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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Sample Paper, Bibliography, & Annotated Bibliography

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General paper formatting guidelines, quick rules for a chicago bibliography.

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

Writing an Evaluative Annotation

Tips on Writing & Formatting an Annotated Bibliography

Sample Paper with Bibliography

  • Chicago Sample Paper

This sample paper can be used as a template to set up your assignment. It includes a title page, main body paragraph with footnotes, and a bibliography.

Sample Paper with Appendix

  • Chicago Sample Paper Template - with Appendix

If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with Chicago guidelines:

  • The Appendix appears before the Bibliography
  • If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
  • Each appendix begins on a new page

Sample Annotated Bibliography

This sample annotated bibliography shows you the structure you should use to write a Chicago style annotated bibliography and gives examples of evaluative and summary annotations.

It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.

  • End-of-Paper Checklist

Finished your assignment? Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for Chicago style.

Useful Links for Annotated Bibliographies

Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.

Includes a sample annotation from a Chicago Manual of Style annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.

An example of an MLA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.

Assemble your paper in the following order:

  • Body of paper
  • Appendix (if needed)
  • Bibliography

Use Times New Roman, Size 12 (unless otherwise instructed).

Margins and Indents

Your margins should be 1 inch on all sides.

Indent new paragraphs by one-half inch.

Double-space the main text of your paper.

Single-space the footnotes and bibliography, but add a blank line between entries.

Start numbering your pages on the  second  page of your paper (don't include the title page).

Put your page numbers in the header of the first page of text (skip the title page), beginning with page number 1. Continue numbering your pages to the end of the bibliography.

Place the footnote number at the end of the sentence in which you have quoted or paraphrased information from another source. The footnote number should be in superscript, and be placed  after  any punctuation.

Put your footnotes in the footer section of the page.

Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. This is called a bibliography.

See an example in the "Sample Paper with Bibliography" box on this page.

Here are nine quick rules for this list:

  • Start a new page for your bibliography (e.g. If your paper is 4 pages long, start your bibliography on page 5).
  • Centre the title, Bibliography, at the top of the page and do not bold or underline it. Look for the alignment option in Word. 
  • Leave two blank lines between the title and the first entry on your list.
  • Single-space the list, but leave one blank line between entries.
  • Start the first line of each citation at the left margin; each subsequent line should be indented (also known as a "hanging indent").
  • Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the citation. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  • For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first name followed by a period.
  • Italicize the titles of full works , such as: books, videos (films and television shows), artwork, images, maps, journals, newspapers, magazines.
  • Do not italicize titles of parts of works , such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document. Instead, use quotation marks.

What Is An Annotated Bibliography?

An  annotated bibliography  is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.

Types of Annotations

 A  summary annotation  describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description. 

 An  evaluative annotation  includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.

  • Cite the source using Chicago style.
  • Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
  • Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
  • Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
  • Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
  • Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
  • Identify the observations or conclusions of the author. 

Remember: Annotations are original descriptions that you create after reading the document. When researching, you may find journal articles that provide a short summary at the beginning of the text. This article abstract is similar to a summary annotation. You may consult the abstract when creating your evaluative annotation, but never simply copy it as that would be considered plagiarism. 

Tips on Writing & Formatting an Annotated Bibliography

  • Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
  • Start with the same format as a regular Bibliography list.
  • All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
  • If your list of citations is especially long, you can organize it by topic.
  • Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
  • Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)
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Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.)

  • Single Author
  • Editor or Translator Instead of Author
  • Mutiple Authors/Editors/Translators
  • Authors plus Editor or Translator
  • Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Chapter in a Single Author Book
  • Chapter Originally Published Elsewhere
  • Book in a Series
  • Book with Multiple Editions
  • Book with Volumes
  • Online Book
  • Electronic Book
  • Co-Publishers
  • Preface, Afterword, Foreword, or Introduction
  • Corporate Author
  • Electronic Journal Article
  • Multiple Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Regular Column
  • Letter to the Editor
  • Book Review
  • Website Content
  • Social Media
  • Well-Known Dictionary or Encyclopedia
  • Lesser-Known Dictionary or Encyclopedia
  • Heavily Authored Dictionary or Encyclopedia
  • Online Dictionary or Encyclopedia
  • Published or Broadcast Interview
  • Personal Communication
  • Online Video
  • Online Recording of Speech or Performance
  • Musical Recording
  • DVD or Videocassette
  • Scriptural Reference
  • Classical Reference
  • Legal and Public Documents

Article Abstract

( Chicago Manual of Style 14.186)

Author, "Article Title," abstract,  Journal Title and Volume , Issue (Date of publication): Page number or Other identifying information, DOI/URL.

Helpful Hints

Only need in a note.

If the abstract is part of the work, include the word abstract. If it is an abstract in another publication include the words abstract in.

Not that it was included in the second example that the original article was in another language.

If no page numbers are included then section headings or other types of locating information can be used.

Note that there is a space following the colon before the page numbers.

If using an electronic version of an article a DOI is preferred to a URL, but if using a URL, you must use the address that appears when you are viewing the article, unless there is a shorter more stable one available. (See 14.6-14.8 for more).

See 14.18 for more information on where to put line breaks for URLs or DOIs.

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Chicago Style Citation Guide | Templates & Citation Examples

Chicago Manual of Style

Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article. It is widely used in the humanities. Citations are placed in footnotes or endnotes , with a Chicago style bibliography listing your sources in full at the end.

Author-date style is mainly used in the sciences. It uses parenthetical in-text citations , always accompanied by a reference list at the end.

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Table of contents

Citing sources with notes (notes and bibliography), chicago note citation examples (notes and bibliography), creating a chicago style bibliography (notes and bibliography), chicago author-date style, frequently asked questions about chicago style citation.

To cite sources in Chicago notes and bibliography style, place a superscript number at the end of a sentence or clause, after the punctuation mark, corresponding to a numbered footnote or endnote .

Chicago footnote citation example

Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page, while endnotes appear at the end of the text. Choose one or the other and use it consistently.

Most word-processing programs can automatically link your superscript numbers and notes.

Full notes vs. short notes

Citations can take the form of full notes or short notes. Full notes provide complete source information, while short notes include only the author’s last name, the source title, and the page number(s) of the cited passage. The usual rule is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and a short note for subsequent citations of the same source.

Guidelines can vary across fields, though; sometimes you might be required to use full notes every time, or conversely to use short notes every time, as long as all your sources are listed in the bibliography. It’s best to check with your instructor if you’re unsure which rule to follow.

Multiple authors in Chicago notes

When a source has multiple authors, list up to three in your note citations. When there are four or more, use “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”).

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A Chicago footnote or endnote citation always contains the author’s name and the title of the source. The other elements vary by the type of source you’re citing.

Page number(s) should be included if you are referring to a specific part of the text. The elements of the citation are separated by commas , and the note always ends with a period. The page range is separated by an en dash .

Navigate through the Chicago citation examples using the tabs below.

  • Book chapter
  • Journal article

When citing a book , if an edition is specified, include it in abbreviated form (e.g., 2nd ed.). If the book was accessed online, add a URL.

Chicago book citation example

When citing a chapter from a multi-authored book, start with details of the chapter, followed by details of the book.

Chicago book chapter citation example

To cite a journal article , you need to specify the volume and issue as well as the date. It’s best to use a DOI instead of a URL.

Chicago Journal article citation example

Web pages often have no author or date specified. If the author is unknown, start with the title in a full note, and use the website name as author in a short note. If the publication date is unknown, include the date you accessed the information (e.g., accessed on March 12, 2022).

Chicago website citation example

The bibliography lists full references for all your sources. It appears at the end of your paper (before any appendices ).

Author names are inverted in the bibliography, and sources are alphabetized by author last name. Each source is listed on a new line, with a hanging indent applied to sources that run over onto multiple lines.

If a source has multiple authors, list up to 10 in the bibliography. If there are 11 or more, list the first seven followed by “et al.”

Example of a Chicago Style bibliography

When to include a bibliography

It is not mandatory to include a bibliography if you have cited your sources with full notes. However, it is recommended to include one in most cases, with the exception of very short texts with few sources.

Check with your instructor if you’re not sure whether to include one.

Chicago style bibliography examples (notes and bibliography)

Bibliography entries vary in format according to source type. Formats and examples for some common source types are shown below.

In the (social) sciences, you may be told to use author-date style instead. In this style, citations appear in parentheses in the text.

Unlike note citations, author-date citations look the same for all source types .

Reference list

Author-date citations are always accompanied by a reference list. The reference list is similar to a bibliography: It appears at the end of your text and lists all your sources in full.

The only difference is that the publication year comes straight after the author name, to match with the in-text citations. For example, the book reference from above looks like this in author-date style.

Chicago Author-Date Quick Guide

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In a Chicago style footnote , list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by “ et al. “

In the bibliography , list up to 10 authors. If there are more than 10, list the first seven followed by “et al.”

The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style .

To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .

In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown (as is often the case with websites ), start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author.

In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.

When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography :

If you are using author-date in-text citations , or if the source was not accessed online, replace the date with “n.d.”

Page numbers should be included in your Chicago in-text citations when:

  • You’re quoting from the text.
  • You’re paraphrasing a particular passage.
  • You’re referring to information from a specific section.

When you’re referring to the overall argument or general content of a source, it’s unnecessary to include page numbers.

In Chicago notes and bibliography style , the usual standard is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and short notes for any subsequent citations of the same source.

However, your institution’s guidelines may differ from the standard rule. In some fields, you’re required to use a full note every time, whereas in some other fields you can use short notes every time, as long as all sources are listed in your bibliography . If you’re not sure, check with your instructor.

In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.

In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.

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General Formatting Notes

When writing a paper, it is important to follow any rules or guidelines set by your professor.  Make sure to check your assignment for specific instructions regarding format.  Different fields have different standards, and it will be important for you to know the standard for your future field.

The following formatting guides are the most widely accepted for the format and submission of theses and dissertations, but there may be differences from the requirements of your UVF department.  Always check with your professor if you have questions regarding format for your paper, especially if your assignment is a thesis or dissertation.

Most papers have three divisions: front matter, the text of the paper itself, and the back matter.  For a regular class paper, the front matter is usually just a title page and the back matter is the bibliography or reference list.  Theses and disserations will have more subsections depending on the paper.

Nearly all papers are published on 8 1/2 by 11 inch paper, regardless of physical or electronic submission.  Leave a margin of at least 1 inch on all four sides of your page.  For a thesis or dissertation meant to be bound, leave a slightly bigger margin on the left side of the page, usually 1 1/2 inches.

Be sure that all materials found in the footnotes and endnotes falls within the margins.

Choose a single, readable, and widely available font such as Times New Roman or Arial.  Avoid ornamental fonts as they can distract your readers or make your work appear less serious.  In general, use the equivalent of at least 10-point Arial or 12-point Times New Roman for the body of texts.  

Check your professor's guidelines for font and size for footnotes and endnotes.

Spacing and Indentation

Double space all text in papers, except for the following, which should be single spaced:

  • block quotations
  • table titles and figure captions
  • lists in appendixes

The following should be single spaced internally, but a blank line should be between items:

  • certain elements in the front matter (table of contents, lists of figures, tables, or abbreviations)
  • footnotes and endnotes
  • bibliographies and reference lists

Put only one space, not two, following sentences. Use tabs or indents for paragraph indentation and to adjust other content requiring consistent alignment.  Block quotations have their own guidelines for indentation, depending on whether they are prose or poetry.

If your only front matter is a title page, do not number that page.

Number the pages in the body of the paper and the back matter with arabic numerals, starting on the first page of text (page 2 if you count the title page.

If you are writing a thesis or dissertation, number front matter separately from the rest of the text.

Front matter includes the title page and various other elements.  Number these pages consecutively with lower case roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, etc.) Ask your professor about specific guidelines for numbering front matter.

Back matter is numbered consecutively using arabic numerals.

Page numbers are found in four possible locations

centered in the footer

flush right in the footer

centered in the header

flush right in the header

Remain consistent in the placement of your page numbers

Front Matter

The front matter of a thesis or dissertation may have some or all of the following elements:

  • Submission page - This is usually the first page of the document.  If it is in this position, it does not get a page number and is not counted in the pagination of the front matter.  The submission page states that the paper has been submitted in partial fulfillment of a Master's or PhD degree, and includes space for the signatures of the examining committee. Consult your professor for the wording and format of this page.
  • Title page - Class papers should begin with a title page (but your professor may want this on the first page of the text).  Place the title of the paper a third of the way down the page, centered.  If the title has a subtitle, put the main title on a single line, followed by a colon, and begin the subtitle on a new line with an intervening line space.  Several lines below that, place your name, any information requested by your professor (course title, department), and the date.
  • Copyright page - In a thesis or dissertation, insert a copyright page after the title page.  Count this as page ii, but do not put that number on the page.  Include the copyright notice near the top of this page, usually flush left, in this form:

Copyright © 20XX by Your Name

All rights reserved

You do not need to apply for formal copyright.

  • Abstract - The abstract summarizes the contents of the thesis or dissertation.  Count the first page of the abstract as page iii, and number all pages. Your department may have specific guidelines regarding the abstract for your paper.  
  • Dedication - Your department may allow for a dedication.  Number the dedication page with a roman numeral.  Place the dedication a third of the way down the page, centered, in regular type.  Simply say "To xx" with no terminal punctuation.
  • Epigraph - This can be used in place of a dedication if allowed by your department.  Number the page with a roman numeral.  Place it a third of the way down the page, centered or as a block quotation.  Do not enclose it in quotation marks, and give the source its own line, set flush right, preceded by a dash
  • Table of Contents - All papers divided into chapters require a table of contents.  Number this page with roman numerals.  Leave two blank lines between the title and the first item listed. Single space items listed, but leave a blank space between items.  Leave two blank spaces between lists of front matter, the body of the work, and the back matter.  The table of contents does not list pages that precedes it (Title page, etc.). Give page numbers only for the first page of the section.
  • List of Figures, Tables, or Illustrations - You may choose to list all figures in your paper.  This list should use roman numerals to list the pages for these items.  The names of these items should match what they are titled in your paper.
  • Preface - You may include a preface to explain the motivations of your study, its background, the scope of the research, or the purpose of the paper.  
  • Acknowledgements - Here you can thank mentors and colleagues or name the institutions and individuals that supported your research or provided assistance.  You should also acknowledge the owners of copyrighted materials who have given you permission to reproduce their work.  
  • List of Abbreviations - If there are an unusual number of abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation, you may choose to list them in the front matter.  Examples would be abbreviations for sources cited frequently or organizations that are not widely known.  Items should be arranged alphabetically by the abbreviation, not the spelled out term.
  • Glossary - If your thesis or dissertation includes many words from other language or technical terms and phrases that may be unfamiliar to your reader, include a glossary.  Some departments may want this in the back matter, so check with your professor.
  • Editorial or Research Method - Include this if your thesis or dissertation requires extensive preliminary discussion of your editorial method (such as choices between variant texts) or an explanation of research method.

The text of the paper is everything between the front matter and the back matter.  It begins with an introduction and ends with your conclusion.  In a thesis or dissertation, the text is usually separated into chapters and sometimes into parts, sections, and subsections.  Since most of the text consists of paragraphs laying out your findings, there are few format requirements.

Begin arabic numbering with the first page of the text (normally page 1 or 2).

  • Introduction - The introduction previews the contents of the paper and is distinct enough to be separate from the rest of the paper.  If the substance of the introductory material is not distinct from the following chapters, incorporate it into the first chapter.
  • Parts - If you divide your text into two or more parts containing at least two chapters each, begin each part with a part-title page.  Be sure to use consistent formatting for every part of your paper.  If one part has something, include that in every part.
  • Chapters - Each chapter should begin on a new page.  Label this page with "Chapter" followed by the chapter number at the top of the page.  Include the name of the chapter two lines down, following a blank line.  Leave two lines blank before the text following the title.  
  • Sections and Subsections - Long chapters in a thesis or dissertation may be divided into smaller subsections.  You may signal a change between sections informally by centering three asterisks (* * *) on their own line.  For more formal sections, you may give each section its own title (subheading).  You may have multiple levels of subheadings, designated as first-level, second-level, and so on.  Be consistent with the style of subheading you are using.
  • Notes or Parenthetical Citation - See the section on citation for instructions on footnotes, endnotes, and other citations.
  • Conclusion - The conclusion should sum up your findings or argument.  You may want to make your conclusion the final chapter of your paper.

Back Matter

The back matter may consist of all, some, or none of the following elements.

  • Illustrations - You may choose to have all of your tables, figures, and illustrations at the end of the paper, instead of incorporating them into the text.  Label the first page of the section "Illustrations."
  • Appendixes - This section will include essential supporting material that cannot easily be worked into the text of your paper.  This may include tables or figures that are marginally relevant to your topic or too large to include in the text; schedules and forms used in collecting materials; copies of documents not easily available to the reader; and case studies too long to be included in the text.  Different types of materials should be separated into different appendixes, each with a number or letter and a descriptive title.
  • Glossary - If you needed to include a glossary, and did not put it in the front matter, include it here.
  • Endnotes - If you are using notes-style citations, you may include notes in the back matter.  If you are using author-date citations, you will not have endnotes.
  • Bibliography or Reference List - If you are using notes-style citations, you will include a bibliography.  If you are using author-date style, you will include a reference list.  See the citation sections for guidelines.  Indent the second and following lines of a citation with a hanging indent.  Arrange references alphabetically by author.

Depending on the complexity of your paper, there will be many elements which should each have a title.

Use the same font, type size, and formatting style (bold, italic, etc.) for the titles of like elements.  Generally, titles should appear in bold.

On the title page, center each element and use headline-style capitalization for all, including the title of your paper.  

Titles for front and back matter are generally centered, as are chapter number designations and chapter titles.  

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Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition

  • Chicago Style
  • Title Page and Pagination
  • Quotations and Signal Phrases
  • Bibliography
  • Chicago's Citation Parts
  • Articles - Online
  • Articles - Print
  • Blogs and Social Media
  • Government Publications
  • Elders & Knowledge Keepers
  • Other Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Generative AI Tools (e.g., ChatGPT, DALL·E 2)
  • Author/Date (Scientific) System
  • Need More Help?

Useful Links

  • Chicago Manual of Style Online - Quick Guide
  • Douglas College Library - Chicago Style Guide (PDF)
  • Purdue OWL - Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.)
  • SFU Library - Chicago/Turabian (17th ed.) Citation Guide

Avoid Plagiarism

  • Camosun Academic Integrity Guide
  • Camosun Plagiarism Guide
  • Douglas College Learning Centre - Paraphrasing Without Plagiarizing
  • Purdue OWL - Avoiding Plagiarism
  • SFU Library - Plagiarism Tutorial

Chicago Style Sample Research Paper

Formatting and Sample Paper

The formatting guidelines listed on this page, provide general best practices for formatting your work using the Chicago style. Detailed information about formatting your title page , using quotes and signal phrases , and creating a bibliography , can be found by navigating to various sub-pages of this "Formatting Your Paper" page.

Learning how to correctly format your research paper into Chicago style can seem overwhelming, especially if the style is new to you. One of the best ways to help visualize what your paper needs to look like is by checking out an example of a paper that has already been formatted correctly.

View this  sample Chicago style research paper   ( notes and bibliography/humanities system ) from Purdue OWL for examples on how to format:

  • A title page
  • Headers and page numbers
  • A bibliography

For a sample paper in the Chicago author/date style , visit the "Author/Date (Scientific) System" page in this guide.

Paragraphs and Spacing

The first line of all new paragraphs should begin with an indent . You can use either the tab key or your word processor's indentation tool to make your indentations–just be sure to be consistent and use the same process throughout your paper.

Your paper should be double spaced throughout its main body , with the following exceptions: 

  • Block quotations , table titles , and figure captions should be single-spaced . 
  • ​An extra line of space should be inserted both before and after a block quotation. 

Entries in the bibliography and footnotes/ endnotes are single spaced within entries , but double-spaced between entries (unless your instructor prefers double-spacing throughout).​

Footnotes and Endnotes

  • Notes can be either  footnotes   (placed at the  foot   (bottom) of the same page  as the referenced text) or  endnotes   (listed on a  separate sheet at the end  of the essay, before the bibliography).
  • Other than placement in your document, footnotes and endnotes are  structured in exactly the same way .
  • Notes are  numbered consecutively  throughout the paper. Most word processing programs (such as MS Word) handle footnotes automatically.
  • Follow your instructors’ directions when deciding whether to use footnotes or endnotes.

To insert a footnote in a Microsoft Word document:

  • Place the cursor after the text you want to cite.
  • Click on the " References "   tab.
  • In the " Footnotes " section , click on the " In sert Footnote " button.
  • A superscript number 1 will appear after the text you want to cite.
  • A superscript number 1 will also appear at the bottom of page.
  • At the bottom of the page next to the superscript number, enter the citation information for your resource (see the citation examples in this guide for how to create footnotes).
  • Repeat these steps to insert and consecutively number your footnotes.

Some instructors may ask you to use endnotes, instead of footnotes. For information on inserting endnotes, see the  Microsoft Office Tutorial .

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Chicago 17th (A) Notes and Bibliography

  • Note citation
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  • University lectures, theses and dissertations
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  • Other styles AGLC4 APA 7th Chicago 17th (A) Notes Chicago 17th (B) Author-Date Harvard MLA 9th Vancouver
  • Referencing home

Getting Started

Chicago 17th (A) Notes and Bibliography is a citing and referencing style drawn from the 17th edition of  The Chicago Manual of Style .

You can  access an online copy  of the manual through the Monash Library, you will be required to sign in.

abstract format chicago style

Our interactive online tutorials can help you understand the basics of citing and referencing, and why citing and referencing is important.

Elements of citing and referencing in Chicago 17th (A) Notes and Bibliography Style

There are two places you need to write references in your assessments.

1. Note citation

  • Use note citations to avoid plagiarism and show how your work is influenced by others.
  • These citations are usually written as footnotes, rather than endnotes, and are added through the automatic function in your word processor.
  • Footnotes are comprised of two elements: a superscript number in your text, and a corresponding number at the bottom of the page.

2. Bibliography

  • At the end of your assessment you need to provide a record of all the sources you have cited and consulted.
  • It is placed on a new page at the end of your work and has a specific format you need to follow. 

Additional resources

Quick start guide [pdf 0.2mb].

A printable three-page introduction with key examples.

abstract format chicago style

The Chicago Manual of Style

Login and look at chapter 14 which covers specific Notes & Bibliography rules.

abstract format chicago style

For when you need support beyond this guide

abstract format chicago style

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A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  

References are to paragraph numbers except where specified as table, figure (fig.), or page number (p.). Page numbers in the online edition link directly to terms in the glossary ( appendix B ).

  • abbreviations and, 7.44 , 10.9
  • acronyms and, 10.9
  • appropriate use of, 5.72 , 5.220 , 7.44
  • coordinate nouns and, 5.73
  • disregarded in alphabetizing, 14.67 , 16.51–52 , 16.56 , 16.68 , 16.88
  • as indefinite articles, 5.68 , 5.70–71
  • meaning affected by, 5.73–74 , 5.76
  • in proper names, 16.88
  • in titles, 14.67 , 16.51–52 , 16.56
  • when to drop from titles in running text, 8.167–68
  • which to use, a vs. an , 5.72
  • See also articles (definite and indefinite)
  • AAs (author’s alterations), 2.67 , 2.131–32 , p. 891
  • a , an , or the , which to use, 7.44 , 10.9
  • alphabetizing of, 1.43 , 14.55 , 16.64 , 16.93 , fig. 1.8 , fig. 14.7
  • chart labels, 3.43–44
  • commas with: academic and professional designations, 10.4 , 10.16 , 10.20–21 ; addresses, mailing, 6.46 , 10.28 , 10.30 ; e.g. and i.e. , 5.220 ; etc. and et al. , 6.20 ; Inc. , Ltd. , and such, 6.48 ; Jr. , Sr. , and such, 6.47
  • compound, 6.80
  • definitions and uses, 10.2–3
  • after first occurrence of spelled-out version, 1.43 , 10.24
  • frequently cited works, 13.65 , 14.54–55 , fig. 14.7
  • indexing of: acronyms, 16.46 , 16.49 , 16.64 ; periodical titles, 16.49
  • journal titles, 14.179 , 15.13 , 15.44 , 16.49
  • lists of: alphabetizing, 1.43 , 14.55 , 16.64 , fig. 1.8 , fig. 14.7 ; cross-checking, 2.29 ; format and placement, 1.43 , 2.21 , fig. 1.8 ; for frequently cited works, 13.65 , 14.54–55 , fig. 14.7
  • numbers with, 9.16–17
  • plurals of, 7.14
  • publication details, 1.21
  • punctuation with: ampersands, 6.21 , 10.10 ; commas ( see under commas with, above ); hyphens vs. en dashes for compound, 6.80 ; periods with or not, 10.4 ; slashes, 6.107 ; surrounding text and, 6.117
  • short title compared with, 14.54
  • spelled out: capitals vs. lowercase, 10.6 ; guidance on, 10.3 ; marking manuscript for, 2.90 ; marking proofs for, 2.126
  • typographic considerations: capitals vs. lowercase, 10.6 ; italic vs. roman type, 10.7 ; line breaks, 7.40 ; small vs. full-size capitals, 10.8 , 10.24 , 10.39 , 10.42 ; space or no space, 10.5
  • word division, 7.40
  • See also acronyms ; contractions ; initialisms
  • Bible: books, Apocrypha, 10.49 ; books, New Testament, 10.50 ; books, Old Testament, 10.48 ; books, citing in text and notes, 10.46 ; resources on, 10.45 ; sections and versions of, 10.51 ; short forms, 10.47
  • binary systems, 9.11
  • business and commerce, 10.22–23 , 10.72
  • in documentation of: classical references, 14.258–59 , 14.264 , 14.266 ; dictionary and encyclopedia entries, 14.247–48 ; editor, translator, and such, 15.6 , 15.15 ; English poems and plays (short forms), 14.268 ; frequently cited works, 13.65 , 14.54–55 , fig. 14.7 ; journal titles, 14.179 , 15.13 , 15.44 ; legal-style citations ( see below ); organization names, 15.36 ; publishers’ names, 14.139–40
  • file formats (e.g., HTTP), 7.76
  • genus, subspecies, and such, 8.120–23
  • geographical terms: avenue , street , and such, 10.34 ; Canadian provinces and territories, 10.29 ; city plus state, comma with, 10.30 ; compass points, 10.35–36 ; country names, 10.32 ; latitude and longitude, 10.37 ; place-names with Fort , Saint , and such, 10.31 ; US , when to use, 10.33 ; US states and territories, 10.4 , 10.28
  • legal-style citations, 14.286 ; cases and court decisions, 14.288–91 , 14.306 ; constitutions, 14.292
  • mathematical expressions, 12.17 , 12.63 , table 12.2
  • names and titles: academic and professional designations, 10.4 , 10.16 , 10.20–21 ; agencies and organizations, 10.24–25 ; author names, 1.18 ; civil titles, 10.13–14 ; firms and companies, 10.22–23 ; given names, 10.11 ; initials, 10.12 ; military, 10.15 ; Rev. and Hon. , 10.18 ; Saint , St. , and such, 10.26–27 , 10.31 , 11.29 , 16.75 , 16.90 , 16.93 ; social, 10.16–17
  • page , volume , and such, 14.157
  • Rev. and Hon. , 10.18
  • scholarly words, 10.43
  • scientific and technical: astronomical and astrophysical, 10.64–65 ; chemical elements, 10.66 ; latitude and longitude, 10.37 ; miscellaneous technical, list of, 10.52 ; periods omitted, 10.4 ; resources, 10.1 ; SI units, 10.52 , 10.54–62 ; statistics, 10.53 ; US measurements, 10.67–71
  • states and territories (US), 10.4 , 10.28
  • stub column of tables, 3.60
  • time designations: a.m. and p.m. , 9.38–40 , 10.42 ; chronology systems, 9.35 , 9.63 , 10.39 ; days of the week, 10.41 ; months, 10.40 ; numerical, 9.31 , 9.34 , 9.36 , 9.38–41 ; time of day, 10.42 ; units (seconds, minutes, etc.), 10.71
  • time zones, 8.89 , 10.42
  • See also postal codes ; and under specific abbreviations (e.g., Jr. [“Junior”] )
  • copyright issues, 4.14 , 4.69
  • editing materials from, 2.58
  • abstractions, 8.36 , 8.93
  • copyright issues and, 4.60
  • description, 1.88 , 1.90
  • documentation of, 14.197
  • hyperlinks to, 1.83 , fig. 1.11
  • submitted with manuscript, 2.3
  • course names, 8.85
  • degrees and affiliations: abbreviations, 10.4 , 10.16 , 10.20–21 ; of author, 1.49 , 1.88 , 1.94 ; capitalization, 8.28 , 10.20–21 ; in contributors’ list, 1.62 , fig. 1.10 ; indexing of, 16.40 ; omitted in documentation of works, 14.72 ; use of, 1.18 , 1.20
  • honors and awards, 8.30 , 8.82
  • institutions and departments: capitalization, 8.67 , 8.84 ; in documentation of dissertations, theses, lectures, and such, 14.224 , 14.226 ; place-names with, 6.46 , 6.81 ; special imprints of, 14.146 ( see also institutions ; universities )
  • letter grades, 7.60
  • student status terms, 8.28
  • subjects and disciplines: authorities in specific, 8.118 ; specific course names, 8.85 ; spellings peculiar to, 7.2 ; treatment of names, 8.84–85
  • titles and offices, 8.27 , 8.29
  • See also lectures and lecture series ; universities
  • accents. See diacritical marks ; special characters
  • online journal articles, 14.7 , 14.185
  • online legal and public documents, 14.282
  • online reference works, 14.248
  • undated online documents, 15.51
  • on copyright page, 1.19 , 1.30–31 , fig. 1.1 , figs. 1.3–4
  • of data sources, 3.75
  • of grants and subventions, 1.19 , 1.31 , 1.40 , fig. 1.1
  • illustration credits in, 3.29
  • in journals, 1.85 , 1.88
  • material appropriate for, 1.42
  • and indexing, 16.109
  • of permissions, 4.98–99
  • in preface, 1.40
  • references to, 8.177
  • separate section for, 1.41
  • in table notes, 3.75
  • in unnumbered notes, 14.50
  • capitalization of, 10.6
  • definition and use, 10.2 , 10.14
  • disease and medical terms, 8.143
  • indexing of, 16.46 , 16.49 , 16.64
  • small vs. full-size capitals for, 10.8 , 10.24
  • space omitted in, 10.5
  • See also abbreviations ; initialisms
  • active voice, 5.18 , 5.104 , 5.115 , 5.188
  • documentation of, 14.287 , 14.302
  • treatment in text, 8.65 , 8.79–80
  • See also legal documents ; public documents
  • AD ( anno Domini ), and such, 9.35 , 9.63 , 10.39
  • marking manuscript for, 2.91–92
  • marking proofs for, 2.122 , 2.124 , fig. 2.6
  • stetting or reversal of, 2.127
  • address, spoken. See dialogue ; direct address ; speech ; speeches
  • hyperlinks to, 1.114
  • hyphenation issues, 6.77
  • line breaks in, 7.42
  • punctuation of, 6.8
  • See also addresses, mailing ; URLs (uniform resource locators)
  • abbreviations: avenue , street , and such, 10.34 ; city plus state, comma with, 10.30 ; compass points, 10.35 ; provinces and territories (Canada), 10.29 ; states and territories (US), 10.28
  • compass points in, 10.35
  • numbers in, 9.51–53
  • publishers’, 1.18–19 , 1.21
  • treatment in text, 6.46 , 10.28 , 10.30
  • See also addresses, e-mail ; compass points and directions ; geographical terminology
  • adverbs compared with, 5.156
  • articles as limiting adjectives: articles defined, 5.68 ; a vs. an , 5.72 ; coordinate nouns with, 5.73 ; definite, 5.69 , 5.73 ; indefinite, 5.70–71 ; meaning affected by, 5.73–74 , 5.76 ; omitted, 5.76 ; as pronoun substitute, 5.77 ; zero (implicit), 5.75
  • avoiding biases in uses, 5.230
  • coinage of, 8.59
  • dates as, 5.82
  • definitions, 5.66
  • degrees: comparative, 5.84 , 5.86 ; equal and unequal comparisons, 5.87 ; positive or absolute, 5.83 ; superlative, 5.85–86 ; uncomparable, 5.88
  • derivations: from legislative bodies, 8.61 ; from place-names (e.g., Californian ), 5.67 , 8.44 ; from proper names, 8.59–60
  • ethnic and national group names with, 8.37
  • functional variations of, 5.92–94
  • idiomatic uses, 5.75
  • infinitives as, 5.105
  • as interjections, 5.210
  • irregular, 5.86
  • nouns as/as nouns, 5.22 , 5.25 , 5.92 , 5.226 , 7.25
  • participles and participial phrases as, 5.89 , 5.109
  • position: basic rules, 5.78 ; dates and, 5.82 ; meaning affected by, 5.74 , 5.76 ; when modifying pronoun, 5.80 ; after possessive pronoun, 5.79 ; predicate, 5.78 , 5.81
  • predicate, 5.78 , 5.81
  • prepositional phrase as, 5.173 , 5.175
  • pronominal, 5.65
  • pronouns and, 5.29 , 5.47 , 5.65 , 5.77 , 5.79–80
  • proper, 5.67
  • punctuation: commas, 5.90 , 6.33–34 ; dates in text, 5.82 ; hyphenation, 5.91 , 6.80
  • repeated, 6.34
  • sex-specific labels as, 5.226
  • special types: coordinate, 5.90 , 6.33 ; participial, 5.89 , 5.109 ; phrasal (compound modifier), 5.78 , 5.91 , 7.81
  • as verbs, 5.93
  • administrative bodies, 8.62 , 11.8 . See also business and commerce ; governmental entities ; institutions ; organizations
  • adjectives compared with, 5.156
  • as conjunctions, 5.202
  • definition, 5.153
  • degrees: comparative, 5.160 ; intensifiers, 5.164 ; irregular, 5.162 ; positive, 5.159 ; superlative, 5.161 ; uncomparable, 5.163
  • flat, 5.157
  • formation of, 5.154–55
  • introductory phrases, 6.36
  • -ly ending, 5.91 , 5.154 , 5.160–61 , 5.167 , 7.82
  • nouns as, 5.24–25 , 5.154
  • participial phrases as, 5.109
  • phrasal and compound, 5.158 , 6.36 , 7.82
  • position: intransitive verbs modified by, 5.166 ; linking verbs and, 5.167 ; meaning affected by, 5.165 ; placement considerations, 5.165 ; in verb phrases, 5.168
  • prepositional phrases: as, 5.173 , 5.175 ; compared with, 5.100 , 5.156 , 5.180 ; replaced by, 5.186
  • punctuation with, 6.25 , 6.36 , 6.55
  • simple, 5.157
  • suffixes, 5.154–55
  • transitional ( however , therefore , and such), 5.207 , 6.25 , 6.55
  • verb phrases modified by, 5.102
  • See also infinitives ; participles and participial phrases
  • advertisements in journals, 1.72 , 1.78 , 1.82
  • African languages, 11.14–15 . See also Arabic language
  • afterwords, 1.26 , 1.52 , 14.91 , 14.116
  • agents, literary, 4.18
  • age terms, hyphenation guide, 7.85
  • AH ( anno Hegirae ), and such, 9.35 , 9.63 , 10.39
  • aircraft, 8.2 , 8.115–16 . See also vehicles and vessels
  • a.k.a. , 10.72
  • Albanian language, 11.16–17
  • checking facing pages for, 2.114
  • marking proofs for, 2.124
  • of subscripts and superscripts, 12.21–22 , 12.38
  • tables: cells, 3.68–72 , figs. 3.19–21 ; decimal points, 3.70 , 3.84 , fig. 3.13 , figs. 3.15–16 , fig. 3.20
  • See also lists ; margins ; tables
  • all rights reserved , 1.19 , 1.22 , 4.40 , figs. 1.1–4
  • abbreviations and abbreviations lists, 1.43 , 14.55 , 16.64 , 16.93 , fig. 1.8 , fig. 14.7
  • accented letters (diacritical marks and special characters), 16.29 , 16.67
  • bibliographies, 2.60 , 14.57 , 14.60–62 , 14.64–65 , 14.67 , fig. 14.8
  • business names, 16.88–89
  • compound words, 16.59–60 , 16.72 , 16.84
  • computerized sorting options, 16.5 , 16.57 , 16.104 , 16.123
  • cross-references, 16.17 , 16.20
  • dates, 16.65
  • elements to disregard in, 14.67 , 16.48 , 16.51–52 , 16.56 , 16.68 , 16.88 , 16.91
  • foreign words, 16.67
  • glossaries, 1.60
  • indexes: main headings, 16.56 ; subentries, 16.68
  • letter-by-letter: basics of, 16.58–59 ; bibliographies, example of, 14.60 ; word-by-word compared, 16.61 , 16.123
  • names: abbreviations and acronyms, 16.64 ; basic rules, 16.71–76 ; compound, 16.72 ; foreign, 16.67 , 16.76–87 ; initials vs. spelled-out, 16.63 , 16.79 ; list of contributors, 1.62 , fig. 1.10 ; Mac or Mc with, 16.73 ; monarchs, popes, and such, 16.37 ; nobility, titles, and such, 16.38 , 16.66 ; numerals in (e.g., Henry III), 16.66 ; O’ with, 16.74 ; with particles, 16.71 , 16.84 ; personal, as corporate names, 16.89 ; Saint , St. , and such, 16.75 , 16.93 ; same, of person, place, and thing, 16.62
  • names, foreign personal, 16.76–87 ; Arabic, 16.76 ; Asian, generally, 16.87 ; Burmese, 16.77 ; Chinese, 16.78 ; Hungarian, 16.79 ; Indian, 16.80 ; Indonesian, 16.81 ; Japanese, 16.82 ; Portuguese, 16.83 ; Spanish, 16.84 ; Thai, 16.85 ; Vietnamese, 16.86
  • numerals, 16.65–66
  • organization names, 16.46 , 16.88–89
  • place-names, 16.90–93
  • punctuation and, 16.59–61
  • reference lists, 2.60 , 14.61–62 , 15.11 , fig. 15.1
  • titles of nobility and such, 16.66
  • titles of works, 16.48–49 , 16.51–52 , 16.56
  • word-by-word: basics of, 16.58 , 16.60 ; bibliographies, example of, 14.60 ; letter-by-letter compared, 16.61 , 16.123
  • character sets for Latin, 11.12 , table 11.1
  • character sets for non-Latin, 11.92 , 11.110 , tables 11.2–11.4
  • dictionary tables of, 11.96 , 11.111
  • in mathematical expressions, 12.12
  • modernizing archaic letters, 13.7
  • proofreading copy in non-Latin, 11.92
  • See also Arabic language ; Cyrillic alphabet ; Greek language ; Hebrew language ; International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) ; Latin alphabet ; letters (alphabet) ; transliteration ; Unicode standard ; and names of other languages
  • author’s (AAs), 2.67 , 2.131–32 , p. 891
  • definition, p. 891
  • designer’s (DAs), 2.131 , p. 894
  • editor’s (EAs), 2.131–32 , p. 894
  • printer’s errors (PEs) and, 2.131 , p. 900
  • a.m. and p.m. , 9.38–40 , 10.42
  • American Indians, 7.9 , 8.37
  • American Medical Association (AMA), 10.7 , 14.3 , 14.76
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1.34 , A.44
  • American Psychological Association (APA), 3.46 , 3.78 , 14.3
  • Deaf and deaf , 8.42
  • fingerspelling in, 6.77 , 11.149
  • resources on, 11.146
  • signed languages, defined, 11.144
  • signs: components of, 11.145 ; compound, 11.148 ; glosses of, 11.147–54 ; handshapes, 11.151 ; lexicalized, 11.150 ; nonmanual, 11.154 ; pronouns, possessives, and reference, 11.153
  • transcriptions and writing of, 11.146–54
  • American Society for Indexing (ASI), 16.104
  • changed to and , 8.163
  • in company names, 10.23
  • initialisms with, 10.10
  • in Old and Middle English, 11.143
  • in publishers’ names, 14.141
  • serial comma omitted before, 6.21
  • spacing with, 10.10
  • in URLs and e-mail addresses, 7.42
  • See also and ; conjunctions
  • ampersand changed to, 8.163
  • appropriate use of, 5.220
  • between with, 6.78 , 9.59
  • both with, 5.195 , 5.214
  • coordinate adjectives separated by, 5.90
  • in generic cross-references of indexes, 16.23
  • or with, 5.220
  • pronoun and antecedent with, 5.32–34
  • in publisher’s name, 14.141
  • punctuation with, 6.18 , 6.28–29
  • sentences beginning with, 5.206
  • serial commas and, 6.18–19
  • slash instead of, 6.104
  • two or more authors (or editors) in documentation, 14.76
  • See also ampersands ; conjunctions
  • and if , 6.32
  • and/or , 5.220
  • and other stories , 14.100
  • and so forth or and the like , 6.20 , 11.35
  • in generic markup, 2.15 , 2.27 , 2.78
  • for less than and more than , 3.81
  • in mathematical expressions, 6.102 , 12.26 , 12.28 , 12.31 , 12.55 , 12.58
  • with URLs, 6.8 , 14.11
  • in XML, 6.102 , fig. A.2
  • See also brackets
  • domestic breeds, 8.128
  • scientific names: authorities on, 8.118 ; author names in, 8.123 ; divisions higher than genus, 8.125 ; English derivatives from taxonomic system, 8.126 ; genus, species, and subspecies, 8.119–21 ; unspecified species and varieties, 8.122
  • vernacular names, 8.127–29
  • See also scientific and technical terminology
  • animations, 1.100 , 2.4 . See also audiovisual materials
  • Annals of the Congress of the United States , 14.299
  • annotated bibliographies, 14.59 , fig. 14.10
  • as copyrightable, 4.5
  • excessive, 2.59 , 14.51–55
  • See also documentation ; notes
  • announcements in journals, 1.83 , 1.85 , 1.93
  • anonymity of research subjects, 13.47
  • abbreviation of anonymous , 10.43
  • copyright of, 4.24
  • documentation of: known authorship, 14.80 , 15.33 ; unattributed interviews, 14.220 ; unknown authorship, 14.79 , 15.32
  • use of anonymous , 14.79
  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute), 1.34
  • author-and-title index of, 16.6
  • as collective works, 4.8
  • copyright issues and, 4.55 , 4.60 , 4.90
  • editorial additions bracketed in, 6.97
  • material copyrightable in, 4.5
  • permissions and fees for, 4.101
  • unnumbered source notes in, 3.31 , 14.49
  • See also collected works ; compilations ; derivative works ; previously published materials
  • aphorisms. See figures of speech ; maxims
  • abbreviations of books, 10.49
  • capitalization, 8.105
  • See also Bible
  • in foreign languages: African languages, 11.15 ; Chinese, 11.104 ; French, 11.38 ; German, 11.43 ; Hebrew, 11.113 ; Italian, 11.53 , 11.57–58 ; Japanese, 11.107
  • and manuscript cleanup, 2.77
  • marking on manuscript, 2.91
  • marking on proofs, 2.129
  • other punctuation with: generally, 6.115 ; periods or commas, 6.115 ; single closing quotation mark, 6.9
  • in plurals: abbreviations, 7.14 ; letters as letters, 7.14 , 7.59–61 ; noun coinages, 7.13 ; proper nouns, 7.8 ; words in quotation marks, 7.12
  • in possessives: basic use, 5.50 ; compounds, 7.23 ; for . . . sake expressions, 7.20 ; general rule, 7.15 ; genitive case, 7.24 ; gerunds, 7.26 ; italicized or quoted words, 7.28 ; nouns, proper, 7.16–18 ; nouns ending in eez sound, 7.18 ; nouns plural in form, singular in meaning, 7.19 ; nouns used attributively, 7.25 ; of , 7.27 ; two nouns as unit, 7.22 ; words ending in unpronounced s , 7.17
  • “smart,” 6.114 , 7.29
  • uses, other, 6.113 ; abbreviated decades (e.g., ’70s), 9.34 ; abbreviated years, 9.31 ; contractions, 7.29 ; hamza vs., 11.97 ; inappropriate, 5.47 , 5.50 , 6.114 , 7.60 ; nouns, genitive, 5.12 , 5.19–20
  • chronologies as, 1.58 , fig. 1.9
  • content and format of, 1.57
  • figures or illustrations in, numbering of, 3.11
  • indexing of, 16.109
  • multiple, 1.47
  • note materials moved to, 14.51
  • numbering of, 8.178
  • online alternative to, 1.57
  • part title for, 1.47
  • running heads for, 1.13
  • web-based publications, 1.117
  • as work made for hire, 4.10
  • appositives, 5.21 , 6.23 , 6.51
  • capitalization, 11.100
  • definite article, al , 11.99
  • hamza and ʿayn, 11.97 , 11.101 , 11.112 , table 11.2
  • names: alphabetizing, 16.76 ; treatment, 8.14
  • spelling, 11.98
  • transliteration, 11.99 ; resources on, 11.96
  • word division, 11.101
  • building and apartment numbers, 9.53
  • Chicago’s preference for, 9.66
  • columns in tables, 3.54
  • documentation and references: chapters, figures, and such, 8.178 , 14.154 ; classical Greek and Latin references, 14.256–66 ; parts of poems and plays, 8.182 , 14.267–68 ; ranges (inclusive), 9.60–61 , 14.155 ; volume numbers of multivolume works, 14.121–27 ; when to use, 14.154
  • highways and streets, 9.51–52
  • illustrations, 3.12 , fig. 3.7
  • line breaks and, 7.39
  • manuscript page numbers, 1.4 , 1.7 , 1.45–46 , 2.35
  • numbered divisions in publications and documents, 9.27–29
  • roman numerals compared with, table 9.1
  • spelled out: alternative rule, 9.3 ; beginning a sentence, 9.5 ; Chicago’s general rule, 9.2 ; consistency, readability, and flexibility, 9.7 ; direct discourse, 13.42 ; fractions, 9.14–15 ; hundreds, thousands, and hundred thousands (round numbers), 9.4 ; hyphens with, 7.85 ; marking manuscript for, 2.90 ; marking proofs for, 2.126 ; ordinals, 9.6 ; physical quantities, 9.13 ; to vs. en dash with, 9.59
  • See also inclusive (or continuing) numbers ; numbers ; roman numerals
  • archaeology , 7.2 , 9.35
  • archival practices, 1.107 , 2.86–87 . See also backup copies
  • electronic sources, 14.282
  • unpublished government documents, 14.232 , 14.304 , 14.308
  • See also legal documents ; legal-style citations ; letters (correspondence) ; manuscript collections ; public documents ; unpublished and informally published materials
  • a vs. an , 5.72
  • acronyms and, 7.44 , 10.9
  • in alphabetizing, disregarded, 14.67 , 16.48 , 16.51–52 , 16.56 , 16.68 , 16.88 , 16.91
  • in Arabic, 11.99 , 16.76
  • in blog titles, 8.187
  • celestial bodies and, 8.137
  • coordinate nouns with, 5.73
  • definite, 5.69 , 5.71 , 5.73 , 16.91–92
  • definition, 5.68
  • dropping of, 5.76 , 8.167–68 , 14.28 , 14.179 , 14.210
  • earth with, 8.139
  • in foreign names for places and structures, 8.58
  • gender indicated by, 5.14
  • implicit, 5.75
  • indefinite, 5.70–71
  • indexing: articles disregarded, 16.48 , 16.51–52 , 16.56 , 16.68 , 16.88 , 16.91 ; first lines, 16.144 ; organization and business names, 16.88 ; personal and foreign names, 16.76 , 16.91–92 ; place-names, 16.91–92 ; in subentries, 16.51 , 16.68 , 16.129 ; titles of newspapers and periodicals, 16.48–49 ; titles of works, 16.51–52 , 16.56
  • as limiting adjectives: articles defined, 5.68 ; a vs. an , 5.72 ; coordinate nouns with, 5.73 ; definite, 5.69 , 5.73 ; indefinite, 5.70–71 ; indefinite, in specific reference, 5.71 ; meaning affected by, 5.74 , 5.76 ; omitted, 5.76 ; as pronoun substitute, 5.77 ; zero (implicit), 5.75
  • names with: articles disregarded in alphabetizing, 16.88 ; capitalized or not, 8.67 , 8.69 ; publisher’s, in documentation, 14.140 ; titles and the , 8.20 , 8.29 , 8.35 , 10.18
  • newspaper and periodical titles beginning with, 8.168 , 14.179 , 14.210 , 16.48–49
  • organization and business names with, 8.67 , 16.88
  • place-names with, 8.58 , 16.91–92
  • preceding mass noun followed by prepositional phrase, 5.9
  • as pronoun substitute, 5.77
  • in titles in running text, 8.167–68
  • zero (implicit), 5.75
  • See also a and an ; the
  • abstracts of, 1.88 , 1.90
  • copyright lines in, 1.97
  • corrections to, 1.105
  • endnotes in, 14.38 , 14.41
  • first-page information, 1.88 , 1.97 , 1.98
  • illustrations and tables in, 1.99–100
  • “in press” versions, 1.73
  • making changes to after submission, 2.5
  • note referring to entire, 1.48 , 14.22
  • photocopying of, 1.97 , 4.88–91
  • publishing agreement for, 4.55–58 , fig. 4.2
  • subheads in, 1.91
  • substantive editing of, 2.47–48
  • table of contents in, 1.83
  • titles: editing of, 2.55 ; note reference numbers and, 14.22 ; proofreading of, 2.110 , 2.130 ; quotation marks for, 8.161 , 8.175
  • unique identifiers for, 1.74
  • See also abstracts ; articles, documentation of ; articles, electronic ; chapters ; journals ; offprints
  • abstracts, 14.197
  • access dates, 14.7 , 14.185
  • authors’ names, 14.175 , 15.12 , 15.43
  • authors’ names, initials, 15.43
  • basic examples and variations, 14.18 , 15.9
  • electronic enhancements to articles, 14.198
  • foreign-language considerations, 14.179 , 14.193
  • forthcoming articles, 14.182
  • installments of (several parts), 14.189
  • newspaper and magazine articles, 15.47
  • no volume number, or date only, 14.181
  • page numbers, 14.183 , 14.186
  • papers presented at meetings, 14.226
  • place of publication, 14.191
  • preprints, 14.229
  • previously published articles, 14.190
  • special issues, 14.187
  • supplements, 14.188
  • titles of articles, 14.176–78 ; question marks and exclamation points in, 14.178 ; sentence-style capitalization, when to use, 15.45 ; shortened citations, 14.25 , 14.28 , 14.196 ; translated titles, 14.192 , 14.194
  • URLs and DOIs, 1.74 , 14.18 , 14.184 , 14.198 , 15.9
  • volume, issue, and date, 14.180 , 14.186 , 15.46
  • See also journals: titles
  • abstracts of, 1.83
  • copyright lines, 1.97
  • forthcoming, 14.182
  • home pages for, 1.79 , 1.82
  • hyperlinks within, 1.83 , 1.89
  • maintaining context of, 1.80
  • options for publishing, A.39
  • page-numbering, 1.76
  • preprints, 1.73 , 1.106 , 14.229
  • in printed journal’s table of contents, 1.83
  • publication history of, 1.98
  • table of contents for, 1.83 , fig. 1.11
  • as version of record, 1.105
  • web-based publication of, 1.111
  • See also articles (journal) ; articles, documentation of ; journals, electronic ; preprints
  • art styles and movements, 8.78 . See also cultural movements and styles
  • author’s inventory of, 3.17
  • commissioned, 3.32
  • continuous-tone, 3.3 , figs. 3.1–2
  • copyright issues, 4.15 , 4.94
  • covers and jackets: credit lines, 1.70 , 1.78 ; fair use of, 4.83 ; permissions, 4.94–97
  • creators’ names, indexing of, 16.50
  • credit lines for, 1.70 , 1.78 , 3.32
  • cropping, scaling, and shading, 3.19
  • dimensions of original, noted, 3.27
  • fair use of, 4.83
  • identification for publisher, 3.16
  • permissions for, 4.94–97
  • prints vs. scans, 2.24
  • professionally created scans, 3.15
  • publisher’s check and inventory of, 3.18
  • redrawn by publisher, 3.20
  • submission to publisher, 3.3–4 , 3.15–17
  • titles of: cartoons, 8.194 ; exhibition catalogs, 8.195 , 14.250 ; indexing, 16.50 ; paintings, statues, and such, 8.193
  • use of term, 3.1
  • in XML workflow, fig. A.5
  • See also captions ; illustrations
  • as , as if , 5.181 , 5.201
  • ascender, defined, p. 891
  • ASCII file (plain-text file), defined, p. 899
  • Burmese, 16.77
  • Chinese, 8.15 , 11.105 , 11.108 , 16.78
  • Indian, 16.80
  • Indonesian, 8.17 , 16.81
  • Japanese, 8.16 , 11.107–8 , 16.82
  • other, 8.17 , 16.87
  • Thai, 16.85
  • Vietnamese, 16.86
  • See also South Asian languages
  • ASL. See American Sign Language (ASL)
  • as–so , so–as , 5.195 , 5.214
  • associations. See organizations
  • for footnotes, 14.20 , 14.44 , 14.46 , fig. 14.4
  • in legal-style citations, 14.288
  • in tables, 3.77–78 , fig. 3.22
  • for text breaks, 1.56 , 2.8
  • abbreviations in, 10.64–65
  • celestial bodies, 8.137–41 , 10.64
  • descriptive terms, 8.141
  • earth , 8.139
  • Myr and Gyr , 9.10
  • resources on, 8.136 , 10.63
  • sun and moon , 8.140
  • See also scientific and technical terminology ; metric system
  • as well as , 5.133 , 5.201 , 6.18
  • fair-use doctrine and, 4.69 , 4.71 , 4.85 , 4.98–99
  • moral right of, 4.15
  • See also credits and credit lines ; documentation ; permissions
  • audiobooks, 14.277 . See also audiovisual materials ; sound recordings
  • abbreviations for terms (e.g., DVD and MIDI), 10.52
  • animations, 1.100 , 2.4
  • archival practices for, 1.107
  • contributions to, as work made for hire, 4.10
  • discographies, 14.275 , fig. 14.12
  • documentation of: author-date references, 15.53 ; basic elements to include, 14.274 ; books downloaded, 14.166 ; CD-ROMS, 14.166 , 14.168 ; discographies, 14.275 , fig. 14.12 ; DVDs and videocassettes, 14.279 ; electronic enhancements, 14.198 ; literary and lecture recordings and such, 14.277 ; musical recordings, 14.276 ; online multimedia, 14.280 ; podcasts, 8.187 , 14.221 ; radio, 8.185 , 14.221 ; slides and filmstrips, 14.278 ; sound recordings, 14.276–77 ; video recordings, 14.278–80
  • electronic journals that include, 1.100
  • subdivision of copyright for, 4.33
  • subsidiary rights for, 4.60
  • titles of, 8.192
  • video clips and files, 1.100 , 1.107 , 2.4
  • See also movies and film ; musical works ; sound recordings ; television and television programs
  • author-and-title index, 16.6
  • agreement of text citations and reference lists, 15.20
  • audiovisual materials, 15.53
  • authors’ names: anonymous works, 15.32–33 ; different authors with same last name, 15.21 ; editor in place of author, 15.6 , 15.15 , 15.18 , 15.35 ; examples and variations, 15.9 ; more than three authors, in-text citations, 15.28 ; more than three authors, reference list, 15.9 , 15.12 ; organizations as, 15.36 ; proper form of name to use, 15.12 , 15.43 ; pseudonyms, 15.34 ; single vs. several, order for, 15.16 ; 3-em dash for, 15.17–19
  • author’s responsibility for cross-checking, 2.29 , 15.20
  • basic format, 15.1 , 15.5 , fig. 15.1 ; authors’ names ( see above ); examples and variations, 15.9 ; in-text citation structure, 15.7 , 15.21 ; page numbers and locators, 15.8 ; reference list entry structure, 15.6 , 15.21
  • cross-references, 15.37
  • disciplines that use, 14.2
  • edition, volume, or collection, 15.38–40
  • electronic sources, 15.4 ; access dates, 15.51 ; locators for, 15.8
  • examples and variations, 15.9
  • legal and public documents, 15.54–55
  • legal-style citations, 14.283
  • multiauthor books, 15.10
  • notes and bibliography entries as models for, 14.1–13 , 15.1 , 15.3
  • notes used with, 14.45 , 15.30 , fig. 15.2
  • periodicals: abbreviated journal titles, 15.13 , 15.44 ; initials for authors’ given names, 15.43 ; issue number in parentheses, 15.46 ; newspapers and magazines, 15.47 ; sentence-style capitalization for titles of works, 15.45
  • publication date: basic structure and punctuation, 15.6 , 15.9 , 15.12 , 15.24 ; editions with multiple, 15.38 ; forthcoming , 15.17 , 15.42 ; letters in published collections, 15.40 ; multivolume works published over several years, 15.39 ; “no date,” 15.41 ; references arranged by, 15.17–19
  • secondary sources, quotations from, 15.52
  • syntactic considerations with, 15.27
  • titles of books, 15.37
  • unpublished and informally published materials, 15.48–51
  • websites and web pages, 15.4 , 15.8 , 15.51
  • See also documentation ; reference lists ; text citations ; titles of works in documentation ; and specific materials to document
  • academic degrees and affiliations, 1.49 , 1.88 , 1.94
  • accuracy of, 2.7 , 2.53 , 13.6
  • alterations on proofs (AAs), 2.67 , 2.131–32 , p. 891
  • backup copies of manuscript as responsibility of, 2.4 , 2.37
  • biographical notes ( see biographical notes)
  • copyright ( see copyright )
  • field notes of, 13.47
  • financial assistance for, 1.31 , 1.40
  • illustration credits and, 3.30 , 3.32 ( see also credits and credit lines )
  • indexing as responsibility of, 2.2 , 2.67 , 16.3–4 , 16.104 , 16.108
  • interviews by, 13.46 ( see also interviews and discussions )
  • notes of, 14.46
  • own work used by, 4.62 , 4.71
  • papers in collection of, 14.242
  • permissions as responsibility of, 3.28 , 4.68–87 , 13.3 ( see also permissions )
  • previous publications on copyright page, 1.17
  • proofreading as responsibility of, 2.97–99
  • publication process and schedule for, 2.2 , A.2 , figs. 2.1–2
  • royalties, 4.36 , 4.51 , 4.53 , 4.60 , 4.63 , 4.100
  • warranties made by, 4.68
  • websites of, 1.106 , 1.114
  • See also authors’ names ; author’s review of copyedited manuscript ; contributors ; manuscript preparation guidelines for authors ; proofreading ; publishing agreement
  • author’s alterations (AAs), 2.67 , 2.131–32 , p. 891
  • authorship, in copyright. See copyright
  • abbreviations of, 1.18
  • alternative forms of, 14.86
  • in books and periodicals: book review and book notes sections, 1.92 ; chapter opening page, 1.49 ; copyright notice, 4.41 ; covers and jackets, 1.66 , 1.67 , 1.68 ; epigraphs, 1.36 ; forewords and introductions, 1.39 ; journals and journal articles, 1.77 , 1.83 , 1.88 , 1.94 , fig. 1.11 ; multiauthor volumes, 1.37 , 1.62 , 16.115 , fig. 1.10 ; running heads, 1.77 ; in table of contents, 1.37 , 1.83 , fig. 1.11 ; title page, 1.18
  • cross-checking of, 2.29
  • documentation, author-date references: anonymous works, 15.32–33 ; basic form, 15.12 ; chronological order for single author with multiple titles, 14.67 ; different authors with same last name, 15.21 ; editor in place of author, 15.6 , 15.15 , 15.18 , 15.35 ; examples and variations, 15.9 ; initials vs. full names, 14.73 , 15.12 , 15.43 ; more than three authors, in-text citations, 15.28 ; more than three authors, reference list, 15.9 ; organizations as authors, 15.36 ; proper form of name to use, 15.12 , 15.43 ; pseudonyms, 15.34 ; same author, same year, 15.19 , 15.28 ; single vs. several authors, order for, 15.16 ; 3-em dashes and, 2.13 , 6.91 , 15.17–19
  • documentation, notes and bibliography: ad hoc handling of unusual cases, 14.89 ; alphabetical order, 14.57 , 14.60–62 , 14.65 , 14.67 , fig. 14.8 ; alternative real names, 14.86 ; anonymous works, 14.79–80 ; authors preferring initials, 14.73 ; in classical references, 14.258–59 ; descriptive phrase as “author,” 14.85 ; different coauthors with, 14.62 ; editor in place of author, 14.87 ; editor or translator in addition to author, 14.88 ; editor vs. author, 14.90 ; examples and variations, 14.18 ; in forewords, prefaces, and such, 14.91 , 14.116 ; form of, generally, 14.72 ; in journal articles, 14.175–76 ; in magazine articles, 14.202 ; in magazine departments, 14.202 ; monarchs, saints, and such, as authors, 14.74 , 16.42 ; in multivolume works, 14.122–24 , 14.126–27 ; in newspaper articles, 14.203 , 14.205–7 ; organization as, 14.66 , 14.92 ; pseudonyms and cross-references, 14.81–84 ; punctuation of, 6.20 , 14.63 ; in reference work entries, 14.247–48 ; repeated names, 14.64–67 ; in reviews, 14.214–16 ; shortened forms, 14.25–27 , 14.196 ; single author, 14.75 ; single vs. several authors, 14.61 ; 3-em dashes and, 2.13 , 6.91 , 14.63–67 , 14.79 ; in title of work, 14.78 ; two or more authors (or editors), 14.76 ; two or more authors (or editors) with same family name, 14.77 ; “with the assistance of” and such, 14.89
  • hyperlinks from, 1.114
  • index of, 16.6 , 16.115 , 16.145
  • initials vs. full version of, 1.18 , 14.25–27 , 14.73 , 15.12 , 15.43
  • proofreading of, 2.105 , 2.130
  • in scientific names, 8.123
  • uniform treatment across documentation systems, 15.2
  • See also anonymous works ; contributors ; pseudonyms and pseudonymous works
  • communications and queries from manuscript editor, 2.53–54 , 2.57–58 , 2.61 , 2.66 , 2.83 , 2.89 , fig. 2.4 ; bias-free language issues, 5.224 ; cover letter and instructions, 2.67 , 2.81 ; early contact, 2.65 ; on paper manuscripts, 2.89 ; sample of editing, 2.65
  • version of record, 2.84
  • See also markings, editorial ; redlining (tracking and showing changes)
  • automobiles, 8.116 . See also vehicles and vessels
  • auxiliary verbs. See under verbs
  • announcements of, 1.93
  • civic, 8.82
  • military, 8.114
  • names: periodical titles in, 8.170 ; treatment of, 8.30
  • axes, x and y , 3.42 , 3.49 , fig. 3.8
  • Azeri language, 11.88–90

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  1. Chicago Style: Writing an Abstract

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    Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.

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    Please note that although these resources reflect the most recent updates in the The Chicago Manual of Style (17 th edition) concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. at The Chicago Manual of Style Online.. Introduction. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript ...

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    Article Abstract (Chicago Manual of Style 14.186)Note Model. Author, "Article Title," abstract, Journal Title and Volume, Issue (Date of publication): Page number or Other identifying information, DOI/URL. Example 1. Seth A. Givens, "Liberating the Germans: The US Army and Looting in Germany during the Second World War," abstract, War in History 21, no. 1 (January 2014): 33, https://doi ...

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    Knowledge Base Chicago Style Chicago Style Citation Guide | Templates & Citation Examples The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) contains guidelines for two styles of citation: notes and bibliography and author-date. Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article.

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    Find it. Write it. Cite it. The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold!

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    Font Choose a single, readable, and widely available font such as Times New Roman or Arial. Avoid ornamental fonts as they can distract your readers or make your work appear less serious. In general, use the equivalent of at least 10-point Arial or 12-point Times New Roman for the body of texts.

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    Formatting and Sample Paper. The formatting guidelines listed on this page, provide general best practices for formatting your work using the Chicago style. Detailed information about formatting your title page, using quotes and signal phrases, and creating a bibliography, can be found by navigating to various sub-pages of this "Formatting Your Paper" page.

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    Abstracts are generally kept brief (approximately 150-200 words). They differ by field, but in general, they need to summarize the article so that readers can decide if it is relevant to their work. The typical abstract includes these elements: A statement of the problem and objectives. A statement of the significance of the work.

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    Chicago 17th (A) Notes and Bibliography is a citing and referencing style drawn from the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. You can access an online copy of the manual through the Monash Library, you will be required to sign in. This guide is designed to help you: Apply the correct Chicago 17th format to different types of resources.

  20. The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Index A

    A. References are to paragraph numbers except where specified as table, figure (fig.), or page number (p.). Page numbers in the online edition link directly to terms in the glossary (appendix B). a and an. abbreviations and, 7.44, 10.9. acronyms and, 10.9.

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    Dr. Johnson July 11, 2013 The Chicago Style of writing is used for academic writing in the field of Humanities, especially history. Specific guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago Style are outlined in manuals such as the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September

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