Physics Questions and Answers

11. The change in the oxidation state of iron in the reaction represented by the equation below is 2FeCI 3 + H 2 S →2FeCI 2 + 2HCI + S

(a) +2 to +3

(b) +3 to +2

(c) 0 to +2

(d) +3 to 0

12. Which of the following methods can be used to separate blood cells from plasma?

(a) Centrifugation

(b) Filtration

(c) Chromatography

(d) Distillation

13. Which of the following statements about ionic radius is correct? ‘Ionic radius

(a) Increases as nuclear charge increases

(b) decreases as nuclear charge increases

(c) decreases as nuclear charges decreases.

(d) remains constant as nuclear charge increases

14. Analysis of a hydrocarbon shows that it contains 0.93 g of carbon per gram of the compound. The mole  ratio of carbon to hydrogen in the compound is [H=1.0, C=12.0]

15. The law of definite proportions states that

(a) pure samples of same compound contain the same elements combined in the same proportion by mass

(b) pure samples of substances are in the same proportion by mass

(c) chemical compounds are pure because they contain the same elements

(d) matter can neither be created nor destroyed

17. Atoms are electrically neutral because they

(a) don not conduct electricity

(b) contain equal number of protons and electrons

(c) are composed of neutrons and electrons

(d) cannot be attracted by electromagnetic field

18. Common salt (NaC1) is used for preserving foods. Which of the following properties could be used to determine its purity before use?

(a) Solubility in water

(b) melting point

(c) Relative density

(d) Crystalline nature

19. Which of the following electron configurations represents the transition element chromium ( 24 Cr)?

(a) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 4

(b) 1s 2 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 6

(c) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 2s 2 3d 4 4s 1 (d) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 5

20. The atomic number of an isotope of hydrogen is equal to its mass number because it

(a) has a totally filled valence shell

(b) has a high charge to mass ratio

(c) does not contain neutrons (d) exhibits isotopy

21. The total number of shared pair of electrons in the compound below is

22. The bonding pair of electrons in a hydrogen chloride molecule is pulled towards the chlorine atom because

(a) Chlorine has a larger atomic size

(b) chlorine has a large atomic mass

(c) chlorine is more electronegative

(d) there is no bonding orbitals within the hydrogen atom

23. The solubility of CO 2 in water can be accounted for by

(a) van der waal’s forces

(b) ionic attraction

(c) dipole attraction

(d) covalent bonding

24. Which of the following properties would not influence electrovalent bond information?

(a) Electronegativity

(b) Electron affinity

(c) Ionization potential

(d) Catalytic ability

25. Particles in a solid exhibit

(a) Vibrational motion only

(b) vibrational and translational motion

(c) vibrational and random motion

(d) random and translational motion

WAEC GCE Chemistry Essay 2023

The above questions are not exactly 2023 WAEC Chemistry questions and answers but likely WAEC Physics repeated questions and answers.

These questions are for practice. The 2023 WAEC GCE Chemistry expo will be posted on this page 30 minutes before the WAEC GCE Chemistry examination starts. Keep checking and refreshing this page for the answers.

If you have any questions about the WAEC GCE Chemistry questions and answers, kindly drop your questions in the comment box.

Last Updated on October 2, 2023 by Admin

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EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

The use of artificial intelligence in the EU will be regulated by the AI Act, the world’s first comprehensive AI law. Find out how it will protect you.

A man faces a computer generated figure with programming language in the background

As part of its digital strategy , the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits , such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.

In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU regulatory framework for AI. It says that AI systems that can be used in different applications are analysed and classified according to the risk they pose to users. The different risk levels will mean more or less regulation. Once approved, these will be the world’s first rules on AI.

Learn more about what artificial intelligence is and how it is used

What Parliament wants in AI legislation

Parliament’s priority is to make sure that AI systems used in the EU are safe, transparent, traceable, non-discriminatory and environmentally friendly. AI systems should be overseen by people, rather than by automation, to prevent harmful outcomes.

Parliament also wants to establish a technology-neutral, uniform definition for AI that could be applied to future AI systems.

Learn more about Parliament’s work on AI and its vision for AI’s future

AI Act: different rules for different risk levels

The new rules establish obligations for providers and users depending on the level of risk from artificial intelligence. While many AI systems pose minimal risk, they need to be assessed.

Unacceptable risk

Unacceptable risk AI systems are systems considered a threat to people and will be banned. They include:

  • Cognitive behavioural manipulation of people or specific vulnerable groups: for example voice-activated toys that encourage dangerous behaviour in children
  • Social scoring: classifying people based on behaviour, socio-economic status or personal characteristics
  • Biometric identification and categorisation of people
  • Real-time and remote biometric identification systems, such as facial recognition

Some exceptions may be allowed for law enforcement purposes. “Real-time” remote biometric identification systems will be allowed in a limited number of serious cases, while “post” remote biometric identification systems, where identification occurs after a significant delay, will be allowed to prosecute serious crimes and only after court approval.

AI systems that negatively affect safety or fundamental rights will be considered high risk and will be divided into two categories:

1) AI systems that are used in products falling under the EU’s product safety legislation . This includes toys, aviation, cars, medical devices and lifts.

2) AI systems falling into specific areas that will have to be registered in an EU database:

  • Management and operation of critical infrastructure
  • Education and vocational training
  • Employment, worker management and access to self-employment
  • Access to and enjoyment of essential private services and public services and benefits
  • Law enforcement
  • Migration, asylum and border control management
  • Assistance in legal interpretation and application of the law.

All high-risk AI systems will be assessed before being put on the market and also throughout their lifecycle.

General purpose and generative AI

Generative AI, like ChatGPT, would have to comply with transparency requirements:

  • Disclosing that the content was generated by AI
  • Designing the model to prevent it from generating illegal content
  • Publishing summaries of copyrighted data used for training

High-impact general-purpose AI models that might pose systemic risk, such as the more advanced AI model GPT-4, would have to undergo thorough evaluations and any serious incidents would have to be reported to the European Commission.

Limited risk

Limited risk AI systems should comply with minimal transparency requirements that would allow users to make informed decisions. After interacting with the applications, the user can then decide whether they want to continue using it. Users should be made aware when they are interacting with AI. This includes AI systems that generate or manipulate image, audio or video content, for example deepfakes.

On December 9 2023, Parliament reached a provisional agreement with the Council on the AI act . The agreed text will now have to be formally adopted by both Parliament and Council to become EU law. Before all MEPs have their say on the agreement, Parliament’s internal market and civil liberties committees will vote on it.

More on the EU’s digital measures

  • Cryptocurrency dangers and the benefits of EU legislation
  • Fighting cybercrime: new EU cybersecurity laws explained
  • Boosting data sharing in the EU: what are the benefits?
  • EU Digital Markets Act and Digital Services Act
  • Five ways the European Parliament wants to protect online gamers
  • Artificial Intelligence Act

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  1. CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS ...

    This post provides provided for you with all you need to know in Chemistry Paper 1 (Objective) and Chemistry 2 (Essay). Table of Contents The Question & Answers: CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM. THE OBJECTIVE OF POST: CHEMISTRY THEORY And OBJECTIVE: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS For 2022/2023 WAEC EXAM.

  2. Nabteb Gce Chemistry Essay And Obj (Objectives) 2021/2022 Expo/Dubs

    Nabteb Gce Chemistry Essay And Obj (Objectives) 2021/2022 Expo/Dubs/Runs/Runz Questions and Answers November 12, 2022 Tonykamsy NABTEB GCE 0 2021 NABTEB GCE CHEMISTRY ESSAY & OBJECTIVES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS EXPO/RUNZ NOW AVAILABLE @ WWW.EXAMAFRICA.COM

  3. Nabteb 2021 Chemistry Paper I (Obj/Essay) Questions & Answers

    Saturday 26th June 2021 Chemistry paper I objective and essay (9: 00am - 11:30am) READ: 2021 NABTEB TIMETABLE: NABTEB 2021/2022 OFFICIAL TIME TABLE. NABTEB 2021 CHEMISTRY ESSAY AND OBJ ANSWERS For more answer contact 07062154881 on whatsapp ...

  4. The Role of the Laboratory in Chemistry Teaching and Learning

    Based on an intensive review of the literature, the changes in goals and objectives of the chemistry laboratory over the years are presented. In general, three periods related to students' practice in the chemistry laboratory, namely the early 1960s to the early 1980s, the mid-1980s to the end of the 1990s, and from 2000 until today are covered.

  5. Neco 2021 Chemistry Essay and Objective Questions and Answers

    #NECO CHEMISTRY ANSWER 2021 #ZAMGIST #NECO 2021CLICK HERE - https://zamgist.com.ngAnswer page - https://lite.zamgist.com.ngNECO 2021 CHEMISTRY ESSAY AND OBJE...

  6. Waec 2021/2022 Chemistry Essay And (Obj) Objectives Questions and

    2021 WAEC CHEMISTRY ESSAY/OBJECTIVES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS EXPO/RUNZ NOW AVAILABLE @ WWW.EXAMAFRICA.COM. ExamAfrica.Com: Drop First While Others Copy From Us, We Are 100% Reliable And We Never Disappoint Our Subscribers. Whether Your Village people Likes or Not, With ExamAfrica.Com A1 Must Locate You. Thank your Stars for finding the Best and Accurate Expo site for your Waec Chemistry Essay ...

  7. Case study analysis of reflective essays by chemistry post-secondary

    Introduction Experience is one of the most frequently discussed terms when students are seeking employment. Post-secondary science graduates are entering a workforce where business organizations desire their employees to have a firm foundation in scientific knowledge, critical thinking, communication skills, diversity, and professional integrity (Fung and Watts, 2019; Lawrie, 2021).

  8. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021. Chemists can create new molecules by linking together small chemical building blocks, but controlling invisible substances so they bond in the desired way is difficult. Benjamin List and David MacMillan are awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021 for their development of a new and ingenious tool for molecule ...

  9. WAEC Chemistry Questions And Answers 2022/2023 [Theory & OBJ] Expo

    These are possible WAEC Chemistry theory questions and answers 2021 that may appear in this year's exam. There are not actual questions and answers but, sample questions for practices. 2.47g of dry pure copper (II) oxide was completely reduced to a copper using laboratory gas. The mass of the residue left was found to be 1.97g.

  10. Neco Gce Chemistry Essay And Obj (Objectives) 2021/2022 Expo/Dubs/Runs

    2021 NECO GCE CHEMISTRY ESSAY & OBJECTIVES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS EXPO/RUNZ NOW AVAILABLE @ WWW.EXAMAFRICA.COM. ExamAfrica.Com: Drop First While Others Copy From Us, We Are 100% Reliable And We Never Disappoint Our Subscribers. Whether Your Village people Likes or Not, With ExamAfrica.Com A1 Must Locate You. Thank your Stars for finding the Best and Accurate Expo site for your Neco Gce ...

  11. WAEC 2021 Chemistry Questions & Answers (OBJ & Theory) Now

    WAEC Chemistry Questions & Answers 2021 (OBJ & Theory) Now available . 2021 WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers: This WAEC 2021 Chemistry expo question and answer is now available on our desk and also available for delivery to all subscribers taking the examinations, to get it 5hrs before exam time.. If youf are taking the WAEC Exam in 2021, feel free to expect a good-response and quality ...

  12. NECO Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022/2023 Theory & OBJ Expo

    The chemistry questions and answers for NECO 2021 will be in two papers. The first paper (paper 1) is the OBJ (objective) and the second paper is paper 2 (theory, essay, calculations and show working).

  13. WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2024 Objectives and Essay

    November 19, 2023 School News 0 Comments Advertisements WAEC chemistry 2024 answers are now available. WAEC chemistry questions and answers 2024/2025 objective and essay and other exam details for WASSCE 2024 are on this page. See the 2024 WAEC chemistry answers for both objective and theory below.

  14. WAEC Chemistry Past Questions and Answers in 2023 PDF Download

    August 21, 2021 WAEC Past Questions WAEC Chemistry Past Questions and Answers in 2023 PDF Download Objective & Theory Posted by official_stcharlesedu Are you writing the West Africa Examination Council WAEC Internal or External examination, if yes you need the WAEC Past Questions on Chemistry

  15. chemistry essay and objective 2021

    Jamb Admission. Latest nigerian school news, verified complete waec 2021 chemistry theory questions and answers. WAEC Chemistry Obj and Theory/Essay 2021/2022 Free Questions & Ans

  16. WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers for 2023/2024 (Theory and Objectives)

    You will find Chemistry Paper 1 (Objective) and Chemistry 2 (Essay) here Scroll to the bottom for today's Chemistry Answers Below are the WAEC Chemistry questions. Read them and get ready to score high in your WAEC Chemistry exam.

  17. NECO Chemistry Answer Essay & OBJ

    According to the NECO Exam Timetable, the Chemistry Essay & Objective has been scheduled to take place on Wednesday 28th July, 2021 from 10:00 am to 01:00 pm. Receive the correct NECO Chemistry Essay & Objective Expo 2021, NECO Chemistry Essay & Objective Expo Answers 2021 midnight before your exam. Page Contents

  18. WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022 Objectives and Essay

    Get the WAEC Chemistry objective and essay answers here. The 2022 WAEC OBJ and theory questions and answers are provided here for free. All you have to do is to […] The post WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers 2022 Objectives and Essay appeared first on Study Forum. ... 2021 0 22. IBBUL notice to students on re-opening of portal for course ...

  19. NECO Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives)

    NECO Chemistry Objectives and Essay Answers 2023 (Expo) The 2023 NECO Chemistry expo will be posted here today 24th July during the NECO Chemistry examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers. NECO 2023 Chemistry Answers Loading. OBJ Answers: 1-10: DEADADECAD 11-20: BAEDDBDBAE 21-30: CCDCABDDCD 31-40: EBEECEBCEE

  20. WAEC GCE Chemistry Answers 2023 Essay/OBJ Questions is Out

    The Waec GCE chemistry answers 2023 essay and objective questions for the West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chemistry SSCE exam paper scheduled to be written on Tuesday, 12th December, 2023 can now be studied here.

  21. WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023

    Education WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023 - Objectives and Essay Musa FN December 11, 2023 0 The West African Examination Council (WAEC) conducts the GCE Chemistry exam for Senior School Certificate candidates.

  22. Black History Month: What is it and why do we need it?

    Black History Month is an opportunity to understand Black histories, going beyond stories of racism and slavery to spotlight Black achievement. This year's theme is African Americans and the Arts. February is Black History Month. This month-long observance in the US and Canada is a chance to celebrate Black achievement and provide a fresh ...

  23. 2021 Neco Chemistry Expo Theory & Obj Questions and Answers

    (1ai) (i) Base has bitter taste (ii) Base is soapy to touch (iii) Base turns litmus paper blue (1aii) The steps involved are: (i)Shift conversion (ii)Removal of carbon (iv) oxide (iii)Steam reforming (1aiii) Cracking is the process by which heavier hydrocarbon molecule is splitted into two or more lighter molecules (1aiv) Thermal cracking (1bi)

  24. WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives)

    by Admin WAEC GCE Chemistry Questions and Answers 2023 . Welcome to 2023 WAEC Chemistry Questions and Answers. You will find WAEC GCE Chemistry Objective Answers, WAEC Chemistry Essay 2023, WAEC GCE 2023 Chemistry, and the tips you need to pass your WAEC GCE Chemistry examination with ease. Table of Contents

  25. EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

    As part of its digital strategy, the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits, such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.. In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU ...